Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
103 110
103 110
103 110
103 110
103 110
103 110
103 110
103 110
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

103 110


Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Social Changes and the Growth of Indian Rural Market : An Invitation To FMCG Sector S John Mano Raj* Dr. P Selvaraj**AbstractThe Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) sector is a corner stone of the Indian economy. Thissector touches every aspect of human life. The FMCG producers now realize that there is a lot ofopportunity for them to enter into the rural market. The sector is excited about the ruralpopulation whose incomes are rising and the lifestyles are changing. There are as many middleincome households in the rural areas as there are in the urban. Thus the rural marketing has beengrowing steadily over the years and is now bigger than the urban market for FMCGs. Globally ,the FMCG sector has been successful in selling products to the lower and middle income groupsand the same is true in India. Over 70% of sales is made to middle class households today andover 50% of the middle class is in rural India. The sector is excited about a burgeoning ruralpopulation whose incomes are rising and which is willing to spend on goods designed to improvelifestyle. Also with a near saturation and cut throat competition in urban India, many producers ofFMCGs are driven to chalk out bold new strategies for targeting the rural consumers in a big way.But the rural penetration rates are low. This presents a tremendous opportunity for makers ofbranded products who can convert consumers to buy branded products. Many companiesincluding MNCs and regional players started developing marketing strategies to lure the untappedmarket. While developing the strategies, the marketers need to treat the rural consumer differentlyfrom their counterparts in urban because they are economically, socially and psycho-graphicallydifferent to each other. This paper covers the attractions for the FMCG marketers to go to rural,the challenges, the difference between the rural and the urban market and the suitable marketingstrategy with the suitable example of companies and their experience in going rural.IntroductionThe Indian Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) industry began to shape during the last fifty-odd years. The FMCG sector is a cornerstone of the Indian economy. This sector touches everyaspect of human life. Indian FMCG market has been divided for a long time between theorganized sector and the unorganized sector. Unlike the US market for FMCG which isdominated by a handful of global players, India’s Rs. 460 billion FMCG market remains highlyfragmented with roughly half the market going to unbranded , unpackaged home made products.This presents a tremendous opportunity for makers of branded products who can convertconsumers to buy branded products.Globally, the FMCG sector has been successful in selling products to the lower and middleincome groups, and the same is true in India. Over 70% of sales is made to middle classhouseholds today and over 50% is in rural India. The sector is excited about a burgeoning ruralpopulation whose incomes are rising and which is willing to spend on goods designed to improvelifestyle. Also with a near saturation and cut throat competition in urban India , many producersof FMCGs are driven to chalk out bold new strategies for targeting the rural consumer in a bigway. MART, the specialist rural marketing and rural development consultancy, has found that 53per cent of FMCG sales and 59 per cent of consumer durable sales lie in the rural areas. Of twomillion BSNL mobile connections, 50 per cent went to small towns and villages; of 20 millionRediffmail subscriptions, 60 per cent came from small towns; so did half the transactions onRediffs shopping site. According to a study by Chennai-based Francis Kanoi Marketing PlanningServices Pvt Ltd, the rural market for FMCG is worth Rs.65,000 crore, for durables Rs 5000crore, for tractors and agri-inputs Rs.45,000 crore and two- and four-wheelers, Rs.8000 crore. * Department of Management Studies, N.I. College of Engineering , Kumaracoil, Tamil Nadu. E-mail:** Principal, Aditanar College of Arts and Sscience, Tiruchendur, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • 2. Part II – Co-Operative, Rural & BOP MarketingIn total, a whopping Rs.123,000 crore. This could be doubled if corporates understood the ruralbuying behaviour and got their distribution and pricing right.Impulse to go RuralThere are many reasons that has urged the FMCG companies to enter the uncharted territory ofrural India. Some of the attractions are discussed below;1. Large Population The rural Indian population is large and its growth rate is also high. Over 70% India’s one billionplus population lives in around 627,000 villages in rural areas. This simply shows the greatpotentiality rural India has to bring the much needed volumes and help the FMCG companies tobank upon