is where the social context in which what is said strongly affects the meaning of the message.
Examples: Japan and Saudi Arabia
is where the meaning of the message is explicitly expressed by the words and is less affected by the social context.
Example: North America
Contextual Background of Various Countries High Context Implicit Japanese Arabian Latin American Spanish Italian English (UK) French North American (US) Scandinavian German Swiss Low Context Explicit
Fractured Translations Product English Translation Equivalent to Japanese Spam Liver Putty Toilet Paper My Fanny Brand Ready to Eat Pancakes Strawberry Crap Dessert Antifreeze Spray Hot Piss Brand Pediatrician’s Slogan Specialist in Deceased Children SOURCE: Some Strawberry Crap Dessert, dear South China Morning Post, December 9, 1996 p. 12. English Translations made by Japanese firm added to labels to increase prestige for their products being sold in China.
Irwin/McGraw-Hill Whose English? United States United Kingdom Trunk Boot Hood Bonnet Convertible Top Hood Elevator Lift Toilet W.C. Bathroom Tub or Shower Vacuum Hoover ??? Shag Bloody ??? 4-8
Religion Marketing in an Islamic Framework Source: Mushtaq Luqmani, Zahir A Quraeshi, and Linda Delene, “Marketing in Islamic Countries: A Viewpoint,” MSU Business Topics , Summer 1980, pp. 20-21. Reprinted by permission.
Work Hrs. = Average number of working hours per year. Work/Fun = Young people’s desire to work/learn vs. have fun. (0 for fun - 10 for work/learn). Comp. Sup. = Society’s support of competitiveness (0 for least support - 10 for most support). Source: The World Competitiveness Yearbook 1996, (Lausanne: IMD, 1996), pp. 556, 579, 581. Values of Selected Countries* Work and Leisure *See text for complete listing of countries and statistics.
Cultural Analysis for International Marketing *Source of this entire list: Philip R. Harris and Robert T. Moran: Managing Cultural Differences , 2nd ed. (Houston: Gulf, 1987) pp. 212-215.
Individualism vs. Collectivism
Small vs. Large Power Distance
Masculine vs. Feminine
Weak vs. Strong Uncertainty Avoidance
Power Distance Index 0 112 10 110 Small Power Distance Collectivist Large Power Distance Collectivist Small Power Distance Individualist Large Power Distance Individualist 4 1 2 3 5 6 Individualism Index Example Countries: 1. Costa Rica 2. Korea and Mexico 3. Brazil & India 4. Israel and Ireland 5. Australia and U.S.A. 6. France and Italy Source: Geert Hofstede, Cultures and Organizations , McGraw-Hill, 1991, pp. 23, 51, 83 & 111. Reprinted with permission of the McGraw-Hill Companies. Power Distance and Individualism-Collectivism
Irwin/McGraw-Hill 4-5 It’s Not the Gift That Counts, but How Your Present It… Arab World Do not give a gift when you first meet someone. It may be interpreted as a bribe. Do not let it appear that you contrived to present the gift when the recipient is alone. It looks bad unless you know the person well. Give the gift in front of others in less –personal relationships. Latin America Do not give a gift until after a somewhat personal relationship has developed unless it is given to express appreciation for hospitality. Gift should be given during social encounters, not in the course of business. China Never make an issue of a gift presentation—publicly or private. Gifts should be presented privately, with the exception of collective ceremonial gifts at banquets.
Secondary = Percentage of relevant age group receiving full time secondary education. Scores in excess of 100% indicate adults also participating in that education. University = Percentage of population 20 - 24 years old enrolled in higher education Literacy = Percentage of Population over 15 years old Source: The World Competitiveness Report 1996 (Lausanne: IMD, 1996), pp. 560, 561, 567. Education *See text for complete listing of countries and statistics. Educational Statistics of Selected Countries (in %)*
Family Statistics of Selected Countries (in %)* Pop. Growth = Population Growth: percentage per year, 1985-1995. Fem. Work = Female participation in the labor force as a percentage of the total labor force, 1995. Source: 1997 World Bank Atlas , Washington, DC: World Bank, 1997, pp. 16-17. The Family *See text for complete listing of countries and statistics.