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Virtual reality
 

Virtual reality

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    Virtual reality Virtual reality Document Transcript

    • A PAPER PRESENTATIONONVirtual RealityP.Divya,Department of C.S.E. (IV year)Affiliated to JNTU KDJR Institute of Engineering and Technology,Gudavalli, VijayawadaKrishna (dt.), Andhra Pradesh, India.J.G.M.Jagagdeesh KumarDepartment of C.S.E. (III year)Affiliated to JNTU KDJR College of Engineering and Technology,Gudavalli, VijayawadaKrishna (dt.), Andhra Pradesh, India.Contact details:P.Divya J.G.M.Jagagdeesh KumarPh.no.9030113998 ph no: 9700234518E-mail: divya190291@gmail.com E-mail:jjagadeesh13@gmail.com
    • ABSTRACT:Virtual reality (VR) is a term that appliesto computer-simulated environments that cansimulate physical presence in places in the realworld, as well as in imaginary worlds. Most currentvirtual reality environments are primarily visualexperiences, displayed either on a computer screenor through special stereoscopic displays, but somesimulations include additional sensory information,such as sound through speakers or headphones.Some advanced; hap tic systems now includetactile information, generally known as forcefeedback, in medical and gaming applications.Furthermore, virtual reality covers remotecommunication environments which providevirtual presence of users with the concepts oftelepresence and telexistence. or a virtualartifact (VA) either through the use of standardinput devices such as a keyboard and mouse, orthrough multimodal devices such as a wired glove,the Phloem‟s, and unidirectional treadmills.I.INTRODUCTION:“Virtual Reality is a way for humans to visualize,manipulate and interact with computers andextremely complex data.”Virtual reality is oftensometimes called as Synthetic Environment,Cyberspaces Artificial Reality, SimulatorsTechnology, etc. Virtual reality is often used todescribe a wide variety of applications commonlyassociated with immersive, highly visual, 3Denvironments. The development of CAD software,graphics hardware acceleration, and head mounteddisplays, database gloves, and miniaturization havehelped popularize the notion. In the book TheMetaphysics of Virtual Reality by Michael R.Heim, seven different concepts of virtual reality areidentified: simulation, interaction, artificiality,immersion, telepresence, full-body immersion, andnetwork communication. People often identify VRwith head mounted displays and data suits.Background:Terminology and conceptsThe term "artificial reality", coined by MyronKrueger, has been in use since the 1970s; however,the origin of the term "virtual reality" can be tracedback to the French playwright, poet, actor, anddirector Anton in. In his seminal book The Theatreand Its Double (1938), Arad described theatre as"la reality virtually", a virtual reality "in whichcharacters, objects, and images take on thephantasmagoric force of alchemys visionaryinternal dramas". It has been used in The JudasMandala, a 1982 science-fiction novel by DamienBroderick, where the context of use is somewhatdifferent from that defined above. The earliest usecited by the Oxford English Dictionary is in a 1987article titled "Virtual reality ”but the article is notabout VR technology. The concept of virtual realitywas popularized in mass media by movies suchas Brainstorm and The Lawnmower Man. The VRresearch boom of the 1990s was accompanied bythe non-fiction book Virtual Reality(1991)by Howard Rheingold. The book served todemystify the subject, making it more accessible toless technical researchers and enthusiasts, with animpact similar to that which his book The VirtualCommunity had on virtual community researchlines closely related to VR. Multimedia: fromWagner to Virtual Reality, edited by RandallPacker and Ken Jordan and first published in 2001,explores the term and its history from an avant-garde perspective. Philosophical implications of theconcept of VR are systematically discussed in thebook Get Real: A Philosophical Adventure inVirtual Reality (1998) by Philip Zhai, wherein the
    • idea of VR is pushed to its logical extreme andultimate possibility. According to Zhai, virtualreality could be made to have an ontological statusequal to that of actual realityTimelineVirtual reality can trace its roots to the 1860s, when360-degree art through panoramic murals began toappear. An example of this would be BaldassarePeruzzis piece titled, Salad dell Prospective. In the1920s, vehicle simulators were introduced. MortonHailing wrote in the 1950s of an "ExperienceTheatre" that could encompass all the senses in aneffective manner, thus drawing the viewer into theonscreen activity. He built a prototype of his visiondubbed the Sensorial in 1962, along with five shortfilms to be displayed in it while engaging multiplesenses (sight, sound, smell, and touch). Predatingdigital computing, the Sensorial was a mechanicaldevice, which reportedly still functions today.Around this time, Douglas Engle art uses computerscreens as both input and output devices. In 1966,Tom Furness introduces a visual flight stimulatorfor the Air Force. In 1968, Ivan