[Type text]Water ResourceAbstractIntroduction:Global Overview:While ¾ th of Earth’s surface iscovered by water, 97% of it ...
[Type text] Thermal power (or) Hydroelectric power supply In Domestic way forDrinking, WateringThe above demands ofwater...
[Type text]Navigation: Navigation is thetype of transportation of men andgoods from one place to anotherplace by means of ...
[Type text]Water conversationRain water harvesting:Urban Water Supply:Demand for water is growing inmost cities as every u...
[Type text]groundwater, or is lost byevaporation from the surface.Therefore, by improving theefficiency of water use, and ...
[Type text]Use of efficient wateringsystems such as drip irrigation andsprinklers will reduce the waterconsumption by plan...
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Water resources

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Water resources

  1. 1. [Type text]Water ResourceAbstractIntroduction:Global Overview:While ¾ th of Earth’s surface iscovered by water, 97% of it ismarine water and only 3% ofglobal water is freshwater.Most of the freshwater 77.2%are locked in ice caps andglaciers. 22.4% is distributed inthe form of ground water andonly 0.4% is surface water.Present water utilization inIndia:Irrigation constitutes the main useof water and is thus focal issue inwater resources development. Asof now, irrigation use is 84percent of total water use. This ismuch higher than the world’saverage, which is about 65percent. For advanced nations, thefigure is much lower. For example,the irrigation use of water in USAis around 33 percent. In India,therefore, the remaining 16percent of the total water useaccounts for Rural domestic andlivestock use, Municipal domesticand public use, Thermal-electricpower plants and other industrialuses.The term irrigation is defined asthe artificial method of applyingwater to crops. Irrigationincreases crop yield and theamount of land that can beproductively farmed, stabilizesproductivity, facilitates a greaterdiversity of crops, increases farmincome and employment, helpsalleviate poverty and contributesto regional development.Competing water uses: Industrialized / developedcountries tend to use morewater in their industrialproduction.CoolantManufacturing goods Other countries tend to usemore water for Agriculturaluses.
  2. 2. [Type text] Thermal power (or) Hydroelectric power supply In Domestic way forDrinking, WateringThe above demands ofwater to various sectors areexplained in the followingparagraphs.Drinking water: Adequate safedrinking water facilities should beprovided to the entire populationboth in urban and in rural areas.Irrigation and multipurposeprojects should invariably includea drinking water component,wherever there is no alternativesource of drinking water. Drinkingwater needs of human beings andanimals should be the first chargeon any available water. of water tosoil to assist in the production ofcrops.Irrigation: Irrigation is theapplication on rainfall and groundwater. In many areas of the world,the amount and timing of therainfall are not adequate to meetthe moisture requirements ofcrops. The pressure for survivaland the need for additional foodsupplies are causing the rapidexpansion of irrigation throughoutthe world.Hydropower: Hydropower is aclean, renewable and reliableenergy source that serves nationalenvironmental and energy policyobjectives. Hydropower convertskinetic energy from falling waterinto electricity without consumingmore water than is produced bynature.Ecology: The study of the factorsthat influence the distribution andabundance of species.Industrial demand of water:Industrial water consumptionconsists of a wide range of uses,including product-processing andsmall-scale equipment cooling,sanitation, and air conditioning.The presence of industries in ornear the city has great impact onwater demand. The quantity ofwater required depends on the typeof the industry. For a city withmoderate factories, a provision of20 to 25 percent of per capitaconsumption may be made for thispurpose.Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur
  3. 3. [Type text]Navigation: Navigation is thetype of transportation of men andgoods from one place to anotherplace by means of water. Thedevelopment of inland watertransport or navigation is of crucialimportance from the point ofenergy conservation as well.Population increasesconsumption of waterincreases.Continuous extracting Groundwater extract, with groundwater, polluting with surfacewater.Growing population demandmore water resources for theabove activities:Population increases demandof population water increasesWater available in the unit:This may be divided into threesources- Rain falling within the region.This may be utilized directlybefore it reaches the ground, forexample, the roof – top rain waterharvesting schemes in water scarceareas. - Surface water bodies.These static (lakes and ponds) andflowing (streams and rivers), waterbodies may be utilized forsatisfying the demand of the unit,for example by constructing damsacross rivers.