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Urban Destinies_Latin America

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  • ALL NATIONS OF GLOBAL NORTH DOESN’T SHARE THE COMMON VISION OF BEING A WEAPON SUPERPOWER OR ECONOMIC SUPERPOWER.. THE VISIONS FOR THESE COUNTRIES ARE MUCH BEYOND THESE ACCEPTED IDEOLOGIES OF SUPERPWER. THEY SHOW A NEW GUIDING LIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT.
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    • 1. By: Manisha Balani (UD/588) Presented On: 18/05/2013 Master of Arch. (Urban Design) Fourth Semester Course: City Futures Headed By: Arunava Dasgupta Mriganka Saxena
    • 2. GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA STUDY AREA CARACAS ROSARIO
    • 3. BACKGROUND STUDY GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA SUB-REGIONS: Four COUNTRIES: 42 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX -2011 • VERY HIGH HDI 1. Chile (0.805) 2. Argentina • HIGH HDI 1. Uruguay 2. Cuba 3. Mexico 4. Panama 5. Costa Rica 6. Venezuela 7. Peru 8. Ecuador 9. Brazil 10. Colombia (0.710) MOST COUNTRIES LIE IN THE VERY HIGH OR HIGH RANGE OF HDI –HDI GREATER THAN 0.7 PRESENT
    • 4. BACKGROUND STUDY GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA GINI INDEX -2009PRESENT • GINI Index –Inequality adjusted HDI • Shown information is based on 1989 - 2009 data estimated by CIA • Out of first 30 countries with highest GINI Index value, 15 countries are from Latin America and these countries are only after few African countries. • Order on the World List 6. HAITI 8. HONDURAS 10. BOLIVIA 11. COLOMBIA 12. GAUTEMALA 13. BRAZIL 16. BELIZE 17. SURINAME 19. PARAGUAY 20. CHILE
    • 5. BACKGROUND STUDY GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA HISTORICAL BACKGROUNDPAST Before 16th Century -Indigenous People (Mayans, Incas, Aztecs) 16th – 18th Century -Colonial rule for more than two centuries -Mostly Spanish and Portuguese speaking countries Early 19th Century -Wars of Independence By 1825 -Most Latin American countries independent Postcolonial 19th Ce -Wars on National Borders -Disputes over Power -Society was considered to be ill- prepared for democracy -Emergence of Dictatorships and Oligarchies (Wealthy Elite or Military Chiefs) -Land ownership overtaken by the rich 19th Cen Economy -Development of Wealthy Elite -Resulted in a sizable gap between the rich and the poor GREAT BRITAIN FRANCE USA LATIN AMERICA (Vital Source of Raw Materials) FINANCIAL INVESTMENT EXPORT ECONOMIES
    • 6. BACKGROUND STUDY GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA HISTORICAL BACKGROUNDPAST 19th Cen Economy -ECONOMY LED URBANISATION -Emergence of Cosmopolitan Centres like Mexico City, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro 20th Century WW era -Great Economic Depression –Abrupt end to the inflow of foreign capital –Drastic decline in the price of the region’s exports 1945 (WWII) -1960s -Cold War Era -Communism expanded -Cuban Revolution -Emergence of Cuba as Communist State (FIDEL CASTRO) -Soaring Economies –Huge sums of money borrowed from International Creditors 1970s -Leftist governments emerged –inspired by the Cuban Communist Regime. -More support for military dictatorship to avoid a communist threat. 1980s -LATIN AMERICAN DEBT CRISIS ECONOMIC GROWTH UNEMPLOYMENT INDUSTRIALISATION (Consumer Goods) Export of Raw Materials Foreign Imports
    • 7. BACKGROUND STUDY GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA HISTORICAL BACKGROUNDPAST 1980s Latin American Debt Crisis –AFTER EFFECTS • Children and young adults -forced to join -DRUG TRADE & PROSTITUTION. • Problems like HOMICIDES AND CRIME appeared –Made these countries UNDESIRABLE PLACES TO LIVE. FINANCIAL SECURITY SOCIAL SECURITY 1989: IMF proposed the package –TEN ECONOMIC POLICY PRESCRIPTIONS Adoption by nation-states SOCIAL MOVEMENTS 1990s: Emergence of LEFT-WING DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS IMF INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND LATIN AMERICA FOR UNPAID DEBTS FORCED TO ADOPT FREE MARKET CAPITALISM AUSTERITY PLANS
    • 8. BACKGROUND STUDY GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA FIGURESPRESENT As per Cities Alliance 2010 data, 50% OF WORLD’S POPULATION LIVES IN CITIES OUT OF WHICH MORE THAN ONE THIRD OF THIS URBAN POPULATION (33%) IS LIVING IN SUBSTANDARD SETTLEMENTS UNDER PRECARIOUS HOUSING CONDITIONS. In Latin America, by contrast, 78% of its population lives in cities (446 million ppl) with 23.5% of this urban population living in favelas and corticos (105 million ppl).
