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Tanvippt
 

Tanvippt

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    Tanvippt Tanvippt Presentation Transcript

    • TANVI GUPTA X-A REG.NO-B114084140047 TOPIC-WATER
    • Sustainability is the capacity to endure. In ecology the word describes how biological systems remain diverse and productive over time. Long-lived and healthy wetlands and forests are examples of sustainable biological systems. For humans, sustainability is the potential for long-term maintenance of well being, which has ecological, economic, political and cultural dimensions. Sustainability requires the reconciliation of environmental, social equity and economic demands also referred to as the "three pillars" of sustainability or the 3 Es. The word sustainability is derived from the Latin sustainer (tenure, to hold; sues, up). Dictionaries provide more than ten meanings for sustain, the main ones being to “maintain", "support", or "endure”
    • Today ,in many areas, water requirement cannot be met. The over-utilization of water occurs at various levels .Most people use more water than they really need. Most of us waste water during a bath by using a shower or while washing clothes. Many agriculturists use more water than necessary to grow crops .
    • THROUGH THE GIVEN TABLE BELOW , WE CAN CONCLUDE THAT THERE HAS BEEN A DRASTIC FALL IN THE LEVEL OF GROUND WATER IN INDIA.
    • The water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle or the H2O cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth. The mass water on Earth remains fairly constant over time but the partitioning of the water into the major reservoirs of ice, fresh water, saline water and atmospheric water is variable depending on a wide range of climatic variables. The water moves from one reservoir to another, such as from river to ocean, or from the ocean to the atmosphere, by the physical processes of evaporation, condensation, pre cipitation, infiltration, runoff, and subsurface flow. In so
    • First, water on the earth, in lakes, in oceans and in the sea is evaporated by the heat from the Sun. Excess water from plants is also absorbed into the atmosphere, this process is called transpiration. Then, water collects as water vapor in the sky. This makes clouds. Next, the water in the clouds gets cold. This makes it become liquid again. Then, the water falls from the sky as rain, snow, sleet, or hail which is called precipitation. The water then collects
    • WATER RECYCLING HELPS IN REPLENESHING THE GROUND WATER. IT HELPS IN MAINTAINING THE WATER LEVEL ALL OVER THE WORLD. WATER RECYCLING HELPS IN TRANSPORTATION OF ERODED SEDIMENTS AND PHOSPHORUS. Both runoff and groundwater flow play significant roles in transporting nitrogen from the land to water bodies.
    • Beijing to adopt tough water conservation measures: BEIJING, Jan. 17 (Xinhua) -- Beijing will adopt tough water management measures in the next five years to ease acute water shortages, according to local water The measures include setting authorities. warning lines for the quantity of water consumption, efficiency of water use and water pollution levels within the metropolitan area. Local governments would be punished if they missed the targets, he said, adding it was the first time that such measures had been formulated. The measures, which were still being drafted by the municipal government, will be implemented during the first half of 2011,
    • SOME METHODS USED IN INDIA By using nets strung across mountain passes, or stretched on poles located in foggy areas, gravity collects clean potable water for local residents. In deficit irrigation, the goal is to obtain maximum crop water productivity rather than maximum yield. By irrigating less than a crop’s optimal full requirement, we might reduce the yield by 10%, but save 50% of the water. Incorporating soil moisture sensors into an irrigation system is an important tool for water conservation. It not only prevents over-watering, but saves unnecessary pumping costs and helps prevent leaching of fertilizers.
    • Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and deposition of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer. Uses include water for garden, water for livestock, water for irrigation, and indoor heating for houses etc.. In many places the water collected is just redirected to a deep pit with percolation. The harvested water can be used as drinking water as well as for storage andprovides an Rainwater harvesting other purpose like irrigation. water supply during regional independent water restrictions and in developed countries is often used to supplement the main supply. It provides water when there is a drought, prevents flooding of low-lying areas, replenishes the ground water level, and enables dug wells and bore wells to yield in a sustained manner.
    • Watershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs, and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant, animal, and human communities within a watershed boundary.
