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My cool new Slideshow! My cool new Slideshow! Presentation Transcript

  • Fundamentals and a Brief History of Computer Systems
  • Q: What is a computer? A: A machine that manages information
  • Representing Information
    • Computers store and manipulates numbers
      • Information needs to be encoded or represented
      • The numbers need to be interpreted
    • The memory of any computer just looks like:
    010011010010011101001001001011010100100100100100100101111110000001
  • Adding meaning to bits
    • As programmers we add meaning to the bits by defining an interpretation
    • Handled by the programming language
      • Types and variables
    • Examples
    42 -> 00000000000000000000000000101010 3.14159 -> 01000000010010010000111111010000 “ unix” -> 01111000011010010110111001110101
  • Von Neumann Model
    • Programs are also represented using numbers
      • Instructions and data are numbers stored in memory
    • Typical sequence:
      • Read a number (an instruction)
      • Decode it (using a predefined mapping)
      • Produce new number (data or instruction)
  • Memory
    • Memory and devices are accessed using addresses
      • Uniquely identifies a memory location
    • An address is an index into the memory
      • Also a number
    10100100101101001001001001000100111111010010011101010100100100 Address 453365
  • Computer Organization CPU Memory Devices
  • Central Processing Unit (CPU)
    • Driven by a synchronous clock
    • Clock Frequency
      • 3 GHz (nanoseconds)
    • Billions of transistors
      • 220 mm 2 area
      • 70 degrees C (158 F!)
  • Instruction Set Architecture (ISA)
    • Instruction encoding
      • Hardwired
    • Examples
      • x86 (Intel, AMD)
      • IA-64 (Intel, HP, SGI)
      • PowerPC (Freescale, IBM)
      • SPARC (Sun, Fujitsu)
      • MIPS (SGI)
  • Example 1 + 2 = 3
  • Programming
    • Store “1” and “2” into memory
      • Remember the addresses of these locations
    • Select an ADD instruction
      • Encode the addresses of the numbers
      • Encode the address of the result
    • Store the instruction in memory
  • Running the program
    • Load the address of the program into the program counter
    • Start the computer
  • Execution
    • Read the instruction from the program counter
    • Decode instruction
    • Fetch operands
    • Activate circuits that produce the sum of two numbers
    • Store the result in memory
    • Fetch next instruction
  • Programming in the 60s
  • Assembly Language
    • First computer language
    • Assembles instructions from ASCII text
      • ADD 23,address(454433)
    • Made programs human-readable (sort of!)
    • An “assembler” creates the machine-language instructions from the code
      • A program that outputs another program
  • Source Code
    • Source code in ASCII
    • Transformed into machine instructions by a special program
      • Called a compiler or interpreter
    • Advantage
      • Only the translator program needs to be rewritten for every new computer
  • Programming languages
    • High level languages helps you handling addresses and instructions
      • Declaring variables
    • Control flow and operations
      • +,-,*,/,&,||,…
      • loops, conditions, functions, objects ...
    • Two major types
      • Compiled
      • Interpreted
  • Programming Languages
    • 1954 - FORTRAN
    • 1958 - LISP
    • 1958 - ALGOL
    • 1959 - COBOL
    • 1962 - Simula
    • 1964 - BASIC
    • 1970 - Pascal
    • 1972 - C
    • 1972 - Smalltalk
    • 1972 - Prolog
    • 1973 - ML
    • 1978 - SQL
    • 1983 - Ada
    • 1983 - C++
    • 1985 - Eiffel
    • 1987 - Perl
    • 1990 - Haskell
    • 1990 - Python
    • 1991 - Java
    • 1993 - Ruby
    • 1995 - PHP
    • 2000 - C#
  • Variables
    • A variable is a programming language abstraction to help you manage addresses and values
    • Assigns a name or symbol to an address
    • Hence, every variable has a name, address (storage) and a value
      • Variables in algebra do not have notion of storage
      • Storage is provided automatically by the programming language
  • Types
    • A variable is declared using a type
      • Determines representation
      • Sets the context
    • Makes sure that operations on variables are closed in the algebraic sense
      • Results are of the same type as the operands
      • No loss of information/precision
  • Interpreted Languages
    • The code is executed by an interpreter program
      • Transforms source code into machine code on the fly
    • The program can be stopped at any given statement
      • Interactivity
    • Example languages
      • Matlab
      • Python
      • Perl
  • Compiled Languages
    • A compiler program translates the entire source code into some ISA
      • Result is often called a binary program or executable
    • Allows for optimization
    • Limited feedback on runtime errors compared to interpreted languages
    • Examples
      • C/C++
      • Fortran
  • Source code
    • Text files describing the program, i.e., the code to be compiled or interpreted
    • The code is defined by a language grammar
      • Set of rules and keywords that define the language
      • Grammar is checked by the compiler or interpreter
      • Code is not automatically correct just because it compiles!