the volume driven growth. Table 1. Percentage distribution of households and income Area Households Population Rural 72.6 74.6 Urban 27.4 25.4 All-India 100 1002. Rising Rural ProsperityIndia is now seeing a dramatic shift towards prosperity in rural households. To drive home thepotential of rural India just consider some of these impressive facts about the rural sector. As perthe National Council for Applied Economic Research (NCAER) study, there are as many ‘middleincome and above’ households in the rural areas as there are in the urban areas. There are almosttwice as many ‘lower middle income’ households in rural areas as in the urban areas. Table 2. Distribution of people income-wise 2001 - 02 2006 - 07 Income groups Total Rural No. % Total Rural No. % High 1.48 0.41 27.7 2.96 0.7 23.6 Middle 69.18 4.83 64.8 90.25 59.85 66.3 Low 32.29 29.52 91.42 20.41 95.8 95.7 Total 102.95 74.76 72.6 114.52 80.96 70.7According to NCAER projections, by 2006 – 07, the lowest income class (i.e.Rs.2500 and below)will shrink by more than 60%. The higher income classes are likely to double by 2006 – 07. Thisapparently is the result of development work, which happened under the five years plans andother special programmes such as land reforms, rural electrification rural communication, andrural credit facilities, etc. The absolute size of the rural market is thus expected to double that ofurban India. But despite the high rural share in these categories, the rural penetration rates arelow, thus offering tremendous potential for growth. According to Mr. D. Shivakumar, BusinessHead (Hair), Personal Products Division, Hindustan Lever Limited, the money available to spendon FMCG (Fast Moving Consumer Goods) products by urban India is Rs. 49,500 crores asagainst is Rs. 63,500 crores in rural India.3. Growth in MarketThe purchasing power in rural India is on steady rise and it has resulted in the growth of the ruralmarket. The market has been growing at 3-4% per annum adding more than one million newconsumers every year and now accounts for close to 50% of volume consumption of FMCG. Thegrowth rates of lot of FMCG are higher in rural markets than urban markets.In product categories like toilet soaps, talcum powder, cooking iol, vanaspati ghee, tea, cigarettesand hair oil, the share of rural market is more than 505. The table above indicates the projectedmarket size of FMCG products in 2001 – 02 and 2006 – 07 based on the annual growth ratesInternational Marketing Conference on Marketing & Society, 8-10 April, 2007, IIMK 104
  • 3. Part II – Co-Operative, Rural & BOP Marketingcompounded for 1994 – 99 period.The estimated annual business from rural markets was Rs1,23,000 crore, comprising Rs 65,000 crore of FMCG, Rs 5,000 crore of durables, Rs 45,000crore of agricultural inputs including tractors and Rs 8,000 crore of two-wheelers and four-wheelers.Twenty nine per cent of the rural people own cars, 27 per cent own colour televisions,24 per cent own refrigerators and 10 per cent own washing machines, which points to theuntapped potential in the rural areas. "We therefore have to look at the rural market very seriouslyfor future expansion," said Mr Nandakumar while inaugurating the Business Line Club anddelivering the keynote address on the topic, `Brand Building Beyond the Urban under theauspices of the Departments of Business Management and Commerce of the Auxilium Collegehere on Friday. Table 4. Rural FMCG market Projections Category 2001-02 2006 - Projected Rural market Growth share % Total Rural share Total Rural share % Toilet soaps 13.4 9645 6021 18086 11291 62.4 Body talcum 23.65 1445 793 4237 2292 54.1 powder Toothpaste 23.5 3198 1441 9376 4140 45.1 Cooking oil 10.91 20946 15731 35295 25806 73.4 Vanaspati 7.63 4549 2846 6648 4108 62.64. Effectiveness of CommunicationAn important tool to reach out to the rural audience is through effective communication.``A ruralconsumer is brand loyal and understands symbols better. This also makes it easy to sell look -alike", says Mr. R.V Rajan, CMD, Anugrah Madison Advertising. The rural audience hasmatured enough to understand the communication developed for the urban markets, especiallywith reference to FMCG products. Television has been a major effective communication systemfor rural mass and, as a result, companies should identify themselves with their advertisements.Advertisements touching the emotions of the rural folks, it is argued, could drive a quantum jumpin sales.5. IT Penetration in Rural IndiaToday there are over 15 million villagers in India who are aware of the Internet and over 300,000villagers have used it! Ten years back, history was created with Public Call Office phone booths(essentially manually operated payphone facilities), opening in every corner of the country. Thisexperiment was an instant success and contributed to hundreds of thousands of jobs. Over thenext two years, WorldTel is expected to provide 1000 centres in Tamil Nadu with 2 to 20terminals in each centre. If successful, this experiment can be