Nanotechnology: Enabling technologies for innovation Authors :Dr.Preeti Agarwal Ms.Vishranti Raut Mr.Gaurav PandeDirector, G.H.Raisoni Lecturer Network AdministratorInstitute of Information Technology Global Business School, G.H.Raisoni Institute ofJalgaon Jalgaon Information Technology, JalgaonMob.No-9822556672 Mob. No- 9422501461 Mob.No-9420350172 E-mail: -vishranti_raut E-mail: - firstname.lastname@example.org @rediffmail.com
example fuel cells, fabrics or drug delivery devices. What brings them together is the natural convergence of all basic sciences (Biology, physics and chemistry) at theAbstract molecular level.  Enhanced abilities to understand andmanipulate matter at the molecular and atomic Nanotechnology (NT) is thelevels promise a wave of significant new production and use of materials withtechnologies over the next five decades. purposely-engineered features close to theDramatic breakthroughs will occur in diverse atomic or molecular scale. NT deals withareas such as medicine, communications, putting things together atom by- atom and withcomputing, energy, and robotics. These structures so small they are invisible to thechanges will generate large amounts of wealth naked eye. It provides the ability to createand force wrenching changes in existing materials, devices and systems withmarkets and institutions.  fundamentally new functions and properties. This paper discusses the range ofsciences currently covered by nanotechnology. Unifying themes of nanotechnologyNanotechnology involves the manipulation of Because nanotechnology is classifiedobjects on the atomic level. Products will be by the size of the materials being developedbuilt with every atom in the right place, and used, the products of this engineering canallowing materials to be lighter, stronger, have little in common with each other forsmarter, cheaper, cleaner, and more precise example fuel cells, fabrics or drug delivery. It begins with a description of what devices. What brings them together is thenanotechnology is and how it relates to natural convergence of all basic sciences at thescientific advances. It then describes the most molecular level. At this level, these diverselikely development of different technologies in fields are unified by the following commona variety of fields.  themes:Introduction - 1.Characterisation tools — To be able to Nanotechnology (NT) is the examine and see the nanostructures or theproduction and use of materials at the smallest building blocks of nanomaterials,possible scale i.e. 100 nanometers or less. characterisation tools such as X-ray Nanotechnology is a word that includes diffraction, Synchrotron, Scanning andboth a scale (nano) and a technology . Transmission Electron Microscopy, ScanningNanotechnology is engineering at the Tunneling and Atomic Force Microscopy aremolecular (groups of atoms) level. It is the powerful tools across disciplines.collective term for a range of technologies,techniques and processes that involve the 2.Nanoscale science — Because the propertiesmanipulation of matter at the smallest scale for of materials change in unexpected ways at theexample, the width of an average hair is from nanoscale, the science of understanding the1 to 100 nanometers 1/10,000th the behavior of molecules at this scale is critical tothickness of a human hair. the rational design and control of nanostructures for all product applications.At this very small scale, the properties ofmaterials such as colour, magnetism and the 3.Molecular level computations —ability to conduct electricity change in Computation technologies such as quantumunexpected ways. This results in new, exciting mechanical calculations, molecularand different characteristics that can generate a simulations and statistical mechanics arevast array of novel products. essential to the understanding of all nanoscale phenomena and molecular interactions.Because nanotechnology is classified by thesize of the materials being developed and 4. Fabrication and processing technology —used, the products of this engineering can have Many nanoparticles, powders and suspensionslittle in common with each other for can be directly applied in paints, cosmetics,
and therapeutics. However, other National Science Foundation predicts thatnanomaterials must be assembled and nano-related goods and services could be a $1fabricated into components and devices. In trillion market by 2015.This often-repeatedaddition, processing techniques such as sol- figure seems to have little analytical basis.gel, chemical vapor deposition, hydrothermal It seems that nanotechnology has begun totreatment, and milling are common techniques. blossom in the last ten years, this is largely due to the development of new instruments that allow researchers to observe andMain Approaches- manipulate matter at the nano level.Two main approaches used in nanotechnology Technologies such as scanning tunnelingare as follows microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, and1. Bottom Up electron microscopy allow scientists to2. Top Down observe events at the atomic level. In the "bottom-up" approach, During the first period products willmaterials and devices are built from molecular take advantage of the passive properties ofcomponents which assemble themselves nano materials, including nanotubes andchemically by principles of molecular nanolayers.recognition. For example, In the "top-down" approach, nano- Titanium dioxide used in sunscreens,objects are constructed from larger entities when broken down into nanoparticles itwithout atomic-level control. becomes transparent to visible light, eliminating the white cream appearance. Tennis rackets containing them promise to deliver greater stiffness without additional weight. Yarn that is coated with a nanolayer of material can be woven into stain-resistant clothing. Each of these products takes advantage of the unique property of a material when it is manufactured at a nanoscale. However, in each case the nanomaterial itself A very common example of Top remains static once it is encapsulated into theDown nanotechnology is the memory chip in product. today s high storage capacity USB memorydevices. The individual tracks in the memorychip are less than 100nm in width, and thesedevices are easily available on the market. In an example of bottom-up researchIBM have announced a program to developmemory devices based on single molecules.Rapid Development in Nanotechnology- The current age is characterized byaccelerating technological development, andNT is developing astonishingly with rapidswift. The field was not identified until 1959,when Nobel physicist Richard Feynman calledattention to the opportunities in the realm of NT particles potentially can penetratethe staggeringly small . In 2001, Science deep into the lungs when inhaled, may bemagazine named NT the: Breakthrough of the absorbed through the skin, and may beyear. Currently, there are several hundred circulated throughout the entire human bodydifferent commercial applications of NT. The once they get into any single part of the body.
