Cleaning, sorting and grading of mango 1

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Cleaning, sorting and grading of mango 1

  1. 1. Next Cleaning sorting and grading of Mango
  2. 2. Cleaning sorting and grading of Mango NextEnd Previous • Mango is a highly perishable crop where in the fruits are generally harvested mature and ripened artificially after harvesting generally at the destination market. • Harvesting stage, method and postharvest handling are of immense importance. • Desapping, cleaning, sorting and grading are very important for fetching better market price as well as quality of the fruits. • Fruits are graded as per prevalent standards for easy marketing Introduction
  3. 3. Cleaning sorting and grading of Mango NextEnd Previous Steps for Postharvest Management of Mango fruit Harvesting Sorting GradingRipeningPackaging Storage Transportation & Marketing Consumer Pre-cooling
  4. 4. Cleaning sorting and grading of Mango NextEnd Previous • Harvest only mature fruits • It should be done in early morning or in late evening. • To prevent sap oozing, harvest fruits with 1.0 cm stalk & care should be taken so that drop of latex does not fall on fruit • After harvesting keep the fruits under shade in crates/ basket etc. • Desap fruits, especially meant for export by inverting them in desapper for about 2-3 hours What care should be taken while harvesting & thereafter?
  5. 5. Cleaning sorting and grading of Mango NextEnd Previous • Desapping of mango fruits is carried out in processing area by trained workers under the supervision of processing supervisor. • Desapping is done by holding the mango fruits upside down while cutting the stalk of fruits. • The stalks of mango fruits are cut very carefully to 0.5 to 1.0 cm by trained workers by using a scissor with sharp long nose to avoid causing skin injury. • For exports, the pedicel of the fruits is cut approximately at a length of 1 cm from the fruit with the help of sharp scissors and fruits are kept up side down in special knitted pallets, for two hours so that the latex flows out from the fruit completely. • Care should be taken that the latex drop does not fall on the fruit. Desapping of mango
  6. 6. Cleaning sorting and grading of Mango NextEnd Previous Desapping of mango Source: http://highhopesgardens.com/blog/2008/02/28/ Source:httpwww.itfnet.orggfruitSlidesISCTE%202008CONSUME R%20TRENDS%20AND%20QUALITY%20STANDARDS%20OF %20MANGO%20EXPORT%20FROM%20INDIA.pdf http://media.agriculturesource.com/product/img age/Agriculture/2010080805/f70e14677010cbeaf0b 0ec11e0ffa214.jpg
  7. 7. Cleaning sorting and grading of Mango NextEnd Previous Cleaning Cleaning / washing of mango fruit is carried out to make fruit practically free from dust, dirt, latex or any other foreign material. For export fruits are usually dipped in hot water (50-54oC)containing fungicide (benomyl) for the control of fungal diseases. Source: http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADS461.pdf The treatment is not appropriate for small-scale operations. Vapour Heat Treatment (VHT) of mangoes at 46oC for 10 min helps in reduction of incidence of anthracnose & stem end rot.
  8. 8. Cleaning sorting and grading of Mango NextEnd Previous Sorting and Grading Source: http://www.thehindu.com/multimedia/dynamic/00101/05VZVIJR EG1MANGO_101929f.jpg Sorting & Grading of mango fruit under Indian condition is generally done manually wherein the workers sit close to piled mango heap and sort damaged, diseased and rotten fruits by hand.
  9. 9. Cleaning sorting and grading of Mango NextEnd Previous Sorting and Grading These operation can also be done mechanically, fruits are conveyed through a conveyor belt and workers standing on both sides of the conveyor pick up the undesirable produce . Source: http://highhopesgardens.com/blog/2008/02/28/
  10. 10. Cleaning sorting and grading of Mango NextEnd Previous Sorting and Grading • There are some sophisticated technologies available for sorting and grading. • It is possible to mechanically sort and grade fruit on the basis of their colour, size, degree of sweetness and firmness etc. • These are non destructive methods in which sensors are used to do so (Plate 1) without any biasness. (Plate 1) Source: www.freshplaza.com/2009/1118/aweta.jp
  11. 11. Cleaning sorting and grading of Mango NextEnd Previous Sorting and Grading Weight graders are also available wherein containers containing a particular range of weight invert into a specific section (Plate 2) Source: http://highhopesgardens.com/blog/2008/02/28/ Click the link below to see the mechanical cleaning, sorting & grading of Mango fruit http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s9nPJxv5Tf0 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rgsmYbmmpxo