replicated easily to all 27 statesleading to over half a million Internet users through this experiment alone! The existing 600,000public call offices in India will soon be transformed into public tele-info-centres offering avariety of multimedia information services. The rural consumers spend time and money to accesshigher level information. Studies have indicated that if the content has direct relevance and willresult in commercial gains, people in rural areas are willing to pay for information services.Consumerism has altered rural buying behavior in recent years. Spending patterns of those whospend are now adapting to face the technology bug. Todays rural children and youth will grow upin an environment where they have information access to education opportunities, exam results,career counseling, job opportunities, government schemes and services, health and legal adviceand services, worldwide news and information, land records, mandi prices, weather forecasts,bank loans, livelihood options. If television could change the language of brand communicationin rural India, affordable Web connectivity through various types of communication hubs willInternational Marketing Conference on Marketing & Society, 8-10 April, 2007, IIMK 105
  • 4. Part II – Co-Operative, Rural & BOP Marketingsurely impact the currency of information exchange. As the electronic ethos and IT culture movesinto rural India, the possibilities of change are becoming visible.6. Impact of GlobalizationThe impact of globalization will be felt in rural India as much as in urban. But it will be slow. Itwill have its impact on target groups like farmers, youth and women. Farmers, today keep intouch with the latest information and maximize both ends. Animal feed producers no longer lookat Andhra Pradesh or Karnataka. They keep their cell phones constantly connected to globalmarkets. Surely, price movements and products availability in the international market placeseem to drive their local business strategies. On youth its impact is on knowledge and informationand while on women it still depends on the socio-economic aspect. The marketers whounderstand the rural consumer and fine tune their strategy are sure to reap benefits in the comingyears. In fact, the leadership in any product or service is linked to leadership in the rural Indiaexcept for few lifestyle-based products, which depend on urban India mainly.Company experiences in Going RuralIt becomes amply clear that rural India has to be the hot target in future for FMCG companies asit presents a plethora of opportunities, all waiting to be harnessed. Many of the FMCG companiesare already busy formulating their rural marketing strategy to tap the potential before competitioncatches up. With extensive competition not only from MNCs but also from the numerousregional players and the lure of an untapped market has driven the marketers to chalk out boldnew strategies for targeting the rural consumer in a big way. All biggies in the industry be it HLL,Marico, Colgate-Palmolive or Britannia, are showing deep interest in rural India. However not everything is all rosy and there exist some gray areas in the rural strategies also. Toincrease sales, growing the consumer pie rather than sharing it, has emerged as one of the keystrategies being used by FMCG majors. Offering more product variants, categories, price points,sizes and different marketing and distribution channels, all form part of a FMCG corporate’sstrategy.To gauge the extent of shift in focus of the FMCG giants just sample this: recently GodrejConsumer Products Ltd (GCPL) did something that it hadnt done before; it introduced smallerpack sizes of some of its soaps and put them on the market for Rs 5. And FMCG giant HLL hasjust launched a green variant of Lifebuoy soap, which, it hopes will be a winner in the rural areas.Also, dont be too surprised if you village folk having their hair washed and dyed en masse asthey are only taking advantage of the live demonstrations conducted by Chennai-basedCavinKare Products. So it is clear that rural markets have caught the eyes of FMCG marketersand it is being targeted through experiments in a big way. But is it a right marketing strategy? Orwill it prove to be an expensive mistake? Well that’s the issue most FMCG companies face todayand the one we discuss here.HLL has also established a single distribution channel by consolidating categories. The channelseeks to build a network of sub-stockists. In 2003, about 6000 such sub stockists were appointedto service 50,000villages with a total population of 250 million. Likewise, at Coca Cola India, toreach out to rural villages, the company started out by drawing up a hit list of high-potentialvillages from India’s various districts. To ensure full loads, large distributors were appointed, andthey were supplied from the company’s depot in large towns and cities. Full load supplies wereoffered twice weekly. On their part, the large distributors appointed small distributors inadjoining areas. Thesmall distributors in turn fixed journey plan on a weekly basis.In addition to these innovativedistribution techniques, a number of FMCG companies have now started relying on savvyentrepreneurs who trawl the rural hinterland, gathering mountains of village level data. One suchentrepreneur, Pradeep Lokhande, distributes used computers to schools in about 28,000 villagesthrough his Pune-based rural consumer organisation, Rural Relations. Lokhande suppliescomputers, collects data in exchange, which is then sold to companies. The company now has adatabase of 35, 000 schools. Besides tapping schools, Lokhande also strikes direct contacts withInternational Marketing Conference on Marketing & Society, 8-10 April, 2007, IIMK 106
