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  1. 1. DIVYA AGARWAL X-A B114084140014 TOPIC-WATER
  2. 2. Hard water is water that has high mineral content. Hard drinking water is generally not harmful to one's health, but can pose serious problems in industrial settings, where water hardness is monitored to avoid costly breakdowns in boilers, cooling towers, and other equipment that handles water. In domestic settings, hard water is often indicated by a lack of suds formation when soap is agitated in water, and by the formation of limescale in kettles and water heaters. Wherever water hardness is a concern, water softening is commonly used to reduce hard water's adverse effects. water softening is commonly used to reduce hard water's adverse effects. With hard water, soap solutions form a white precipitate (soap scum) instead of producing lather, because the 2+ ions destroy the surfactant properties of the soap by forming a solid precipitate (the soap scum). A major component of such scum is calcium stearate, which arises from sodium stearate, the main component of soap: 2 C17H35COO- + Ca2+ → (C17H35COO)2Ca Hardness can thus be defined as the soap-consuming capacity of a water sample, or the capacity of precipitation of soap as a characteristic property of water that prevents the lathering of soap. Synthetic detergents do not form such scums. Hard water also forms deposits that clog plumbing
  3. 3. Water softening is the removal of calcium, magnesium, and certain other metal cations in hard water. The resulting soft water is more compatible with soap and extends the lifetime of plumbing. Water softening is usually achieved using lime softening or ion-exchange resins. The slippery feeling experienced when using soap with soft water occurs because soaps tend to bind to fats in the surface layers of skin, making soap molecules difficult to remove by simple dilution. In contrast, in hard-water areas the rinse water contains calcium or magnesium ions which form insoluble salts, effectively removing the residual soap from the skin but potentially leaving a coating of insoluble stearates on tub and shower surfaces, commonly called soap scum. Which of these effects is considered more or less desirable varies from person to person, and those who dislike the sliminess and difficulty of washing off soap caused by soft water may harden the water by adding chemicals such as baking soda, calcium chloride or magnesium sulphate.
  4. 4. Recycled water, is former wastewater (sewage) that is treated to remove solids and certain impurities, and used insustainable landscaping irrigation or to recharge groundwater aquifers. The purpose of these processes is sustainability and water conservation, rather than discharging the treated water to surface waters such as rivers and oceans. In some cases, recycled water can be used for streamflow augmentation to benefit ecosystems and improve aesthetics.[1] One example of this is along Calera Creek in the City of Pacifica, CA. "The end product of wastewater reclamation that meets water quality requirements for biodegradable materials, suspended matter and pathogens."[3] In more recent conventional use, the term refers to water that is not treated as highly in order to offer a way to conserve drinking water. This water is given to uses such as agriculture and sundry industry uses.
  5. 5. Recycled water can satisfy most water demands, as long as it is adequately treated to ensure water quality appropriate for the use. WAYS TO RECYCLE WATER: 1. Initiate the appropriate recycling methods. 2 .Conserve water in your everyday routine. 3. Sanitize grey water. 4. Reclaim rainwater. 5.compare your bill before and after 6. Install a Rain Barrel 7.Use a Shower Bucket 8.Create a Rain Garden
  6. 6. Water conservation in the home... 1. Check faucets and pipes for leaks A small drip from a worn faucet washer can waste 20 gallons of water per day. Larger leaks can waste hundreds of gallons. 2. Don't use the toilet as an ashtray or wastebasket Every time you flush a cigarette butt, facial tissue or other small bit of trash, five to seven gallons of water is wasted. 3. Check your toilets for leaks Put a little food coloring in your toilet tank. If, without flushing, the color begins to appear in the bowl within 30 minutes, you have a leak that should be repaired immediately. Most replacement parts are inexpensive and easy to install. 4. Use your water meter to check for hidden water leaks Read the house water meter before and after a two-hour period when no water is being used. If the meter does not read exactly the same, there is a leak.
  7. 7. Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful. Uses of water include agricultural, industrial,household, recreat ional and environmental activities. The majority of human uses require fresh water.97 percent of the water on the Earth is salt water and only three percent is fresh water; slightly over two thirds of this is frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps.The remaining unfrozen freshwater is found mainly as groundwater, with only a small fraction present above ground or in the air.Fresh water is a renewable resource, yet the world's supply of groundwater is steadily decreasing, with depletion occurring most prominently in Asia and North America, although it is still unclear how much natural renewal balances this usage, and whether ecosystems are threatened.The framework for allocating water resources to water users (where such a framework exists) is known as water rights..
  8. 8. Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into useful forms of power - mainly electricity.Although not yet widely used, tidal power has potential for future electricity generation. Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power. Among sources of renewable energy, tidal power has traditionally suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow velocities, thus constricting its total availability. However, many recent technological developments and improvements, both in design (e.g. dynamic tidal power, tidal lagoons) and turbine technology (e.g. new axial turbines, cross flow turbines), indicate that the total availability of tidal power may be much higher than previously assumed, and that economic and environmental costs may be brought down to competitive levels. Tidal energy is a renewable energy source.
