Sub division of journals

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  • 1. Presented by : Kunal Gupta(19) Manish Mahajan(20) Meghna Jamwal(21) Mehak Gupta(22) Mehak Kalsotra(23) 1 Mehak Kholi(24)
  • 2. Journals are the book of original entry and it is also called primary records because the first entry of transaction is made in journals. In a large business concern a journal is divided into parts so that several clerk could work at the same time. This is known as subdivision of journal 2
  • 3. When business transactions were very few, only one book of original entry called journal was used . Even today for small transactions only one Journal is maintained . However for numerous transactions maintenance of various journals for record keeping is highly inconvenient and suffers certain defects like the periodical totals of transactions of same nature such as monthly credit sales or purchases, monthly sales returns etc . cannot be ascertained easily . To overcome the above drawback subsidiary books are introduced .Under this systems several journals are maintained for recording specific type of transactions . 3
  • 4. To simplify the recording of business transactions in the book of original entry. To facilitate the classification of transactions according to their name. To make it easier to locate any transactions recorded in the book of original entry. To reduce the chances of errors and frauds in the recording of business transactions in the books of original entry. 4
  • 5. Recording of transactions in the books of original entry is specified and time and labor are saved. It reduces the chances of errors in accounting because recording of transactions becomes simplified. When different types of transactions are recorded separately the journals will not become bulky and hence can be handled easily by clerks. Under this system, the chances of fraud are minimized , as the work is distributed among the book-keepers. 5
  • 6.  Subsidiary books may be expensive in case of a small business as in a small business it is best to keep journal.  It requires some basic knowledge of accountancy as if any of the entries are recorded incorrect then it will be a problem or they need to be rectified.
  • 7. 7
  • 8. Purchases book records all credit purchases made by the organization. It is also called as purchases journal, invoice-book or Bought-DayBook . It is used to record all credit purchases of goods which are meant for resale in the business. Cash purchases of goods, cash and credit purchases of assets are not entered in this book. Credit purchases other than goods such as stationary items should not be recorded in purchases book. 8
  • 9. DATE PARTICULA RS INVOICE NO. L.F. AMOUNT (₹ ) Where Date Column – Represents the date on which the transaction took place. Particulars Column – This column includes the name of the seller and the particulars of goods purchased. Inward Invoice No. Column – Reveals the serial number of the inward invoice. LF. Column – This column shows the page number of the suppliers account in the ledger accounts. Amount Column –This column represents the net price of the goods, i.e, the amount which is payable to the creditors after adjusting discount and 9
  • 10. It records all credit sales of goods made by the organization during a specific period. It is also called as Sales Day book or Sales Journal. Cash sales, cash and credit sales of assets are not entered in this book. The entries in the sales book are on the basis of the invoices issued to the customers with the net amount of sale. 10
  • 11. DATE PARTICULA RS INVOICE NO. L.F. AMOUNT (₹ ) Where Date Column – Represents the date on which the transaction took place. Particulars Column –Includes the name of the customer and particulars of the goods sold. Invoice No. Column – Reveals the serial number of the outward invoice. LF. Column –shows the page number of the suppliers account in the ledger . 11
  • 12. This book is used to record all returns of goods by the business to the suppliers. The entries in the Purchases Returns Book are usually made on the basis of debit note issued to the suppliers or credit note received from the suppliers. We called it a Debit note because suppliers account is debited with the amount written in this note. The same note is termed as credit note from the receiving party‟s point of view because he will credit the account of the party from whom he has received the note together with goods. 12
  • 13. DATE PARTICULA RS DEBIT NOTE NO. L.F. AMOUNT (₹ ) Where Date Column – Represents the date on which the transaction took place. Particulars Column – includes the name of the purchaser and the particulars of goods purchased. Debit Note No. Column -- records the serial number each debit note. LF. Column – shows the page number of the suppliers account in the ledger accounts. 1 Amount Column – shows the net price of the goods, i.e, the amount3
  • 14. This book is used to record all returns of goods to the business by the customers. The entries in the sales return book are usually on the basis of credit notes issued to the customers or debit notes issued by the customers. 14
  • 15. DATE PARTICULA RS CREDIT NOTE NO L.F. AMOUNT (₹ ) Where Date Column – Represents the date on which the transaction took place. Particulars Column – includes the name of the purchases and the particulars of goods purchased. Credit Note No. Column -- records the serial number of each credit note. LF. Column – shows the page number of the suppliers account in the ledger accounts. Amount Column – shows the net price of the goods, i.e, the 15
  • 16.  Bills receivable book is used to record the bills received from debtors. When a bill is received, details of it are recorded in the bills receivable book.  In the ledger the account of the person from whom each bill is received is credited with the amount of that bill and the periodical total of the book is posted to the debit of bills receivable account.
  • 17. DATE FROM WHOM RECEIVED TERM DUE DATE L.F. AMOUNT (₹ ) Where Date Column – Represents the date on which the transaction took place. From whom received Column – includes the name of person from which the amount is to be received. Term Column – for how much time. Due date Column- last date LF. Column – shows the page number of the suppliers account in the ledger accounts. Amount Column – shows the net price of the goods, i.e, the amount
  • 18.  Bills payable book is used to record bill accepted by us. When a bill drawn by our creditor is accepted particulars of the same are recorded in this book.  In the ledger, the account of each person whose bill has been accepted is debited with the amount of the bill. The monthly total of the bills accepted is credited to the bills payable account ledger.
