Involves a patient and a psychotherapist sitting in a room talking, but it is much more than that.
Psychotherapy can be an effective treatment for depression, because it helps the patient delve into the underlying reasons for his depression and learn new coping skills.
All-or-Nothing Thinking: Failing to recognize that there may be some middle ground. Characterized by absolute terms like always, never, and forever.Overgeneralization: Taking an isolated case and assuming that all others are the same.Mental Filter: Mentally singling out the bad events in one's life and overlooking the positive.Disqualifying the Positive: Treating positive events like they don't really count.Jumping to Conclusions: Assuming the worst about a situation even though there is no evidence to back their conclusion.Magnification and Minimization: Downplaying positive events while paying an inordinate amount of attention to negative ones.Emotional Reasoning: Allowing your emotions to govern what you think about a situation rather than objectively looking at the facts.Should Statements: Rigidly focusing on how you think things should be rather than finding strategies for dealing with how things are.Labeling and Mislabeling: Applying false and harsh labels to oneself and others.Personalization: Blaming yourself for things that are out of your control.
Psychoanalytically informed therapists provide reassurance, encouragement, active teaching, comforting to the patient in distressPersuasion: modify patients behavior by reasoningRe education: educate pt regarding his problems, way of coping
Halfway homes: A place to allow convicted criminals to begin the process of reintegration with society, while still providing monitoring and support; this is generally believed to reduce the risk of recidivism or relapse when compared to a release directly into society. Halfway houses are meant for reintegration of persons who have been recently released from jail or a mental institution.
Psychotherapists have training in a
variety of techniques which may be
employed in order to help patients to
• recover from mental illness
• resolve personal issues
• create desired changes in their lives.
Used for ferreting out the psychological
factors that contribute to depression
where antidepressant medication
corrects the underlying chemical
At the heart of cognitive
therapy is the idea that our
thoughts can affect our
• Thoughts precede moods and false selfbeliefs lead to negative emotions
• cognitive distortions
common patterns of negative thinking
Disqualifying the Positive
Jumping to Conclusions
Magnification and Minimization
Labeling and Mislabeling
• To help the patient recognize and reassess
his patterns of negative thoughts and
replace them with positive thoughts that
more closely reflect reality.
• Developed by American psychiatrist
‘Aaron T. Beck’ in 1960.
Development of skills for modifying beliefs
Identification of distorted thinking
Relate to others in different ways
Change in behaviors
Cognition triad: cognition model of
• An effective treatment for depression
• Combination of cognitive therapy and
antidepressants has been shown to
be effective in managing severe or
RECENT IN COGNITIVE
• Cognitive therapies for suicide
prevention, and schizophrenia and other
• In addition, ongoing research is being
conducted to measure the impact of city
mental health agencies’ organization
structure on the adoption of cognitive
therapy by public health systems.
Long term therapy with various attempt
by a therapist by any practical means
whatever to help patients deal with their
emotional distress and problems in
• Focus on conscious mind rather than
• deals more superficially, but more
immediately with the daily events
• Not probing into the past and changing
Yet even the most mature people lose their ability to
provide support from within when they are
excessively scared or in pain
– Environmental modification
– Re education
• Person may be too disturbed to cope
effectively with day-to-day problems
• sexually disturbed
• may be in crisis
• chronically ill patient
ROLE OF THERAPIST IN
• Inform patients about their illness and about
how to manage it and how to adjust to it.
• Intercede on a patient’s behalf with various
authorities, including schools and social
agencies, and with the patient’s familyindeed
• Explain his patient’s behavior to others; at the
same time, he may have to interpret the
meaning of other people’s behavior to his
ROLE OF THERAPIST IN
• Educate him to the unwritten but crucial rules
that govern all social interaction.
• Encourages his patient to expand his/her
interests in the world by making friends, or by
going to school or to work.
• Encourage participation in sports or hobbies.
• serves as a model for proper and appropriate
As is usual in psychiatry, however,
these distinctions blur in practice.
No treatment of the emotionally
disturbed can be applied as a
Supportive therapy can be
done by anyone who care
Application of goal oriented, purposeful
activity in the assessment and treatment
of individuals with psychological, physical
or developmental disabilities.
• To enable the patient to achieve a
healthy balance of occupations
through the development of skills that
will allow him to function at a level of
satisfactory to himself and others.
Community group homes
Community mental health centers
Day care centers
• Help to develop social skills and
provide an outlet for self expression
• Strengthens ego defenses
• Develops a more realistic view of the
self in relation to others.
TYPE OF ACTIVITIES:
Easy to learn
Kitchen tasks, washing, sweeping,
mopping, weeding gardens
Crafts, mowing lawn, weeding gardens
Non competitive activities
Use of energy
Raking grass, sweeping
TYPE OF ACTIVITIES: OCCUPATIONAL
Non competitive activities
e.g. puzzles, scrabble
Continuous supervision to client
e.g. molding clay, metal work
Task enhance self esteem
e.g. drawing, painting
Group and Short time activities
Require less concentration
e.g. planning an interview with
Achievement oriented tasks
e.g. cover making, candle making,
• Burns, David D. Feeling Good: The New Mood
Therapy. Avon Books: New York, NY, 1999.
• Rupke, Stuart J., David Blecke, Marjorie Renfrow.
"Cognitive Therapy for Depression." American Family
Physician. 73.1 (January 2006):83-6
• Sreevani. R; A guide to mental health and psychiatric
nursing; edition 2; Jaypee brothers, medical
publishers (P) LTD, New Delhi, pg no. 190,196-198.