  • 5. Part II – Co-Operative, Rural & BOP Marketingopinion leaders in villages and recording obscure details of the local economy. This data is nowbeing lapped up. In 1996, Lokhande got his first customers for the data: Tata Tea and Parle.Today, he has clients like HLL, P&G, Marico, Asian Paints, Telco and DSP Merrill Lynch. Thefocus on rural markets doesn’t really come as a surprise. India’s rural market has been growingsteadily over the years and is now bigger than the urban market for fast moving consumer goods(53% share of the total market). The annual size in value terms currently estimated at around US$ 11 billion. According to a study by the National Council for Applied Economic Research(NCAER), there are as many middle income and above households in the rural areas as there arein the urban areas. Moreover, there are almost twice as many lower middle income households inrural areas as in the urban areas. At the highest income level there are 2.3 million urbanhouseholds as against 1.6 million households in rural areas. As per the NCAER projections, thenumber of middle and high-income households in rural India is expected to grow from 80 millionto 111 million by 2007. In urban India, the middle and high-income market is expected to growfrom 46 million to 59 million. Thus, the absolute size of rural India is expected to be double thatof urban India. But despite the high rural share in these categories, the rural penetrationlevels are low, thus offering tremendous potential for growth. This is why Coke and HLL arelooking to increase their reach. And others are following suit. Chennai-based CavinKare Productswhich makes hair dyes, organises live demonstrations in remote areas where villagers get a freetinge of jet black or blonde or red – free of cost. Brooke Bond Lipton India markets its ruralbrands through magic shows and skits. Reckitt and Colemen uses NGOs in rural areas to educatecustomers about product benefits. But rural India isn’t just being developed as a consumermarket. It is also being developed as a cost effective supply chain. Tobacco and foods major ITCis focusing on the rural segment to bring down its transaction costs. With a judicious blend ofclick & mortar capabilities, agricultural communities in villages use internet kiosks - known as e-choupals - to access ready information in their local language on the weather & market prices.They are also able to disseminate knowledge on scientific farm practices & risk management. Theaggregation of the demand for farm inputs from individual farmers gives farmers access to highquality inputs from established and reputed manufacturers at fair prices. As a direct marketingchannel, virtually linked to the ‘mandi’ system for price discovery, ‘e-Choupal’ eliminateswasteful intermediation and multiple handling. Thereby it significantly reduces transaction costs.While the farmers benefit through enhanced farm productivity and higher farm gate prices, ITCbenefits from the lower net cost of procurement (despite offering better prices to the farmer).Launched in June 2000, e-Choupal, has already become the largest initiative among all Internet-based interventions in rural India. e-Choupal services today reach out to more than two millionfarmers growing a range of crops - soyabean, coffee, wheat, rice, pulses, shrimp - in over 21,000villages through 4100 kiosks across six states. Whether the objective is to increase market shareor to lower transaction costs, the end objective is to improve the robustness of therural supply chain. Moreover, these are scalable and robust models, and, given the right policyenvironment, it should be possible to seamlessly integrate them in the months and years to come.Coke’s spokesperson: “We are launching a new version of our Sprite brand, Sprite Zero, for themetro audience. Similarly, we have introduced variants of our Maaza brand in the market. Wehave also introduced 200 ml versions of Diet Coke at Rs 10, compared to the 500 ml Rs 20version.” This, Coke maintains, is its strategy to grow the consumer pie, rather than share it withplayers in existing categories. It is creating more choices and price points for the carbonated andnon-carbonated drink consumers, who at present stand at less than three per cent of the totalmarket.Agrees Mr Shahra. He says consumer base is different across categories.”For instance, we offerdifferent products for different target audiences. We provide soya products at different pricepoints in different markets.”Realising the importance of reaching the consumer, more and more companies are experimentingwith alternative channels like direct marketing, rural haats, etc. Mr Press says Godrej generallyInternational Marketing Conference on Marketing & Society, 8-10 April, 2007, IIMK 107