  • 19. DATE TO WHOM GIVEN TERM DUE DATE L.F. AMOUNT (₹ ) Where Date Column – Represents the date on which the transaction took place. From whom received Column – includes the name of person from which the amount is to be paid. Term Column – for how much time. Due date Column- last date LF. Column – shows the page number of the suppliers account in the ledger accounts. Amount Column – shows the net price of the goods, i.e, the amount
  • 20.  To record cash transaction, separate book is kept which is called Cashbook.  The function of cashbook is to keep records of all cash transactions.  Cashbook takes the place of cash account that is it is not necessary to open separate cash account in the ledger after keeping record in the cashbook.
  • 21.  Simple cash book.  Double column cash book.  Triple Column cash book.  Petty Cash book
  • 22.  prepared like cash account in ledger.  All the cash received are entered in amount column on debit side and all cash paid appear on credit side in amount column.  Cash book is closed and balanced at the end of the month.
  • 23. dr cr DATE PARTICULAR L.F. AMOUNT DATE (₹ ) PARTICULAR L.F AMOUNT (₹ ) Where Date Column – Represents the date on which the transaction took place. Particulars Column – includes the cash transactions particulars or name i.e cash is received from or paid to whom. LF. Column – shows the page number of the suppliers account in the ledger accounts. Amount Column – shows the amount of cash received and paid.
  • 24.  A cashbook with discount column is called double column cashbook.  Two accounts, cash and discount are combined in this book. Discount allowed to the customers represent loss.
  • 25. dr cr DATE PARTICULAR L.F DISCOUNT AMOUNT DATE PARTICULAR L.F DISCOUNT AMOUNT (₹ ) (₹ ) Where Date Column – Represents the date on which the transaction took place. Particulars Column – includes the cash transactions particulars or name i.e cash is received from or paid to whom. LF. Column – shows the page no. of the suppliers account in ledger accounts.
  • 26.  A cash book with discount and bank column is triple column cashbook. Three accounts are combined.  In business firm most of the payment are received and paid by cheque. Transactions are preformed through bank.
  • 27. dr cr DATE PARTICULAR L.F DISCOUNT AMOUNT BANK DATE PARTICULAR L.F DISCOUNT AMOUNT BANK (₹ ) (₹ ) Where Date Column – Represents the date on which the transaction took place. Particulars Column – includes the cash transactions particulars or name i.e cash is received from or paid to whom. LF. Column – shows the page no. of the suppliers account in ledger accounts. Discount column – shows the discount allowed and received. Bank – shows the cash transactions which is held via bank i.e cash
  • 28.  Used to record small amount of expenses.  Like stationary, cleaning charges and postage.
  • 29. dr cr DAT E PARTICULA AMOUN RS T (₹ ) DATE PARTICULA AMOUN RS T (₹ ) Where Date Column – Represents the date on which the transaction took place. Particulars Column – includes the cash transactions particulars or name i.e cash is received from or paid to whom. Amount Column – shows the amount of cash received and paid
  • 30.  The transactions which do not fall within the scope of above mentioned books, are recorded in this journal‟, e.g. purchase of an asset on credit, depreciation on assets, expenses payable, bad debts etc. It is known as Journal Proper, Modern Journal or Principal Journal. Some authors call it only „Journal‟. 30
  • 31. DATE PARTICULARS DEBIT AMOUNT (₹ ) CREDIT AMOUNT(₹ ) Where Date Column – Represents the date on which the transaction took place. Particulars Column – includes the cash transactions particulars or name i.e cash is received from or paid to whom. Amount Debit Column – shows the amount received Amount Debit Column – shows the amount paid
  • 32. QUIZ
  • 33. WHICH IS NOT THE ONE TYPE OF SUBDIVISION OF JOURNAL  Four column cash book.  Bills payable book.  Bills receivable book.  Triple column cash book.
  • 34. HOW MANY TYPES OF CASH BOOK WE DISCUSSED ?  Five  Four  Three  Two
  • 35. HOW MANY COLUMN A SIMPLE CASH BOOK HAVE ?  9  7  8  6
  • 36. WHICH TYPE OF SUBSIDIARY BOOK CONTAINS “OUTWARD INVOICE NO” COLUMN ?  Cash Book  Return Book  Bills Payable Book  Sales book
  • 37. RECOGNIZE THE FORMAT Date Particulars Credit Note No  Sales Return Book  Cash book  Bills payable book  Purchase book L.F. Amount
  • 38. WHICH BOOK IS USED FOR RECORDING GOODS RETURN TO THE SELLER ?  Sales return book  Purchase return book  Bills payable book  Bills receivable book
  • 39. IN WHICH BOOK SMALL EXPENSES ARE RECORDED ?  Cash book  Single column cash book  Petty cash book  Triple column cash book
  • 40. WHICH BOOK IS USED FOR RECORDING DEPRECIATION ON ASSETS ?  Sales return book  Purchase return book  Bills payable book  General Journal book
  • 41. THANK YOU