    • 9. BACKGROUND STUDY GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA POPULATION DENSITYPRESENT Map giving an idea how 78% of the region’s population lives in cities. Percentage of slum population in various cities varies drastically from the region’s average like: Sao Paulo, Brazil (25%) Mexico City, Mexico (25%) Lima, Peru (55%) Caracas, Venezuela (60%). Increasing Population Density Map
    • 10. BACKGROUND STUDY GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA PHYSICAL LAND FEATURESCONTRIBUTING FACTOR Physical Map Presence of major physical features in the region which are ENVIRONMENTALLY SENSITIVE AREAS AND HENCE NOT URBANISABLE. AMAZON RIVER BASIN –World’s largest rainforest. PANTANAL –Largest freshwater Wetland System ANDES –Mountain Range PATAGONIA –Steppe-like plains with Jagged Granite mountains & giant Glaciers carving through these mountains –Also known as the ‘End of the World!’
    • 11. BACKGROUND STUDY GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA MIGRATIONCONTRIBUTING FACTOR Gradual increase in MIGRATION OUT OF RURAL AREAS: • Land ownership overtaken by the wealthy elite. • Further land reforms in 1992 • Abolishment of Ejido system of Communal land holdings –cornerstone of indeginous and peasant rights. • Land open for sale to foreign investors. • Made it harder for farmers to eke out a living and easier for them to sell land. BOOMING ECONOMIES: Migration Trends • Countries like Brazil, Argentina and Chile booming, on the economic front –Hubs of Finance and Technology. OLYMPICS 2016: • Large infrastructure developments -High rate of influx of qualified prof. from all over the world due to job opportunities. • Lack of Career mobility in developed nations
    • 12. ACHIEVEMENTS & ISSUES GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA ACHIEVEMENTS • MIDDLE STRATA OF LATIN AMERICAN SOCIETY EXPANDED greatly by the late 20th century. • GREAT BUSINESS CENTRES -large metropolitan areas —MEXICO CITY & SÃO PAULO. • With social and economic modernization came changes, too, in gender relations. WOMEN ACHIEVED FULL LEGAL EQUALITY WITH MEN gradually –TWO NEW FEMALE PRESIDENTS IN COSTA RICA AND BRAZIL. • ETHNIC MINORITIES ALSO SOUGHT GREATER OPPORTUNITIES and respect from society at large. SERIOUS CONCERNS • FUTURE OF OVERPOPULATED MEGA-CITIES like Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Mexico City etc, is a major concern –MOBILITY & HOUSING in these cities is a big issue. • Progress toward reducing historically high levels of SOCIAL INEQUALITY & POVERTY still remains disappointing –Large sections of society have POOR LIVING CONDITIONS. • CRIME AND VIOLENCE PREVENTION and PUBLIC SECURITY are important issues for governments –HOMICIDE RATES IN LATIN AMERICA ARE AMONG THE HIGHEST IN THE WORLD. • MIGRATION TO THE USA and more economically developed countries like BRAZIL AND ARGENTINA –In parts of northern Latin America, EMIGRATION to the more prosperous and politically stable US began happening by the end of the 20th century. By 21st century, this trend has changed and along with USA, other magnets are towards the south i.e. Sao Paulo, Rio (Brazil) or Buenos Aires (Argentina) and other prospering nations. • Great Business Centers but POOR CENTERS OF HUMAN CAPITAL • CONSTANT COMPETITION with other developing nations
    • 13. FUTURE DIRECTIONS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA NEW VISIONS FOR MOBILITY NETWORK PLANS Over-populated cities facing serious issues of mobility in the city are looking for alternative means of transportation systems that are more user-friendly and environmentally efficient. RISE OF THE INFORMAL CITY –NEW WAYS OF INTERVENING IN THE INFORMAL New directions in research believe favelas are a place for urban renewal, as a growing pool of innovation in terms of self-organization, association and strategic ingenuity. DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL HUMAN CAPITAL BY BRINGING FOCUS TO OTHER POTENTIALS OF THE REGION OTHER THAN JUST BUSINESS ACTIVITY Tourism and Recreation being the central idea behind hosting Olympics 2016. Adoption of Urban Agriculture in various cities to provide for the rural migrants. EXPANSION OF SECOND-TIER CITIES TO COPE WITH MIGRATION Region has large pockets of environmentally sensitive areas –Hence urban expansion plans following sustainable development models to be minimally invasive
