Thermal power generation.pptx


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Thermal power generation.pptx

  1. 1. THERMAL POWER GENERATION NAME – MANISH KUMAR USN – 4NM09EE031 Department of Electrical and Electronics NMAMIT - Nitte
  2. 2. AGENDA • Need for thermal power • Introduction • History • Classification • Efficiency • Basic definitions • Advantages and disadvantages • Future prospects 9/21/2013 Dept of Electrical and Electronics 2
  3. 3. Need for thermal power…………. • Scarcity of water resources • Coal is abundant • Widely available alternate fuels • Maintenance cost is lower 9/21/2013 Dept of Electrical and Electronics 3
  4. 4. Introduction • Almost all coal, nuclear as well as many natural gas power plants are thermal. • Thermal power plants convert the energy in coal to Electricity • The energy available in the coal, is in the range of 10500 kJ/kg to 27000 kJ/kg. • In thermal power stations, mechanical power is produced by a heat engine that transforms thermal energy, often from combustion of a fuel, into rotational energy. 9/21/2013 Dept of Electrical and Electronics 4
  5. 5. HISTORY • James Watt invented first steam engine. • The very first commercial central electrical generating stations in New York and London, in 1882 also use steam engine. 9/21/2013 Dept of Electrical and Electronics 5
  6. 6. Classification By fuel • Nuclear power plants • Solar thermal • Fossil fuelled power plants By prime mover • Steam turbine • Gas turbine 9/21/2013 Dept of Electrical and Electronics 6
  7. 7. Efficiency • The electric efficiency of a conventional thermal power station produced at the plant bus bars as a percent of the heating value of the fuel consumed, is typically 33% to 48% efficient. • Efficiency of the plant is limited by the ratio of the absolute temperatures of the steam at turbine input and output • Efficiency improvements require use of higher temperature, and therefore higher pressure, steam requried. 9/21/2013 Dept of Electrical and Electronics 7
  8. 8. Basic definitions • Steam is vaporized water and can be produced at 100’C at standard atmosphere. • Steam most often refers to the visible white mist that condenses above boiling water as the hot vapor mixes with the cooler air. • A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid or air flow and converts it into useful work. 9/21/2013 Dept of Electrical and Electronics 8
  9. 9. Advantages • The fuel used is quite cheap. • Less initial cost as compared to other generating plants. • It can be installed at any place irrespective of the existence of coal. • It require less space as compared to Hydro power plants. • Cost of generation is less than that of diesel power plants. 9/21/2013 Dept of Electrical and Electronics 9
  10. 10. Disadvantages • It pollutes the atmosphere due to production of large amount of smoke and fumes. • It is costlier in running cost as compared to hydro electric plants. • A large number of circuits makes the design complex • It occupies more space 9/21/2013 Dept of Electrical and Electronics 10
  11. 11. Future Prospects • Effective use of fossil fuels and reduction in co2 emissions by improving the efficiency of thermal power generation • Accelerating the development of co2 capture and storage technology the key to realizing next-generation power generation system 9/21/2013 Dept of Electrical and Electronics 11
  12. 12. Technical References • British Electricity International (1991).Modern Power Station Practice: incorporating modern power system practice (3rd Edition (12 volume set) ed.). Pergamon. • Babcock & Wilcox Co. (2005).Steam: Its Generation and Use (41st edition ed.). • Thomas C. Elliott, Kao Chen, Robert Swanekamp (coauthors) (1997).Standard Handbook of Power plant Engineering (2nd edition ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. 9/21/2013 Dept of Electrical and Electronics 12
  13. 13. Thermal Power Plant 9/21/2013 Dept of Electrical and Electronics 13