Sutherland, withthe help of his student Bob Spruill, created what iswidely considered to be the first virtual realityand augmented reality (AR) head mounteddisplay (HMD) system. It was primitive both interms of user interface and realism, and the HMDto be worn by the user was so heavy it had to besuspended from the ceiling. The graphicscomprising the virtual environment weresimple wireframe model rooms. Also notableamong the earlier hypermedia and virtual realitysystems was the Aspen Movie Map, which wascreated at MIT in 1977. The program was a crudevirtual simulation of Aspen, Colorado in whichusers could wander the streets in one of threemodes: summer, winter, and polygons.Impact:There has been an increase in interest in thepotential social impact of new technologies, suchas virtual reality. Mychilo S. Cline, in hisbook Power, Madness, and Immortality: TheFuture of Virtual Reality, argues that virtual realitywill lead to a number of important changes inhuman life and activity. He argues that: Virtual reality will be integrated into daily lifeand activity, and will be used in various humanways. Techniques will be developed to influencehuman behavior, interpersonal communication,and cognition. As we spend more and more timein virtual space, there will be a gradual"migration to virtual space", resulting inimportant changes in economics, worldview,and culture. The design of virtual environments may beused to extend basic human rights into virtualspace, to promote human freedom and well-being, and to promote social stability as wemove from one stage in socio-politicaldevelopment to the next. Virtual reality can also be used to induce bodytransfer illusions.Heritage and Archaeology:The use of VR in heritage and archaeology haspotential in museum and visitor centre applications,but its use has been tempered by the difficulty inpresenting a "quick to learn" real time experienceto numerous people at any given time. The first useof a VR presentation in a heritage application wasin 1994, when a museum visitor interpretationprovided an interactive "walk-through" of a 3D
    • reconstruction of Dudley Castle in England as itwas in 1550. This consisted of a computercontrolled laserdisc-based system designed byBritish based engineer Colin Johnson. One of thefirst users of virtual reality was Queen Elizabeth II,when she officially opened this visitor centre inJune 1994. The system was featured in aconference held by the British Museum inNovember 1994, and in the subsequent technicalpaper, Imaging the Past - Electronic Imaging andComputer Graphics in Museums and Archaeology.VR reconstructionVirtual reality enables heritage sites to be recreatedextremely accurately, so that the recreations can bepublished in various media. The original sites areoften inaccessible to the public, or may even nolonger exist. This technology can be used todevelop virtual replicas of caves, naturalenvironment, old towns, monuments, sculpturesand archaeological elements.FictionMany science fiction books and movies haveimagined characters being "trapped in virtualreality".A comprehensive and specific fictional model forvirtual reality was published in 1935 in the shortstory Pygmalions Spectacles by Stanley G.Weinbaum. In the story, the main character, DanBurke, meets an elfin professor, Albert Ludwig,who has invented a pair of goggles which enable "amovie that gives one sight and sound [...] taste,smell, and touch. You are in the story, you speak tothe shadows (characters) and they reply, andinstead of being on a screen, the story is all aboutyou, and you are in it." Other science fiction bookshave promoted the idea of virtual reality as apartial, but not total, substitution for the misery ofreality, or have touted it as a method for creatingbreathtaking virtual worlds in which one mayescape from Earth.In 1981, imagines a virtual world which is probablythe first to represent a met averse. In the story,characters interact with each other in a completeworld, where they own homes and are representedusing avatars. This type of virtual world was laterto be realized as Second Life, which was launchedin 2003."Stoke Me a Clipper", "Blue", "Beyond a Joke",and "Back in the Red".The popular .hack multimedia franchise is based ona virtual reality MMORPG dubbed "The World"The French animated series Code Lyoko is basedon the virtual world of Look and the Internet. Thevirtual world is accessed by large scanners whichuse an atomic process, and breaks down the atomsof the person inside, digitizes them, and recreatesan incarnation on Lyoko. The Sabah show VRTroopers also made use of the concept.Motion picturesSteven Lisbergers 1982 movie TRON was the firstmainstream Hollywood picture to explore the ideaof virtual reality. One year later, it would be fullyexpanded in the Natalie Wood film Brainstorm. AVR-like system used to record and play backdreams figures centrally in Wim Wenders 1991film Until the End of the World. Outside the genreof science fiction, 1994s Disclosure,starring Michael Douglas, based on the MichaelCrichton book of the same name, depicts a VRheadset being used as a navigation device for aprototype computer file system.