    • 14. CONTEXT COUNTRY: Venezuela SCALE: 100 hectares CLIENT: Compañía Anónima Metro de Caracas CONSULTANT: Urban-Think Tank BUDGET: $18 million USD STATUS: Complete & Functional by 2010 PROJECT PROFILE: Project designed a Cable Propelled Transit System linking two barrios with Caracas’s public transit system. The plan also calls for ‘plug-in’ buildings –attached to each station housing cultural & recreational programs -Radical departure from official planning strategy to link the barrios to the city by creating new surface streets – Which lead to loss of many dwellings. Mobility & Community Development Plan, San Agustin, Caracas CITY & PROJECTS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA • 60% of the city’s 5 mil population lives in Barrios –informal settlements. • Some Caraqueños, pay more for a litre of drinking water than a gallon of petrol. • Hills surrounding the city centre of Caracas have long been the sites of barrios populated by poor, rural migrants. • Due to their illegal status, these areas have never been formally connected with public transit or other civic services. • Result: Seemingly inexorable social divide between two parts of the city. Barrios, San Agustin (Informal Settlements) Skyscrapers in the city Existing Urban Form
    • 15. CITY & PROJECTS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA BACKGROUND CARACAZO –The Caracas Outbreak, 1989 1989: Then President Pérez proposed to implement free-market reforms in his second presidential term (1989–1993). Pre-election scene: Perez ran a populist, anti- neoliberal campaign which was against the IMF and the World Bank. Post-election scene: Cooperation with the IMF rather quickly after his victory. Most controversial part of this economic package: ELIMINATION OF THE GASOLINE SUBSIDIES. Result: Rise in gasoline prices by as much as 100%, and subsequently, the costs of public transportation rose by 30%. CARACAZO: Protests and rioting began in towns near-by Caracas due to increase in transportation cost to Caracas. Result: Death toll of hundreds of people with some reports of 3,000 dead mostly at the hands of security forces. • STATE OF EMERGENCY and Suspension of rights to liberty and freedom of expression Consequence: Political instability. 1993: –Impeachment of President Pérez for corruption –Collapse in confidence in the existing parties. 1998: HUGO CHÁVEZ elected President, and the subsequent launch of a "Bolivarian Revolution” –New Constitution of Venezuela. 2003: Launch of the ‘MISIONES’ for social development. HEALTH, EDUCATION & SOCIAL SERVICES –Focus on ‘BARRIOS’
    • 16. Public Seminar at the Central University of Venezuela, Caracas CITY & PROJECTS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA San Agustin Barrio • Due to the steepness of the neighbourhood, a large number of stairs are included in the pedestrian paths. • On average the inhabitants would walk 39 floors each day (2.5 hour walk) to get to communal services or transportation. • Early 2000s –Physical development –Government proposed a new highway to connect the barrio with the city roads, introduce bus routes and allow car movement within the barrio. • Result –Would lead to demolition of a number of households in the neighborhood. • U-TT Proposal –No to the Car –CAR FREE CITY To question the government plan and to put forth alternatives Creation of a Task Force: U-TT together with barrio residents Selection of a Cable Propelled Transit System –that had greatest potential URBAN-THINK TANK’S APPROACH: One-day Charrette with the task force Analysis, planning, media campaign and Presentation To refine the concept To build support and funding for the project. METRO CABLE SYSTEM PLAN Suited to the terrain, minimally and selectively invasive of the existing fabric, highly sustainable and flexible IDEA & APPROACH
    • 17. CITY & PROJECTS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA SPECIFICATIONS OF THE SYSTEM CITY LEVEL METRO NETWORK BARRIO LEVEL CABLE CAR SYSTEM CITY LEVEL BUS NETWORK FIVE STATIONS • THREE along the MOUNTAIN RIDGE • TWO in the VALLEY -connect directly to the Caracas public transportation system. • CENTRAL PARK STATION -One station in the valley connects to the City Metro. • SAN AGUSTIN STATION –Another station in the valley that connects to the City Bus network. LENGTH of the network -2.1 km CAPACITY of each gondola –10 passengers each –8 sitters and 2 standees CAPACITY of the system -3000 pphpd (persons per hour per direction) JOURNEY TIME: 20 minutes than 2.5 hours SAN AGUSTIN CENTRAL PARK Overall Map of Cable Car System LA CEIBA EL MANGUITO HORNOS DE CAL
    • 18. CITY & PROJECTS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT –PLUG-IN BUILDINGS ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS: • Cultural, social and system administrative functions; • Replacement of demolished residences with more homes, as well as public spaces; • Vertical Gym • Library • Supermarket and day care centre; Construction on this plug-in building adjacent to LA CEIBA Station has started. VerticalGym&LibraryatLACEIBAStation GrowingHousenearELMANGUITOStation
    • 19. CITY & PROJECTS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA Hornos de Cal Station –that connects to Central Park Station El Manguito Station