Nanotechnology has indeed promiseda great future for humanity. However, thedown side of the technology should not beneglected. In order to prevent any threat to thesociety, it is crucial that nanotechnology isdeveloped under acceptable standards withregard to ethical and social considerations.Nanotechnology can be viewed in variety offields- 2. Nanopowders: The science, engineering, and technology Nanopowders contain particles lessrelated to the understanding and control of than 100 nm in size (1/10,000th the thicknessmatter at the length scale of approximately 1 of a human hair). The physical, chemical andto 100 nanometers. However, nanotechnology biological properties of such small particlesis not merely working with matter at the allow industry to incorporate enhancednanoscale, but also research and development functionalities into products.of materials, devices, and systems that havenovel properties and functions due to theirnanoscale dimensions or components .In actual fact, the possibilities fornanotechnology are endless. With sufficientlyfine tools, scientists can control nanosystems and use them to mop uppollution, store information, target cancer cellsand even build motors for cars too small to beseen with the naked eye. Nanotechnology is not new. Nanoproductsare already in the marketplace, such as 3. Membranes:stain resistant and wrinkle-free textiles. Nanotechnology can address one ofBut because it transcends the the most pressing issues of the 21st Century —conventional boundaries between basic “safe, clean and affordable water .sciences, nanotechnology has the There are 1.3 billion people withoutpotential to transform the way we live. access to safe drinking water and indications are that global consumption of water will1.Medical Science: likely double in the next 20 years. The advantages of tiny technology are Nanomembrane filtration devicesperhaps most apparent in medicine. Smaller that clean the polluted water , are beingforeign mechanical devices will be able to explored by research teams in the US, Israelreach the places where the larger equivalents and Australia at various prosperous researchcan t. centersFor instance,_Miniature Dialysis-machine: kidney failure,_Radiation therapy: in cancer treatment,_Nano-robot: inside human vein to removeblock from the blood vessel. 
possibilities, which upset those benefiting4. Carbon nanotubes: from the status quo.  Strong but light carbon nanotubes It is difficult to predict,are being developed for a raft of uses, such as _The social and ethical implication ofsensors, fuel cells, computers and televisions. technologies, The applications of nanotubes are set _The impacts of use of nanotechnologyto expand even further now that scientists have _The business decisions of product sfound that other materials besides carbon can marketing.form nanotubes. The historical development of thescience and the business of nanotubes areillustrated in the following chart. These few examples illustrate the substantial social and economic benefit that nanotechnology should bring, but also the potential negative outcomes across society and5. Molecular electronics: to both developed and developing nations. Hewlett-Packard (worlds biggestcomputer companies) declared on 1 February Challenges2005 that, it is on the verge of a revolution in Challenges faced by Nanotechnology arecomputer chip technology . They believe that as follows:tiny nanotechnology devices described, as cross bar latches will replace siliconcomputer chips. These molecular-scale Nanoparticles and products may affectalternatives to the transistor should nature, natural systems and human healthdramatically improve the performance of which is great concern to environmentalists.computers because they are much smalleronly 2 or 3 nm in size compared with 90 nm Transforming the micro scale systems withfor transistors and they can store memory the nano scale systems is the biggestfor much longer periods.  problem. Building self-replicating, learning machines from much smaller structures are confronted. It is also equally important to understand the relation of nanotechnology to other technologies. To produce more highly optimized nano-scale products than nature has already achieved inSocial and Ethical issues arises from small organisms.Nanotechnology- Though technology has brought great Understanding self-assembly which are thebenefits to human society, people has a properties of some molecules to arrangelove/hate relationship with new advances. themselves into a desired pattern or devices. This is partially because newtechnology always creates new economic
To improve one s control over how things 4. J. Clarence Davies.: Managing the are built, so that products can be of the effects of Nanotechnology. highest quality and cause the lowest 5. An independent working group for the environmental degradation. Prime Minister s Science, Engineering and Innovation Council (PMSEIC): Nanotechnology Enabling Need for packing and protection from technologies for Australian innovative. environment for the nanoproducts is also a March 2005. big challenge. 6. Jason Montesanto February 27, 2001. : Future of NanotechnologyConclusion 7. Allison Starr AE 510: An Introduction Nanotechnologies are starting to have to Nanotechnoloy: The Developmentan impact on our everyday lives. It is possible and Future of this Revolutionarythat nanotechnology will create whole new Science. November 9, 2001.industry through disruptive technologies. The 8. IETE TECHNICAL REVIEW Theworking group identified the need for Institution of Electronics andgovernment and non-government initiatives to Telecommunication Engineers : 1catalyze the significant effort. As the JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2007development of nanotechnology progresses in 9. Hugh Lacey : Ethics and Developmentseveral disciplines including basic science, of Nanotechnologycomputer scientists must be aware of theirroles and brace themselves for the greateradvancement of nanotechnology in the future. Mechanisms needed to support andstrengthen nanotechnology industry, will alsorequire a full complement of infrastructuresuch as characterization tools, nanoscalescience, molecular level computations andfabrication and processing technology. It is crucial that we have in place theappropriate frameworks for coordination,regulation, training and education to ensuresuccessful industry uptake and to address theissues at the research, industry and communitylevels. The development of a comprehensiveimpact and risk analysis framework must beseen as a high priority.References 1. Boonserm Kaewkamnerdpong and Peter J. Bentley.: Computer Science for Nanotechnology: Needs and Opportunities. 2. Prof. Erol Harvey at the COMS07 meeting held in Melbourne.: A brief introduction to Micro and Nano Technologies. Sept 2-6, 2007 3. Jim Saxton (R-NJ), Ranking Member Joint Economic Committee United States Congress.: Nanotechnology: The Future is Coming Sooner Than You Think. March 2007