Hard water is water that has high mineral content.
Hard drinking water is generally not harmful to one's health, but
can pose serious problems in industrial settings, where water
hardness is monitored to avoid costly breakdowns
in boilers, cooling towers, and other equipment that handles
water. In domestic settings, hard water is often indicated by a
lack of suds formation when soap is agitated in water, and by the
formation of limescale in kettles and water heaters. Wherever
water hardness is a concern, water softening is commonly used
to reduce hard water's adverse effects.
water softening is commonly used to reduce hard water's
With hard water, soap solutions form a white precipitate (soap
scum) instead of producing lather, because the 2+ ions destroy
the surfactant properties of the soap by forming a solid
precipitate (the soap scum). A major component of such scum
is calcium stearate, which arises from sodium stearate, the main
component of soap:
2 C17H35COO- + Ca2+ → (C17H35COO)2Ca
Hardness can thus be defined as the soap-consuming capacity
of a water sample, or the capacity of precipitation of soap as a
characteristic property of water that prevents the lathering of
soap. Synthetic detergents do not form such scums. Hard water
also forms deposits that clog plumbing
Water softening is the removal of calcium, magnesium,
and certain other metal cations in hard water. The
resulting soft water is more compatible with soap and
extends the lifetime of plumbing. Water softening is
usually achieved using lime softening or ion-exchange
resins. The slippery feeling experienced when using
soap with soft water occurs because soaps tend to bind
to fats in the surface layers of skin, making soap
molecules difficult to remove by simple dilution. In
contrast, in hard-water areas the rinse water contains
calcium or magnesium ions which form insoluble salts,
effectively removing the residual soap from the skin but
potentially leaving a coating of insoluble stearates on tub
and shower surfaces, commonly called soap scum.
Which of these effects is considered more or less
desirable varies from person to person, and those who
dislike the sliminess and difficulty of washing off soap
caused by soft water may harden the water by adding
chemicals such as baking soda, calcium chloride or
Recycled water, is former wastewater (sewage)
that is treated to remove solids and certain
impurities, and used insustainable
landscaping irrigation or to
recharge groundwater aquifers. The purpose of
these processes is sustainability and water
conservation, rather than discharging the
treated water to surface waters such as rivers
and oceans. In some cases, recycled water can
be used for streamflow augmentation to benefit
ecosystems and improve aesthetics. One
example of this is along Calera Creek in the City
of Pacifica, CA. "The end product of wastewater
reclamation that meets water quality
requirements for biodegradable materials,
suspended matter and pathogens." In more
recent conventional use, the term refers to
water that is not treated as highly in order to
offer a way to conserve drinking water. This
water is given to uses such as agriculture and
sundry industry uses.
Recycled water can satisfy most water demands, as long as it is
adequately treated to ensure water quality appropriate for the use.
WAYS TO RECYCLE WATER:
1. Initiate the appropriate recycling methods.
2 .Conserve water in your everyday routine.
3. Sanitize grey water.
4. Reclaim rainwater.
5.compare your bill before and after
6. Install a Rain Barrel
7.Use a Shower Bucket
8.Create a Rain Garden
Water conservation in the home...
1. Check faucets and pipes for leaks
A small drip from a worn faucet washer can waste 20 gallons of water per day. Larger
leaks can waste hundreds of gallons.
2. Don't use the toilet as an ashtray or wastebasket
Every time you flush a cigarette butt, facial tissue or other small bit of trash, five to seven
gallons of water is wasted.
3. Check your toilets for leaks
Put a little food coloring in your toilet tank. If, without flushing, the color begins to
appear in the bowl within 30 minutes, you have a leak that should be repaired
immediately. Most replacement parts are inexpensive and easy to install.
4. Use your water meter to check for hidden water leaks
Read the house water meter before and after a two-hour period when no water is being
used. If the meter does not read exactly the same, there is a leak.
Water resources are sources of water that
are useful or potentially useful. Uses of water
include agricultural, industrial,household, recreat
ional and environmental activities. The majority
of human uses require fresh water.97 percent of
the water on the Earth is salt water and only
three percent is fresh water; slightly over two
thirds of this is frozen in glaciers and polar ice
caps.The remaining unfrozen freshwater is
found mainly as groundwater, with only a small
fraction present above ground or in the air.Fresh
water is a renewable resource, yet the world's
supply of groundwater is steadily decreasing,
with depletion occurring most prominently in
Asia and North America, although it is still
unclear how much natural renewal balances this
usage, and whether ecosystems are
threatened.The framework for allocating water
resources to water users (where such a
framework exists) is known as water rights..
Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy
of tides into useful forms of power - mainly electricity.Although not yet widely used, tidal
power has potential for future electricity generation. Tides are more predictable
than wind energy and solar power. Among sources of renewable energy, tidal power has
traditionally suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability of sites with
sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow velocities, thus constricting its total availability.
However, many recent technological developments and improvements, both in design
(e.g. dynamic tidal power, tidal lagoons) and turbine technology (e.g. new axial
turbines, cross flow turbines), indicate that the total availability of tidal power may be
much higher than previously assumed, and that economic and environmental costs may
be brought down to competitive levels. Tidal energy is a renewable energy source.