  9. 9. Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy, accounting for 16 percent of global electricity generation – 3,427 terawatt-hours of electricity production in 2010, and is expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity. The average cost of electricity from a hydro plant larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U.S. cents per kilowatthour. Hydro is also a flexible source of electricity since plants can be ramped up and down very quickly to adapt to changing energy demands. However, damming interrupts the flow of rivers and can harm local ecosystems, and building large dams and reservoirs often involves displacing people and wildlife. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, and has a considerably lower output level of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) than fossil fuel powered energy plants.
  10. 10. Water conservation encompasses the policies, strategies and activities to manage fresh water as a sustainable resource to protect the water environment and to meet current and future human demand. . Recent studies have estimated that water supplies are metered in less than 30% of UK households and about 61% of urban Canadian homes (as of 2001).Although individual water meters have often been considered impractical in homes with private wells or in multifamily buildings, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that metering alone can reduce consumption by 20 to 40 percent Some researchers have suggested that water conservation efforts should be primarily directed at farmers, in light of the fact that crop irrigation accounts for 70% of the world's fresh water use.
  11. 11. A step to conserve water is the step to secure the future. The most essential among all the natural resources on earth is water. A drop of water is worth more than a sack of gold for the thirsty man. If each one of us make efforts to save water today , it will save us later. Water conservation is the most effective and environmentally sound method to fight global warming. Water conservation is what that can reduce the scarcity of water. It aims to improve the efficiency of use of water, and reduce losses and waste. WAYS TO CONSERVE WATER: ●Avoid leakage of water from the taps. ●Rainwater harvesting is the another method to conserve water. ●Promote the conservation of water through media and wall posters. ●Install small shower heads to reduce the flow of water.
  12. 12. Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and deposition of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer. ADVANTAGES: ● Promotes both water and energy conservation . ●Filtration system required for landscape irrigation ● Home systems can be relatively simple to install and operate and it may reduce your water bill. ●Excellent source of water for landscape irrigation, with no chemicals such as fluoride and chlorine, and no dissolved salts and minerals from the soil.
  13. 13. Watershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs, and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant ,animal, and human communities within a watershed boundary. By having a clear understanding of whom to speak to and how to present the case for keeping our waterways clean a member of the public can become an effective watershed protection advocate.
  14. 14. Rajasthan’s economic growth is largely dependent on water, more specifically on groundwater. 71% of the irrigation and 90% of the drinking water supply source is groundwater (Rathore 2003). Presently, there is tremendous pressure to exploit groundwater by State and private users, i.e. by those who have access and control over this limited resource. The surface water resources of Rajasthan are meager and the entire state is principally dependent on groundwater for its water needs. After independence in 1942, the Government of India and the State Government of Rajasthan undertook groundwater exploration, exploitation and management programs through various central and state agencies. These were the: ● Rajasthan Jal Vikas Nigam Ltd. ● Ground water department, government of Rajasthan.
  15. 15. Depth to ground water level during November 2012 ranged from 0.02 meters below ground level (m bgl) at Haora to 23.86 m bgl in Baraddman district. Depth to water level in the range of 0-2 m bgl In 15 % of wells analyzed, 2-5 m bgl in 51 % of wells analyzed, 5-10 m bgl in 21 % of wells analyzed and 10-20 m bgl in 12% of wells analyzed. Only eight wells (1%) are showing water level >20 m bgl. The comparison of November 2012water levels with November 2011 reveals that there is general Rise and fall in water level. About 33% of the well analyzed have shown rise in water level. Out of this the rise in water level for 0-2 m has been observed for 27% of wells whereas the rise in water levels for 2-4 m and >4 m has been observed for 4% and 2% of wells respectively. The fall in water level is observed in 66% of the wells analyzed. Out of this the fall in water level for 0-2 m has been observed for 49% of wells whereas the fall in water levels for 2-4 m and >4 m has been observed for 11% and 6 % of wells respectively.
  16. 16. Water is a substance which covers ¾ part of the world. It means water is occupying more portion compared to land. But this water is becoming more polluted because of the environmental changes. So it is necessary to conserve the water. It is every one duty to protect the water because everyone uses this water and we the people are making water polluted. Now we may get the doubt how to conserve the water. A few simple changes in home about the water consumption make a vast contribution to water conservation. WAYS TO CONSERVE WATER: ● Fix dripping taps - they waste at least 5,500 litres of water a year. ● a save-a-flush in your cistern - it will save one litre of water per flush. ● Fit taps and shower heads with flow restrictors- this cuts water use by half.