Brain computer interfaces
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Brain computer interfaces

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  • Brain -Computer Interface -Direct Neural Interface or Brain-Machine Interface Direct communication pathway between a brain and an external device.Research on BCIs began in the 1970s at the University of California Los Angeles

Brain computer interfaces Brain computer interfaces Presentation Transcript

  • Brain Computer Interfaces By
  • You can make it with BCI !
  • Introduction • Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a fast-growing emergent technology, in which researchers aim to build a direct channel between the human brain and the computer. • A Brain Computer Interface (BCI) is a collaboration in which a brain accepts and controls a mechanical device as a natural part of its representation of the body. • Computer-brain interfaces are designed to restore sensory function, transmit sensory information to the brain, or stimulate the brain through artificially generated electrical signals. Introduction
  • BCI Model
  • Model
  • Early work • Algorithms to reconstruct movements from motor cortex neurons, which control movement, were developed in 1970s. • The first Intra-Cortical Brain-Computer Interface was built by implanting electrodes into monkeys. • After conducting initial studies in rats during the 1990s, researchers developed Brain Computer Interfaces that decoded brain activity in monkeys and used the devices to reproduce movements in monkeys and used the devices to reproduce monkey movements in robotic arms.
  • How does it work? • Signal Acquisition • Signal Processing • Devices
  • Brain Wave Control
  • Brain Wave Control • Active – α (8 – 12 Hz): relaxed/reflecting – β (12 – 30 Hz): alert/working - Training - Misjudgment
  • Brain Wave Control • Passive – Evoked potentials
  • Data Acquisition • Invasive BCIs • Non-Invasive BCIs • Partially-Invasive BCIs • Wireless BCIs
  • Invasive BCIs • Implanted: grey matter • Signals: highest quality • Scar-tissue build-up • Target: – repairing damaged sight – providing new functionality to persons with paralysis • Artificial Vision System
  • Electrode Arrays
  • App.- Artificial Vision 4X4 16 pixels 8X8 64 pixels 12X12 144 pixels 16X16 256 pixels 32X32 1024 pixels 128X128 16384 pixels
  • Non-Invasive BCIs • poor signal resolution • power muscle implants and restore partial movement • Interfaces – EEG – MEG – MRI
  • MEG • Magnetoencephalography • Magnetic Field: 10-15T ~10-13T (Weak!!) – S.Q.U.I.D. Sensors – Shielded Room
  • Magnetic Field
  • Partially-Invasive BCIs • Implanted: skull • lower risk of forming scar-tissue in the brain • Signal quality between invasive BCIs & non- invasive BCIs
  • Wireless BCIs • More practical • Embedding multiple chips – More complicated thoughts • Transmission with RF • key requirement: keep the heat down
  • Wireless BCIs  Size: 2cm in diameter、8cm thick  Low cost  Receive Distance: 10m ~ 50m
  • Examples of BCI
  • Rats implanted with BCIs in Theodore Berger’s experiments
  • Monkey operating a robotic arm with BCIs
  • Controlling a robotic dog with BCI
  • A man operates the computer with his EEG
  • P300->300ms 頂葉
  • Applications • Control robots that function in dangerous or inhospitable situations (e.g., underwater or in extreme heat or cold). • Create a feedback loop to enhance the benefits of certain therapeutic methods. • Develop passive devices for monitoring function, such as monitoring long-term drug effects, evaluating psychological state, etc. • Monitor stages of sleep
  • Honda Asimo Control
  • Gaming Control
  • Eyes can say a lot…
  • Bionic Eye And an artificial eye can see a lot…
  • Advantages of BCI: Eventually, this technology could:allow paralyzed people to control prosthetic limbs with their mind transmit visual images to the mind of a blind person, allowing them to see transmit auditory data to the mind of a def person, allowing them to hear allow gamers to control video games with their minds allow a mute person to have their thoughts displayed and spoken by a computer Disadvantages of BCI: Research is still in beginning stages The current technology is crude Ethical issues may prevent its development Electrodes outside of the skull can detect very few electric signals from the brain Electrodes placed inside the skull create scar tissue in the brain
  • Disadvantages • Headache • Exhausting • Laziness Degenerate
  • Future • Integrate with different territory • From lab to factory • Nursing and medical treatment
  • Fiction or Future??
  • Conclusion • A potential therapeutic tool. • BCI is an advancing technology promising paradigm shift in areas like Machine Control, Human Enhancement, Virtual reality and etc. So, it’s potentially high impact technology. • Several potential applications of BCI hold promise for rehabilitation and improving performance, such as treating emotional disorders (for example, depression or anxiety), easing chronic pain, and overcoming movement disabilities due to stroke. • Will enable us to achieve singularity very soon. • Intense R&D in future to attain intuitive efficiency.
  • Thank You!