- Ground water reservoirs. Thewater stored in soil and pores offractured bed rock may beextracted to meet the demand, forexample wells or tube – wells.Depletion of water:The depletion of water leads to thefollowing problems1. Afforestation2. Rain water harvesting3. Water shed managementTo overcome this problemsConversation of water(Sustainable utilization)The declining accessibility ofquality drinking water in manyparts of the world and shrinkingwater resources call for newapproaches to water resourcesmanagement. Adequate fundingis required to improve access tosafe drinking water and sewagesystems, and to switch to waterand energy saving inproduction and consumption.Recent Technology:Rain water harvesting
  4. 4. [Type text]Water conversationRain water harvesting:Urban Water Supply:Demand for water is growing inmost cities as every urban citizenrequires almost double the amountof water that a rural citizenrequires. Moreover, India israpidly urbanizing.Urban population in India hasgrown almost five times in fivedecades from 1951 (62.44 million)to 2001 (286.08). Not long ago,most of our cities were selfsufficient in meeting their waterneeds from the extensive urbanwater bodies to supply water tocitizens. Today these water bodieshave completely disappeared.Municipalities have been stretchedto their limits to find water for thegrowing urban populations.Groundwater is being extracted bythe government as well as theprivate parties.Water Conservation:Water conservation can be definedas:1. Any beneficial reduction inwater loss, use or waste as wellas the preservation of waterquality.2. A reduction in water useaccomplished byimplementation of waterconservation or waterefficiency measures; or,3. Improved water mangmentpractices that reduce or enhancethe beneficial use of water. Awater conservation measure isan action, behavioral change,device, technology, orimproved design or processimplemented to reduce waterloss, waste, or use. Waterefficiency is a tool of waterconservation. That results inmore efficient water use andthus reduces water demand.The value and cost-effectiveness of a waterefficiency measure must beevaluated in relation to itseffects on the use and cost ofother natural resources (e.g.energy or chemicals).Reducing water demandSimple techniques can be used toreduce the demand for water. Theunderlying principle is that onlypart of the rainfall or irrigationwater is taken up by plants, therest percolates into the deep
  5. 5. [Type text]groundwater, or is lost byevaporation from the surface.Therefore, by improving theefficiency of water use, and byreducing its loss due toevaporation, we can reduce waterdemand.There are numerous methods toreduce such losses and to improvesoil moisture. Some of them arelisted below.Mulching, i.e., the application oforganic or inorganic material suchas plant debris, compost, etc.,slows down the surface run-off,improves the soil moisture,reduces evaporation losses andimproves soil fertility.Soil covered by crops, slowsdown run-off and minimizesevaporation losses. Hence, fieldsshould not be left bare for longperiods of time.Ploughing helps to move the soilaround. As a consequence itretains more water therebyreducing evaporation.Shelter belts of trees and bushesalong the edge of agriculturalfields slow down the wind speedand reduce evaporation anderosion.Planting of trees, grass, andbushes breaks the force of rainand helps rainwater penetrate thesoil.Fog and dew contain substantialamounts of water that can beused directly by adapted plantspecies. Artificial surfaces such asnetting-surfaced traps orpolyethylene sheets can beexposed to fog and dew. Theresulting water can be used forcrops.Contour farming is adopted inhilly areas and in lowland areas forpaddy fields. Farmers recognizethe efficiency of contour-basedsystems for conserving soil andwater.Salt-resistant varieties of cropshave also been developedrecently. Because these grow insaline areas, overall agriculturalproductivity is increased withoutmaking additional demands onfreshwater sources. Thus, this is agood water conservation strategy.Transfer of water from surplusareas to deficit areas by inter-linking water systems throughcanals, etc.Desalination technologies suchas distillation, electro-dialysis andreverse osmosis are available.
  6. 6. [Type text]Use of efficient wateringsystems such as drip irrigation andsprinklers will reduce the waterconsumption by plants.Conclusion:Water is one of the few naturalresources that bear heavily on bothenvironmental and socioeconomicprocesses, particularly,international relations.So save the Water.

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