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This was designed to enhance world history topic on China. I hope it will be useful for the teachers and students

This was designed to enhance world history topic on China. I hope it will be useful for the teachers and students

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  • 1. CRISIS IN CHINA Its politics and economy in 60s and 80s
  • 2. INTRODUCTION Its politics and economy in 60s and 80s China is the largest nation in the world in terms of population. It has witnessed many political and economic turmoil after Chairman Mao introduced Great Leap Forward Program and Cultural Revolution.
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  • 5. Chiang Kai Shek was forced to leave mainland China and was confined in the island of Formosa which is now known as Taiwan
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  • 7. INTRODUCTION Its politics and economy in 60s and 80s Mao thought that the leaders and the people in China are deviating from its revolutionary original Communist principle. He introduced these programs in order to make speedy progress to compete with the West.
  • 8. MAO AS THE FATHER OF PRC
  • 9. Mao’s Right Hand
  • 10. MAO MOVES ON Mao believed that socialism would eventually triumph over all other ideologies, and following the First Five-Year Plan based on a Soviet-style centrally controlled economy, Mao took on the ambitious project of the Great Leap Forward in 1958, beginning an unprecedented process of collectivization in rural areas..
  • 11. MAO MOVES ON Mao urged the use of communally organized iron smelters to increase steel production, pulling workers off of agricultural labor to the point that large amounts of crops rotted unharvested.
  • 12. MAO MOVES ON TO CONTINUE GREAT LEAP FORWARD Mao decided to continue to advocate these smelters despite a visit to a factory steel mill which proved to him that high quality steel could only be produced in a factory; he thought that ending the program would dampen peasant enthusiasm for his political mobilization, the Great Leap Forward.
  • 13. MAO MOVES ON TO CONTINUE GREAT LEAP FORWARD Mao decided to continue to advocate these smelters despite a visit to a factory steel mill which proved to him that high quality steel could only be produced in a factory; he thought that ending the program would dampen peasant enthusiasm for his political mobilization, the Great Leap Forward.
  • 14. EFFECT OF GREAT LEAP FORWARD Because of Mao's land reforms during the Great Leap Forward, which resulted in massive famines , thirty million perished between 1958 and 1961. By the end of 1961 the birth rate was nearly cut in half because of malnutrition. Active campaigns, including party purges and "reeducation" resulted in the imprisonment or execution of those deemed to hold views contrary to Maoist ideals.
  • 15. EFFECT OF GREAT LEAP FORWARD The implementation of Maoist thought in China may have been responsible for over 70 million excessive deaths during peacetime with the Cultural Revolution , Anti-Rightist Campaign of 1957-58, [ and the Great Leap Forward .
  • 16. EFFECT OF GREAT LEAP FORWARD Mao's failure with the Leap reduced his power in government, whose administrative duties fell to Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping .
  • 17. EFFECT OF GREAT LEAP FORWARD
    • Background of Cultural Revolution was created.
    • Mao’s Wife Jiang emerged in power.
    • Mao’s leadership was questioned
  • 18. CULTURAL REVOLUTION Red Guards terrorized the streets as many ordinary citizens were deemed counter-revolutionaries. Education and public transportation came to a nearly complete halt. Daily life involved shouting slogans and reciting Mao quotations.
  • 19. CULTURAL REVOLUTION To impose socialist orthodoxy and rid China of "old elements", and at the same time serving certain political goals, Mao began the Cultural Revolution in May 1966 . The campaign was far reaching into all aspects of Chinese life.
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  • 25. CULTURAL REVOLUTION Many prominent political leaders, including Liu and Deng, were purged and deemed "capitalist-roaders". The campaign would not come to a complete end until the death of Mao in 1976.
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  • 27. GANG OF FOUR The Gang of Four was a group of Chinese Communist Party officials who were arrested after the death of Mao Zedong and largely blamed for the events of the Chinese Cultural Revolution. The Gang of four, led by Mao Zedong, and then, after his death, Zedong's widow, Madame Mao Jiang Qing, was responsible for several purges of the Communist Party of China and an estimated 500,000 executions and imprisonments of activists and citizens.
  • 28. GANG OF FOUR After Mao Zedong died on September 9, 1976, The Gang of Four tried to seize power and continue Zedong's extreme leftist policies. However, less than a month later, the four were arrested and imprisoned. A public trial was held in 1981: Jiang Qing and Zhang Chunqiao refused to repent or show remorse for their crimes and were sentenced to death, although the sentences were later reduced to life in prison.
  • 29. GANG OF FOUR AFTER THEY WERE OVERTHROWN FROM POWER
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  • 33. DENG XIAOPING Deng XiaoPing the former paramount leader of China, was born into a Hakka family in Guang'an County in Sichuan province. Deng's ancestors could be traced back to Meixian. He was educated in France , as were many notable Asian revolutionaries (such as Ho Chi Minh , Zhou Enlai , and Pol Pot ), where he discovered Marxism-Leninism . .
  • 34. DENG XIAOPING Deng gradually emerged as the de-facto leader of China in the few years following Mao's death in 1976. Prior to Mao's death, the only governmental position he held was that of First Vice-Premier of the State Council .
  • 35. DENG XIAOPING Under Deng's direction, relations with the West improved remarkably. Deng traveled abroad and had a series of amicable meetings with western leaders, and became the first Chinese leader to visit the United States in 1979, meeting with President Carter at the White House . Shortly before this meeting, the U.S. had broken diplomatic relations with the Republic of China (Taiwan) and established them with the People's Republic of China (PRC).
  • 36. FOUR MODERNIZATIONS AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY MILLITARY
  • 37. REFORMS UNDER DENG XIAOPING Deng's reforms actually included the introduction of planned, centralized management of the macro-economy by technically proficient bureaucrats, abandoning Mao's mass campaign style of economic construction.
  • 38. REFORMS UNDER DENG XIAOPING At the local level, material incentives, rather than political appeals, were to be used to motivate the labor force, including allowing peasants to earn extra income by selling the produce of their private plots at free market.
  • 39. FOUR MODERNIZATIONS AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY MILLITARY
  • 40. REFORMS UNDER DENG XIAOPING The reforms centered on improving labor productivity as well. New material incentives and bonus systems were introduced. Rural markets selling peasants' homegrown products and the surplus products of communes were revived.
  • 41. AGRICULTURE
    • * It was decided it was the most important sector of modernization
    • Planned to increase food production 4-5% each year
    • Mechanize 85% farming
    • Household responsibility system
  • 42. INDUSTRY
    • They focused on capital construction and improvements in heavy industries.
    • The government willingly invested 54 billion Yuan into these endeavors.
    • 120 projects were to be completed, including 10 iron and steel complexes, 6 oil gas fields, 30 power stations, 8 coal mines, 9 non-ferrous metal complexes, 7 trunk railways and
    • Mechanize 85% farming5 harbors.
  • 43. Science and Technology
    • Due to 10 lost years, China was lacking in even the most basic technological expertise.
    • In March 1978, the National Scientific conference stated that they need 800, 000 professional scientific researchers.
    • They announced the invitation of 108 projects in 27 separate fields.
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