Hydroelectricity is the term referring
to electricity generated by hydropower; the
production of electrical power through the use of
the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is
the most widely used form of renewable energy,
accounting for 16 percent of global electricity
generation – 3,427 terawatt-hours of electricity
production in 2010, and is expected to increase
about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. The cost
of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a
competitive source of renewable electricity. The
average cost of electricity from a hydro plant larger
than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U.S. cents per kilowatthour. Hydro is also a flexible source of electricity
since plants can be ramped up and down very
quickly to adapt to changing energy demands.
However, damming interrupts the flow of rivers and
can harm local ecosystems, and building large dams
and reservoirs often involves displacing people and
wildlife. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed,
the project produces no direct waste, and has a
considerably lower output level of the greenhouse
gas carbon dioxide (CO2) than fossil fuel powered
Water conservation encompasses the policies,
strategies and activities to manage fresh water as a
sustainable resource to protect the water
environment and to meet current and future
human demand. . Recent studies have estimated
that water supplies are metered in less than 30%
of UK households and about 61% of urban
Canadian homes (as of 2001).Although individual
water meters have often been considered
impractical in homes with private wells or in
multifamily buildings, the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency estimates that metering alone
can reduce consumption by 20 to 40 percent Some
researchers have suggested that water
conservation efforts should be primarily directed at
farmers, in light of the fact that crop irrigation
accounts for 70% of the world's fresh water use.
A step to conserve water is the step to secure the future.
The most essential among all the natural resources on
earth is water. A drop of water is worth more than a sack
of gold for the thirsty man. If each one of us make efforts
to save water today , it will save us later. Water
conservation is the most effective and environmentally
sound method to fight global warming. Water
conservation is what that can reduce the scarcity of
water. It aims to improve the efficiency of use of water,
and reduce losses and waste.
WAYS TO CONSERVE WATER:
●Avoid leakage of water from the taps.
●Rainwater harvesting is the another method to conserve
●Promote the conservation of water through media and
●Install small shower heads to reduce the flow of water.
Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and deposition
of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer.
● Promotes both water and energy conservation .
●Filtration system required for landscape irrigation
● Home systems can be relatively simple to install and
operate and it may reduce your water bill.
●Excellent source of water for landscape irrigation, with
no chemicals such as fluoride and chlorine, and no
dissolved salts and minerals from the soil.
Watershed management is the study of the relevant
characteristics of a watershed aimed at the
sustainable distribution of its resources and the
process of creating and implementing plans,
programs, and projects to sustain and
enhance watershed functions that affect the plant
,animal, and human communities within a
watershed boundary. By having a clear
understanding of whom to speak to and how to
present the case for keeping our waterways clean a
member of the public can become an effective
watershed protection advocate.
Rajasthan’s economic growth is largely dependent on water,
more specifically on groundwater. 71% of the irrigation and
90% of the drinking water supply source is groundwater
(Rathore 2003). Presently, there is tremendous pressure to
exploit groundwater by State and private users, i.e. by those
who have access and control over this limited resource. The
surface water resources of Rajasthan are meager and the
entire state is principally dependent on groundwater for its
water needs. After independence in 1942, the Government
of India and the State Government of Rajasthan undertook
groundwater exploration, exploitation and management
programs through various central and state agencies.
These were the:
● Rajasthan Jal Vikas Nigam Ltd.
● Ground water department, government of Rajasthan.
Depth to ground water level during November 2012 ranged
from 0.02 meters below ground level (m bgl) at Haora to
23.86 m bgl in Baraddman district. Depth to water level in
the range of 0-2 m bgl In 15 % of wells analyzed, 2-5 m bgl in
51 % of wells analyzed, 5-10 m bgl in 21 % of wells analyzed
and 10-20 m bgl in 12% of wells analyzed. Only eight wells
(1%) are showing water level >20 m bgl. The comparison of
November 2012water levels with November 2011 reveals
that there is general Rise and fall in water level. About 33% of
the well analyzed have shown rise in water level. Out of this
the rise in water level for 0-2 m has been observed for 27%
of wells whereas the rise in water levels for 2-4 m and >4 m
has been observed for 4% and 2% of wells respectively. The
fall in water level is observed in 66% of the wells analyzed.
Out of this the fall in water level for 0-2 m has been observed
for 49% of wells whereas the fall in water levels for 2-4 m and
>4 m has been observed for 11% and 6 % of wells
Water is a substance which covers ¾ part of the world. It
means water is occupying more portion compared to land.
But this water is becoming more polluted because of the
environmental changes. So it is necessary to conserve the
water. It is every one duty to protect the water because
everyone uses this water and we the people are making
water polluted. Now we may get the doubt how to conserve
the water. A few simple changes in home about the water
consumption make a vast contribution to water
WAYS TO CONSERVE WATER:
● Fix dripping taps - they waste at least 5,500 litres of water
● a save-a-flush in your cistern - it will save one litre of
water per flush.
● Fit taps and shower heads with flow restrictors- this cuts
water use by half.