    • Code can be automatically generated or pasted together from several different sources
      • Preprocessing
  • Compilation
    • The compiler typically generates
      • Source code
      • Assembly Language code (.s)
      • Object Code (.o or .obj)
      • Executables (a.out or .exe)
    • Object files are an intermediate program form where the names (symbols) of variables and functions are present
    • Several objects can be linked to form a complete program
      • Can be compiled from different languages
  • Compilation, Example
    • Compile program.c into object file (no linking):
      • $ gcc -c program.c
    • Compile and link program.c to executable file “program”
      • $ gcc -o program program.c
  • Computers as resources
    • Computers were (and still are) an expensive and powerful resource
      • In the early days, people where scheduled physically to the computer
      • Now, programs are scheduled automatically
    • Sharing the resource
      • Processors
      • Memory
      • Devices
  • Operating System (OS)
    • Manages the computer
      • Allocation and assignment of resources
      • Scheduling (priorities)
      • Monitoring (interfaces)
    • Multiple programs, multiple users
      • Security
      • Protection
      • Scalability
  • Q: How do we actually share the resources? A: Virtualization
  • Virtualization
    • A device, CPU or even the memory has an interface that can be virtualized
    • Creates a virtual computer managed by the OS
      • Virtual memory
      • Multi-tasking
  • Multitasking
    • A process is a program in execution
      • Contains the execution context
      • Acts like a bubble where the program lives
    • The instruction streams are sliced into smaller quanta and scheduled onto the CPUs
      • Time-sharing
      • Preemptive multitasking
  • Context switches
    • On a single-CPU system there is only one program in execution
      • Only one process scheduled for execution
    • At a given rate or a runtime exception a new process is scheduled
      • Context switch
    • Creates an illusion of parallel execution if context switch rate is sufficiently high
  • Logical Control Flows Time Process A Process B Process C Each process has its own logical control flow
  • Concurrent Processes
    • Two processes run concurrently ( are concurrent) if their flows overlap in time.
      • “Not exactly parallel”
    • Otherwise, they are sequential.
  • Example of concurrency
    • Examples:
      • Concurrent: A & B, A & C
      • Sequential: B & C
    Time Process A Process B Process C
  • User View of Concurrent Processes
    • Control flows for concurrent processes are physically disjoint in time.
    • However, we can think of concurrent processes are running in parallel with each other.
    Time Process A Process B Process C
  • Virtual Memory
    • Memory is virtualized by dividing the available memory into pages
    • Each processes has its own set of pages
    • Total amount of pages is much larger than the available physical memory
      • The contents is backed-up by either physical memory or disk
    • Pages are swapped in and out to physical memory at context switches
  • Virtual Address Space
    • Due to virtualization two programs can access memory at the same address
    • The OS provides an address translation mechanism to map the virtual addresses to physical
      • Totally transparent for the programmer
    • Memory is categorized as resident if it is backed-up by physical memory
  • On Demand Paging Memory 0: 1: P-1: Page Table Disk Virtual Addresses Physical Addresses CPU 0: 1: N-1:
  • The Kernel
    • The virtualization is handled by the OS kernel
    • Processors execute in either user or kernel mode
      • I/O can only be initiated from kernel mode
      • Separates users from each other
    • Part of the address space is reserved for kernel memory
  • System Calls
    • User can indirectly access the kernel using system calls
    • The system calls provides a service to the user though this interface
    • In many cases this interface is enhanced by user-level libraries that use system calls
  • Sharing Memory
    • As the memory is virtualized processes can share pages
    • Especially useful for read-only data like programs
    • Instead of loading multiple copies of the “firefox” program, one instance of the code is shared
      • Faster loading
      • Less memory
  • Running a program
    • After booting the OS starts some kind of user interface
      • GUIs (Windows)
      • Command Line Interpreters (Prompts)
    • A shell is created to host new programs
      • Program cocoon
    • The program loader copies the new program into the shell process
  • Virtual Address Space in Linux kernel virtual memory (code, data, heap, stack) memory-mapped region for shared libraries run-time heap (managed by malloc) user stack (created at runtime) unused memory invisible to user code 0xc0000000 0x08048000 0x40000000 read/write segment (.data, .bss) read-only segment (.init, .text, .rodata) loaded from the executable file 0xffffffff Virtual Address in hexadecimal, base 16
  • Some Important System Calls
    • fork()
      • Creates a child process which is a copy of the parent
    • execve()
      • Loads a new program and overwrites the current one
    • mmap()
      • Maps a device or a new page of memory into the virtual address space
  • Some Useful Commands
    • ps
      • Lists all processes
    • top
      • Prints resource usage
    • strace
      • Traces system calls. Great for reverse engineering!
    • /proc
      • File system for kernel data structures
  • Linux Demo
    • Accounts being created for you on ICME cluster at calving.stanford.edu
    • Username is SUNet ID, you will be given an initial password (change right away!)
    • To connect, go to vpn.stanford.edu and download VPN client, then connect Stanford VPN with SUNet ID/password
    • Will demonstrate now
  • Grading Criteria
    • Correctness and robustness (by far most important!)
      • Follow the specification!
      • Recover gracefully from errors
    • Clarity and readability
    • Modularity and maintainability
      • Is code easy to re-use or enhance?
    • Portability
      • Avoid using nonstandard functionality
    • Performance
  • Discussion Section
    • Room reserved:
      • Where: Bldg 320, Rm 220 (Main Quad, Geocorner)
      • When: Thursdays, 4:15pm to 6:05pm
    • Actual section time: 4:15-5:30pm
    • First section held: TODAY! (Jan 10)