  12. 12. Cleaning sorting and grading of Mango NextEnd Previous Sorting and Grading • Standardized grading has become imperative for better economic returns in global market. • Bigger size fruits take 2-4 days more time in ripening than smaller ones. Hence, packaging of smaller fruits with larger ones should be avoided to achieve uniform ripening. • Immature, overripe, damaged and diseased fruits should be discarded. Grading & SizeTolerance (AGMARK) Size Code Weight (grams) Maximum Permissible difference within the packet (grams) Max. permissible difference between fruit in each package (grams) A 100-200 90-220 50 B 201-350 180-425 112.5 C 351-550 251-650 150 D 551-800 426-925 187.5
  13. 13. Cleaning sorting and grading of Mango NextEnd Previous Grade Designation & Quality of Mango (AGMARK) Mangoes shall be fruits obtained from Varieties (cultivars) of plant Mangifera indica L. of Anacardiaceous family. Minimum Requirements (i) Mangoes shall be (a) whole, firm, sound and fresh in appearance. Produce affected by rotting or deterioration such as to make it unfit for consumption is excluded; (b)clean, practically free of any visible foreign matter; (c) free of black necrotic stains or trails; (d)free of marked bruising; (e) free of abnormal external moisture, excluding condensation following removal from cold storage; (f) free from damage caused by low/or high temperature; (g)free of any foreign smell and/or taste; (h)free of damage caused by pests; (i) sufficiently developed and display satisfactory ripeness;
  14. 14. Cleaning sorting and grading of Mango NextEnd Previous Grade Designation & Quality of Mango (AGMARK) Minimum Requirements (ii) When a peduncle is present, it shall not be no longer than 1.0 cm. (iii) Mangoes shall comply with the residue levels of heavy metals, pesticides and other food safety parameters as laid down by the Codex Alimentarius Commission for exports.
  15. 15. Cleaning sorting and grading of Mango NextEnd Previous Grade Designation & Quality of Mango (AGMARK) Grade designation Grade Requirements Grade tolerances 1 2 3 Extra class Mangoes must be of superior quality. They must be characteristic of the variety. They must be free of defects, with the exception of very slight superficial defects, provided these do not affect the general appearances of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package. 5% by number or weight of mangoes not satisfying the requirements for the grade, but meeting those of Class I or exceptionally, coming within the tolerances of that grade.
  16. 16. Cleaning sorting and grading of Mango NextEnd Previous Grade Designation & Quality of Mango (AGMARK) Grade designation Grade Requirements Grade tolerances 1 2 3 Class I Mangoes must be of good quality. They must be characteristic of the variety. Mangoes may have following slight defects, provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package. - slight defects in shape; - slight skin defects due to rubbing or sunburn, suberized stains due to resin exudation (elongated trails included) and healed bruises not exceeding 2,3,4,5 sq. cm. for size groups A, B, C, D respectively 10% by number or weight of mangoes not satisfying the requirements for the grade, but meeting those of Class II grade or, exceptionally coming within the tolerances of that grade.
  17. 17. Cleaning sorting and grading of Mango NextEnd Previous Grade Designation & Quality of Mango (AGMARK) Grade designation Grade Requirements Grade tolerances 1 2 3 Class II This grade includes mangoes which do not qualify for inclusion in the higher grades, but satisfy the minimum requirements. Mangoes may have following defects, provided they retain their essential characteristics as regards the quality, keeping quality and presentation. - defects in shape, - slight skin defects due to rubbing or sunburn, suberized stains due to resin exudation (elongated trails included) and healed bruises not exceeding 4,5,6,7 sq. cm. for size groups A, B, C, D respectively 10% by number or weight of mangoes not satisfying the requirements of the grade, but meeting the minimum requirements.
  18. 18. Cleaning sorting and grading of Mango NextEnd Previous Let us sum up • Mango is an important but perishable fruit grown in India. • Fruits are harvested mature but not ripe. • Desapping, cleaning, sorting and grading are important operations. • Cleaning / washing is done to make fruit practically free from dust, dirt, latex or any other foreign material. For export fruits are usually dipped in hot water (50-54oC)containing fungicide (benomyl) for the control of fungal diseases. • Sorting & Grading in India is generally done manually while mechanized grading based on size and weight is also practiced. • AGMARK specifies 4 weight grades of mango i.e. A (100-200g), B (201-350g), C (351-550g) and D (551-800g)

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