    • 20. CITY & PROJECTS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA JOINT VENTURE: Between the State (Ministry of Infrastructure), Austrian aerial lift manufacturer Doppelmayr and the Brazilian company Odebrecht were all responsible for the construction of the system. FINANCE: Completely financed by the State through funds from Oil Produce DEVELOPMENT COST: • Total Cost - $265 million USD • Cost of the Transit System - $18 million USD • Additional expenses were spent on community centre facilities and land expropriation costs that were separate from the transit system itself. FARE SYSTEM: • 2000 bs –Existing buses that go down the hill • 500 bs –Metro Cable Car One-side fare Vertical Gym under Construction CONSTRUCTION: Compact & mostly modular stations –built of prefabricated concrete and steel components —can be deployed & easy to erect even in the densest of neighbourhoods. RESULT: Government is not intimidated by the very high cost of the project. • One of the first of its kind in Venezuela • A tentative and experimental process. • Cost of future similar projects expected to be more efficient.
    • 21. COUNTRY: Venezuela Expansion Plan, Metro System, Caracas CITY & PROJECTS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA SCALE: City-level CLIENT: Compañía Anónima Metro de Caracas CONSULTANT: Urban-Think Tank STATUS: Phase 2 –Under Construction (4.84 km length of CPT System) PROJECT PROFILE: Expansion of the city –level network of Metro Rail along with addition of nine more lines of CPT System to connect various barrios in the city to the Public Transport System. San Agustin Metro Cable Network
    • 22. CONTEXT COUNTRY: Venezuela SCALE: 3500 people 45-storey tower CLIENT: Squatters of Caracas CONSULTANT: Urban-Think Tank STATUS: Complete & Exhibited at 13th Venice Architecture Biennale 2012 AWARD: Golden Lion award, Venice Biennale, 2012 PROJECT PROFILE: The project is a study project that investigates physical and social organization of an informal settlement of 750 families (about 3500 people) in a 45- storey incomplete office tower in absence of any form of formal infrastructure. Informal Vertical Communities, Torre David, Caracas CITY & PROJECTS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA • Torre David, a 45-story skyscraper in Caracas, built as the headquarters of the Confinanzas Group during the economic boom of the 90s has remained uncompleted after the company went bankrupt in 1994 during the economy collapse. • Ownership of the tower -put into question –Since 2000, the tower suffered looting and decay. • Public take-over culminated with the occupation of the tower by more than 3,500 people in 2007. Torre David Torre David amidst other skyscraper offices of the city
    • 23. IS IT A SLUM?CITY & PROJECTS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA Elevation –Brick parapet walls visible Definition according to UN-HABITAT: is based primarily on lack of certain amenities 1. Lack of durable housing of permanent nature that can protect against extreme weather conditions.  Does not apply. Largely sheltered by the permanent structure of the building as-well as the walls built by themselves.
    • 24. IS IT A SLUM?CITY & PROJECTS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Definition according to UN-HABITAT: is based primarily on lack of certain amenities 2. Lack of access to water and sanitary facilities.  Does not apply. Residents have water connections (in regulated quantities) and their own toilets.  Main Water Tank at Level 18  Pumped up till Level 28 3. Security of tenure that prevents forced evictions.  Does Apply. Illegal occupation 4. Over-crowding i.e. 3 or more persons sharing one room  Applies to some extent since there are units which fit this.  However, there are also apartments which are spacious and allow individual privacy. 5. Lack of access to public transport  Does not apply. Sits in the city centre.
    • 25. CITY & PROJECTS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA DISTRIBUTION OF SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE 6. Lack of hygiene and safety  Does not apply. Highly efficient system of self-organistion. IS IT A SLUM?
    • 26. CITY & PROJECTS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA STAIR-WELL: used for VERTICAL MOVEMENT LIFT WELL: used for INFRASTRUCTURE CIRCULATION DIAGRAM
    • 27. CITY & PROJECTS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA REALITY
    • 28. CITY & PROJECTS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA REALITY MOSTLY INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS AND SLUMS ARE EXCLUDED FROM THE FORMAL PLANNING PROCESS ON GROUNDS OF ‘ILLEGAL OCCUPATION’ BUT ‘SLUM’ DOES NOT REALLY DEFINE TORRE DAVID!