  • 6. Part II – Co-Operative, Rural & BOP Marketingkeeps experimenting with alternate channels to pump up volumes. “Our strategy hinges oneffective communication and distribution plans,” he adds.ITC is experimenting with its e-choupal as a procurement and marketing channel to expand itspresence in rural India, while HLL has a similar initiative in Project Shakti. Says Mr Banga, Indiais one of the most exciting markets offering great potential. Over the next ten years India’s percapita income is likely to double. In FMCG, there is an opportunity to catalyse penetration,increase usage and upgrade consumers. Volume growth at HLL is following value growth as aresult of building capabilities and strengthening brands. This, in turn, he says, will bring profitgrowth.This seems to be the story of rest of the Indian FMCG sector as well. They seem to have doneeverything right. They have consolidated brands, built capacities and have increased reach.Buoyed by GDP growth at 8.5% and 6.9% for ’03-04 and ’04-05, respectively, there have beentwo years of successive economic growth. Consumer sentiments and spends are positive.Monsoons are on track and rural demand is also believed to be on track. So bring on the tea, colddrinks, juices, and ready-to-eat snacks now. The FMCG party seems like a long one.Rural Vs Urban Consumers - ChallengesThe biggest mistake a FMCG company can make while entering the rural India is to treat it as anextension to the existing urban market. But there is a vast difference in the lifestyles of the ruraland urban consumers. The rural Indian consumer is economically, socially, andpsychographically different from his urban counterpart. The kind of choices that an urbancustomer takes for granted is different from the choices available to the rural counterparts.The difference in consumer behavior in essence stems from the way of thinking with the fairlysimple thought process of the rural consumer in contrast to a much more complex urbancounterpart. On top of this there has hardly been any research into the consumer behavior of therural areas, whereas there is considerable amount of data on the urban consumers regarding thingslike - who is the influencer, who is the buyer, how do they go and buy, how much money do theyspend on their purchases, etc. On the rural front the efforts have started only recently and willtake time to come out with substantial results. So the primary challenge is to understand the buyerand his behavior.Even greater challenge lies in terms of the vast differences in the rural areas which severely limitsthe marketer’s ability to segment, target and position his offerings. The population is dispersed tosuch an extent that 90% of the rural population is concentrated in villages with population of lessthan 2000. So the geographical spread is not as homogeneous as it is with the urban areas owingto vast differences culture and education levels. Also with agriculture being the main business ofrural sector the purchasing power of rural consumer is highly unpredictable which can lead tohigh variations in demand patterns.One more gray area that needs to be probed into is the importance of retailer in rural trade. Ruralconsumer’s brand choices are greatly restricted and this is where the retailer comes into thepicture. The rural customer generally goes to the same retailer to buy goods. Naturally there’s avery strong bonding in terms of trust between the two. Also with the low education levels of ruralsector the rural buying behavior is such that the consumer doesnt ask for the things explicitly bybrand but like "laal wala sabun dena" or "paanch rupey waali chai dena". Now in such a scenariothe brand becomes subservient to the retailer and he pushes whatever brand fetches him thegreatest returns. Thus, as there is a need to understand the rural consumer, similarly need is thereto study the retailer as he is a chief influencer in the buying decision.Developing effective rural marketing strategyTill recently most FMCG companies used to treat rural markets as adjuncts to their urbanstrongholds and rural consumers as a homogeneous mass without segmenting them into targetmarkets and positioning brands appropriately. However it is beyond doubt that the treat ruralInternational Marketing Conference on Marketing & Society, 8-10 April, 2007, IIMK 108