    • RadioIn 2009, British digital radio station BBC Radio7 broadcasted Planet B, a science-fiction drama setin a virtual world. Planet B is the largest evercommission for an original drama program me.Fine artDavid Em was the first fine artist to createnavigable virtual worlds in the 1970s. His earlywork was done on mainframes at III, JPL,and Caltech. Jeffrey Shaw explored the potential ofVR in fine arts with early works like LegibleCity (1989), Virtual Museum (1991), and GoldenCalf (1994). Canadian artist Char Davies createdimmersive VR art pieces Osmoses (1995)and Ephemera (1998). Maurice Benayouns workintroduced metaphorical, philosophical or politicalcontent, combining VR, network, generation andintelligent agents, in works like Is God Flat (1994MusicImmersive virtual musical instruments build on thetrend in electronic musical instruments to developnew ways to control sound and perform music suchas evidenced by conferences like NIME and aim torepresent musical events and sound parameters in avirtual reality in such a way that they can beperceived not only through auditory feedback, butalso visually in 3D and possibly through tactile aswell as hap tic feedback, allowing the developmentof novel interaction metaphors beyondmanipulation such as pretension.Therapeutic usesThe primary use of VR in a therapeutic role is itsapplication to various forms of exposure therapy,ranging from phobia treatments to newerapproaches to treating PTSD. A very basic VRsimulation with simple sight and sound models hasbeen shown to be invaluable in phobia treatment,like zoophobia, and acrophobia, as a step betweenbasic exposure therapy such as the use of simulacraand true exposure. A much more recent applicationis being piloted by the U.S. Navy to use a muchmore complex simulation to immerse veteranssuffering from PTSD in simulations of urbancombat settings. Much as in phobia treatment,exposure to the subject of the trauma or fear leadsto desensitization, and a significant reduction insymptoms..ImplementationTo develop a real time virtual environment, acomputer graphics library can be used as embeddedresource coupled with a common programminglanguage, such as C++, Perl, Java, or Python. Someof the most popular computergraphic libraries are OpenGL, Direct3D, Java3D,and VRML, and their use are directly influenced bythe system demands in terms of performance,program purpose, and hardware platform. The useof multithreading can also accelerate 3Dperformance and enable clustercomputing with multi-user interactivity.ManufacturingVirtual reality can serve to new product design,helping as an ancillary tool for engineering inmanufacturing processes, new product prototypes,and simulation. Among other examples, ElectronicDesign Automation, CAD, Finite ElementAnalysis, and Computer Aided Manufacturing arewidely utilized programs. The use of Stereolithography and 3D printing shows how computergraphic modeling can be applied to create physicalparts of real objects usedin naval, aerospace, and automotive industries, which can be seen, for example, in the VR laboratory.Beyond modeling assembly parts, 3D computer
    • graphics techniques are currently used in theresearch and development of medicaldevices for therapies, treatments, patientmonitoring, and early diagnoses of complexdiseases.Urban design: 3D virtual reality is becomingwidely used for urban regeneration and planningand transport projects.Advantages:Interaction with the environment,User interface,user can see and even feel the shaped surface underhis/her fingertips, Flight simulators andgames,CAD/CAE , Biomedical Engineering theprojects mentioned are ,use of virtual reality forviewing of X-RAYs and MRI„s.REFERENCES: VIRTUAL REALITY -http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/Tate.VR.html Evolution of Virtual Reality - http://www-ec.njit.edu/~gdb1498/Portfolio/CIS350TermPaper2.html History of VR -http://www.cs.jhu.edu/~cohen/VW2000/Lectures/History.color.pdf Virtual Reality – History -http://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Cyberia/VETopLevels/VR.History.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_reality ..