    • 29. CITY & PROJECTS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA PROPOSAL BY URBAN-THINK TANK With a few fixes like mainly: • PROVISION OF A MORE COMFORTABLE VERTICAL MOVEMENT SYSTEM • PROVISION OF AN OPEN SPACE STRUCTURE CALL FOR ACTION: To see in informal settlements a POTENTIAL FOR INNOVATION AND EXPERIMENTATION, with the goal of PUTTING DESIGN IN SERVICE TO A MORE EQUITABLE AND SUSTAINABLE FUTURE.
    • 30. CITY & PROJECTS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA PROPOSAL BY URBAN-THINK TANK IS THIS A NEW DIRECTION FOR INFORMAL COMMUNITIES?? IF THIS MODEL IS SUCCESFUL IN CARACAS, CAN THIS BE SUCCESFUL ELSEWHERE IN THE WORLD?? WITH A FEW INTERVENTIONS NEEDED TO FIX THE MISSING LINKS IN A WORKING SYSTEM LIKE THIS, SHOULD THAT BE DONE OR SHOULD THIS NEVER BE FORMALISED BECAUSE IT IS SO CALLED ‘ILLEGAL OCCUPATION’?
    • 31. COUNTRY: Argentina SCALE: District Level CLIENT: City of Rosario CONSULTANT: Fadi Masoud and Mariusz Klemens STATUS: Academic Proposal, Doctoral Program, Harvard Graduate School of Design PROJECT PROFILE: Proposal for subdivision and transformation of agricultural lands to suburban decentralized developments on the basis of micro-watersheds. Urban Subdivisions by Watersheds, Rosario CITY & PROJECTS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA • Urban development along the sprawling westward urban border of the city. • Project deals with one of the most pressing issues facing contemporary designers and planners: Relationship between agrarian conditions, natural processes and patterns of urbanization • Bracketed by two small rivers marking the north and south limits of the city, the site for this project has been newly defined by the Urban Plan Rosario 2007-2017 as the New Strategic Territorial Front • Project plans Urban Subdivisions using existing micro- watersheds on site and identifying most suitable areas for development and urban agriculture.
    • 32. CITY & PROJECTS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA ROSARIO -BACKGROUND ROSARIO PAMPAS PARANA RIVER ARGENTINA
    • 33. CITY & PROJECTS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA • To combat high degree of UNEMPLOYMENT, POVERTY,SOCIAL EXCLUSION NEW FORMS OF PRODUCTION IN THE “SOCIAL ECONOMY” • Rosario Municipality launches two consecutive programmes in past two decades: 1) Crecer (“to grow”), established in 1997 to contribute to the development of community and family kitchen gardens, in which 18.000 families are involved at the moment; and 2) Urban agriculture, created in 2002 to promote the social integration of male and female members of vulnerable families, through participatory and collaborative forms of production, commercialisation and consumption of healthy food obtained with environmentally sound techniques (almost 800 gardens, created with this purpose, have been registered since the beginning of the programme). BACKGROUND Rosario Urban Plan, 2007 -2017
    • 34. CITY & PROJECTS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA APPROACH • Bracketed by two small rivers marking the north and south limits of the city, the site for this project has been newly defined by the URBAN PLAN ROSARIO 2007-2017 as the New Strategic Territorial Front. • the project targets the most vulnerable edge of an expanding city and speculates on its potential growth through integrated responsive environmental and urban typologies. • The parcelization of the land for the building of new suburban subdivisions, does not take into account the extreme hydro-dynamics of these seemingly flat agricultural lands. • The design process started by analyzing particular elements of the environmental, infrastructural and socio-economical context of the city.
    • 35. CITY & PROJECTS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA Natural Drainage pattern that runs along and through the site
    • 36. CITY & PROJECTS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA Drainage lines used to sub-divide land and generate urban form that maintains those lines
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    • 44. FUTURE IMPLICATIONS GLOBAL SOUTH>> LATIN AMERICA FUTURE OF THE WORLD CITIES WILL BE INFORMAL! New urban form developed propagates that the informal can be incorporated within the formal without changing the nature of the informal. New ways of intervening in informal settlements to promote social development along with physical development Identification of new directions in the growth of informal settlements and Appropriation of the same within the formal planning Inclusion of the ingenuity and creativity of the informal settlements within urban governance to create a city that is open for multi-cultural coexistence and sustainable life-styles. FUTURE OF THE WORLD CITIES LIES IN SUSTAINABILITY New identity to the relationship between agrarian conditions, natural processes and patterns of urbanization –Sustainable Urabn Development Model