    • CAUSE OF THE MOVEMENT Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) is a social movement consisting of adivasis, farmers, environmentalists, and human rights activists against a number of large dams being built across the Narmada river. MOTIVE THE MAIN MOTIVE BEHIND THE NARMADA BACHAO ANDOLAN MOVEMENT WAS TO STOP THE LARGE NUMBER OF DAM CONSTRUCTION AND THE
    • THE NARMADA BACHAO ANDOLAN MOVEMENT TOOK PLACE IN THREE STATES -GUJARAT , MAHARSHTRA AND MADHYA PRADESH. IT IS ESTIMATED THAT BILLIONS OF PEOPLE HAD FLED FROM THEIR HOMES AND HAD JOINT THE MOVEMENT, INCLUDING FAMOUS FILM STARS LIKE AAMIR KHAN.
    • THE LEADER OF NARMADA MOVEMENT MEDHA PATKAR AND BABA AMTE
    • The demonstrations, protests, rallies, hunger strikes, blockades, and written representations by Narmada Bachao Andolan have all made an impact on the direction of the movement to stop the building of large and small dams along the Narmada. Media attention from these events has taken the issues from a local level to a more national scale. The NBA was an integral force in forcing the World Bank to withdraw its loan from the pr objects by pressuring the Bank with negative media attention.
    • Water and energy are closely linked. The water industry is energy-intensive, consuming electricity for desalination, pumping, and treatment of wastewater. The energy industry is also waterintensive, which is the focus of this report. Water is used for resource extraction (oil, gas, coal, biomass etc.), energy conversion (refining and processing), transportation and power generation. Water, like energy, is a commodity but with very different characteristics. Water is almost always local where
    • Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into useful forms of power - mainly electricity. Tidal power has potential for future electricity generation. Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power. Among sources of renewable energy, tidal power has traditionally suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow velocities, thus constricting its total availability. However, many recent technological developments and improvements,
    • Hydro-power or water power is power derived from the energy of falling water and running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes. Kinetic energy of flowing water (when it moves from higher potential to lower potential) rotates the blades/propellers of turbine, which rotates the axle. The axle has a coil which is placed between the magnets. When the coils rotate in magnetic field it induce them in the coil due to change in flux. Hence, kinetic energy of flowing water is converted to electrical energy. Water's power is manifested in hydrology, by the forces of water on the riverbed and banks of a river. When a river is in flood, it is at its most powerful, and moves the greatest amount of sediment. This higher force results in the removal of sediment and other material from the riverbed and
    • Hard water is water that has high mineral content. Hard drinking water is generally not harmful to one's health,[1] but can pose serious problems in industrial settings, where water hardness is monitored to avoid costly breakdowns in boilers, cooling towers, and other equipment that handles water. In domestic settings, hard water is often indicated by a lack of suds formation when soap is agitated in water, and by the formation of lime scale in kettles and water heaters. Wherever water hardness is a concern, water softening is commonly used to
    • The water that lathers readily with soaps are called soft water. It describes type of water that contain few or no minerals like calcium(Ca) or magnesium(Mg) ions. The term is usually relative to hard water, which does contain significant amounts of such ions. Soft Water mostly comes from peat or igneous rock sources, such as granite but may also come from sandstone sources, since such sedimentary rocks are usually low in calcium and magnesium. However, soft water does have negative side effects and can be bad for the heart. Thus it should be drunk
    • Install a mechanical water softener that replaces calcium and magnesium with sodium if water source is hard. Mechanical water softeners prevent lime scale, increase the efficiency of heating our water, and lengthens the life of our clothing and other items that we regularly launder. There are several water softeners on the market that range in price, operating costs and effectiveness. WE must test the treated water Install a magnetic water conditioner that before drinking it. alters calcium Ions so they are unable to cause lime scale.
    • HARD WATER SOFT WATER Hard water contains high amount of calcium and magnesium. Soft water contains high amount of sodium. Hard water is a good source of calcium and magnesium in the body. Hard water also reduces the solubility of toxic metal ions. Soft water is not harsh on the skin, clothes, dishes, etc. Hard water can leave the clothes rough and worn out during washing; hard water also makes it difficult to take off dirt from the skin and leaves a film on skin and dishes when washing them. Build up of lime scale and galvanic erosion are also problems caused by hard water. Soft water does not give off any problems, though it is less beneficial than hard water in consumption. Softened water is also known to emit lead from old pipes in the supply system.