  • 7. Part II – Co-Operative, Rural & BOP Marketingmarkets are not dumping grounds for low-end products basically designed for an urban audience.The winning strategy instead is to focus on their core competency such as technological expertiseto design specific products for the rural economy. The most remarkable example in this context isthe launch of sachets which has transformed the rural market considerably as packaging insmaller units and lesser-priced packs increases the product’s affordability. Also companies likeHLL and Nestle who have adopted this strategy have benefited tremendously. Another case is ofBritannia with its Tiger brand of low priced and conveniently packaged biscuits becoming a greatsuccess story in rural markets.Companies also need to change the profile of their brand managers as they are usually urban-bredMBAs, fed on a staple diet of western marketing principles and are alien to the rural India. A stepin this direction like hiring managers from the Institute of Rural Management Anand (IRMA)could probably go a long way in improving the situation. Along with the cultural dynamics, theneeds and latent feelings of the rural people have to be well understood before launching productsin rural segments. Marketers would do well to first understand this and then designing productsaccordingly. For example, Cadburys has launched ChocoBix, a chocolate flavored biscuit whichis based on the consumer insight that rural mothers opt for biscuits rather than chocolates for theirchildren.Another very important factor that needs to be looked at is the proliferation of spurious products.Rural masses are illiterate people and they identify a product by its packaging (color, visuals, sizeetc.). So it becomes very easy for counterfeit products to eat into the market share of establishedreputed brands. The retailer also gets a larger profit on selling the counterfeits rather than thegenuine products and hence is biased towards the fakes. Brands such as "Jifeboy", "BondsTalcum", "Funny & Lovely" etc., which are doing the rounds of rural markets, pose considerablechallenge to rural marketers.Companies would also do well to have a proper sales and distribution network. In terms of sheerreach the companies can gain significant competitive advantages as the rural market is highlyfragmented and a brand needs to be on the shop shelf before it can be sold. Companies shouldalso make sure that the prices of their products are not pushed up because of a channel ofmiddlemen who are neither required nor add any value to the product. The rural market remainsquite price-sensitive and thus squeezing costs at every stage is of vital importance. Some FMCGgiants like HLL are in process of enhancing their control on the rural supply chain through anetwork of rural sub-stockists, who are based in the villages only. Apart from this to acquirefurther edge in distribution HLL has started Project Shakti in partnership with Self Help groups ofrural women. However not all traditional strategies need to work and the need is to generatecreative ideas. A very significant step for change could be an effort to directly tap the haats,mandis, melas and local bazaars which provide an opportunity of promoting the brand in front ofa large congregation of rural consumers.Finally an effective rural strategy for FMCG companies must include the use of traditional mediafor creating awareness about their products in the rural markets. The need for unconventionalmedia arises as the mass media is too glamorous, interpersonal and unreliable for a ruralconsumer. The traditional media on the other hand with its effective reach, powerful input andpersonalized communication system will help in realizing the goal. Besides this when theadvertisement is couched in entertainment it goes down easily with the villager. The advantagesof traditional media which make it a powerful marketing communication channel are:accessibility is high, it involves more then one sense, interest arousal capability is high andminimum cost. There are few companies which have used traditional media effectively andreaped rich dividends. Brooke Bond Lipton India Ltd (BBLIL) markets its rural brands throughmagic shows and skits. Reckitt and Colemen uses NGOs in rural areas to educate customersabout product benefits which establishes one to one communication channels.International Marketing Conference on Marketing & Society, 8-10 April, 2007, IIMK 109
  • 8. Part II – Co-Operative, Rural & BOP MarketingConclusionIn the end it is certain that FMCG companies will have to really gain inroads in the rural marketsin order to achieve double digit growth targets in future. There is huge potential and definitelythere is lot of money in rural India but the smart thing would be to weigh in the roadblocks ascarefully as possible. The companies entering rural market must do so for strategic reasons andnot for tactical gains as rural consumer is still a closed book and it is only through unwaveringcommitment that the companies can make a dent in the market. Ultimately the winner would bethe one with the required resources like time and money and also with the much neededinnovative ideas to tap the rural markets.International Marketing Conference on Marketing & Society, 8-10 April, 2007, IIMK 110