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  • 1. 2G-5G Networks: Evolution of Technologies, Standards, and Deployment Shakil Akhtar Professor, Information Technolgy Department Clayton State University Address: Dept of Information Technology 2000 Clayton State Blvd, Clayton State University Morrow, GA 30260 USA Office: +1 678-466-4444 Fax: +1 678-466-4459 Email: sakhtar@clayton.edu
  • 2. ABSTRACT using different radio accessThis article presents an overview technologies providing seamlessof the evolution of technologies, roaming and providing connectionstandards, and deployment from via always the best availablesecond to fifth generation mobile network [1]. The vision of 4Gnetworks with emphasis on current wireless/mobile systems is theand future trends in the areas of provision of broadband access,wireless networking, multimedia seamless global roaming, andtechnology, network architecture, Internet/data/voice everywhere,and network services. Related utilizing for each the mostresearch in the development of "appropriate" always bestfuture mobile systems has been connected technology [2]. Thesehighlighted. Issues of system systems are about integratingintegration, global roaming terminals, networks, andcapabilities, handoff, high speed applications to satisfy increasingmultimedia support, ad-hoc user demands ([3], [4]). 4Gnetworking, quality of service, and systems are expected to offer aphysical layer problems has been speed of over 100 Mbps inaddressed. In addition, global stationary mode and an average ofdevelopments in multimedia 20 Mbps for mobile stationsnetwork services and terminals reducing the download time ofhave been discussed. graphics and multimedia components by more than tenINTRODUCTION times compared to currently available 2 Mbps on 3G systems.The fourth and fifth generation The fifth generationwireless mobile systems, communication system iscommonly known as 4G and 5G, envisioned as the real wirelessare expected to provide global network, capable of supportingroaming across different types of wireless world wide web (wwww)wireless and mobile networks, for applications in 2010 to 2015 timeinstance from satellite to mobile frame. There are two views of 5Gnetworks and to Wireless Local systems: evolutionary andArea Networks (WLANs). 4G is revolutionary. In evolutionaryan all IP-based mobile network view the 5G (or beyond 4G)
  • 3. systems will be capable of 2G-5GNETWORKS:supporting wwww allowing a EVOLUTIONhighly flexible network such as aDynamic Adhoc Wireless Network The first generation of mobile(DAWN). In this view advanced phones was analog systems thattechnologies including intelligent emerged in the early 1980s [5].antenna and flexible modulation The second generation of digitalare keys to optimize the adhoc mobile phones appeared in 1990swireless networks. In along with the first digital mobilerevolutionary view, 5G systems networks. During the secondshould be an intelligent technology generation, the mobilecapable of interconnecting the telecommunications industryentire world without limits. An experienced exponential growth inexample application could be a terms of both subscribers androbot with built-in wireless value-added services. Secondcommunication with artificial generation networks allow limitedintelligence. The 4G system is still data support in the range of 9.6a predominantly research and kbps to 19.2 kbps. Traditionaldevelopment initiative based upon phone networks are used mainly3G, which is struggling to meet its for voice transmission, and areperformance goals. The challenges essentially circuit-switchedfor development of 4G systems networks.depend upon the evolution of 2.5G networks, such as Generaldifferent underlying technologies, Packet Radio Service (GPRS), arestandards and deployment. We an extension of 2G networks, inpresent an overall vision of the 4G that they use circuit switching forfeatures, framework, and voice and packet switching forintegration of mobile data transmission resulting in itscommunication. First we explain popularity since packet switchingthe evolutionary process from 2G utilizes bandwidth much moreto 5G in light of used technologies efficiently. In this system, eachand business demands. Next, we user’s packets compete fordiscuss the architectural available bandwidth, and users aredevelopments for 2G-5G systems, billed only for the amount of datafollowed by the discussion on transmitted.standards and services. Finally, we 3G networks were proposed toaddress the market demands and eliminate many problems faced bydiscuss the development of 2G and 2.5G networks, especiallyterminals for these systems. the low speeds and incompatible technologies such as Time
  • 4. Division Multiple Access (TDMA) choose a suitable evolutionary[5] and Code Division Multiple path. Many mobile systemAccess (CDMA) [6] in different standards for Wide Area Networkscountries. Expectations for 3G (WANs) already exists includingincluded increased bandwidth; 128 the popular ones such as UniversalKbps for mobile stations, and 2 Mobile TelecommunicationsMbps for fixed applications [7]. In Systems (UMTS), CDMA, andtheory, 3G should work over North CDMA-2000 (1X/3X). In additionAmerican as well as European and there are evolving standards forAsian wireless air interfaces. In Personal Area Networks (PANs),reality, the outlook for 3G is not such as Bluetooth wireless, and forvery certain. Part of the problem is WLANs, such as IEEE 802.11.that network providers in Europeand North America currently The current trend in mobilemaintain separate standards’ systems is to support the high bitbodies (3GPP for Europe and Asia; rate data services at the downlink3GPP2 for North America). The via High Speed Downlink Packetstandards’ bodies have not Access (HSDPA). It provides aresolved the differences in air smooth evolutionary path forinterface technologies. There is UMTS networks to higher dataalso a concern that in many rates in the same way as Enhancedcountries 3G will never be Data rates for Global Evolutiondeployed due to its cost and poor (EDGE) do in Global Systems forperformance. Although it is Mobile communication (GSM).possible that some of the HSPDA uses shared channels thatweaknesses at physical layer will allow different users to access thestill exist in 4G systems, an channel resources in packetintegration of services at the upper domain. It provides an efficientlayer is expected. means to share spectrum thatThe evolution of mobile networks provides support for high data rateis strongly influenced by business packet transport on the downlink,challenges and the direction which is well adapted to urbanmobile system industry takes. It environment and indooralso relates to the radio access applications. Initially, the peakspectrum and the control data rates of 10 Mbps may berestrictions over it that varies from achieved using HSPDA. The nextcountry to country. However, as target is to reach 30 Mbps with themajor technical advances are being help of antenna array processingstandardized it becomes more technologies followed by thecomplex for industry alone to enhancements in air interface
  • 5. design to allow even higher data (WDM) on photonic switches andrates. Another recent development routers. The evolutionary view ofis a new framework for mobile 4G systems to 5G include anetworks that is expected to support of wireless world wideprovide multimedia support ([8], web allowing a highly flexible and[9]) for IP telecommunication reconfigurable dynamic adhocservices, called as IP Multimedia networks.Subsystems (IMS) [10]. Real-timerich multimedia communication Network Architecturemixingtelecommunication and data The basic architecture of wirelessservices could happen due to IMS mobile system consists of a mobilein wireline broadband networks. phone connected to the wiredHowever, mobile carriers cannot world via a single hop wirelessoffer their customers the freedom connection to a Base Station (BS),to mix multimedia components which is responsible for carrying(text, pictures, audio, voice, video) the calls within its region calledwithin one call. Today a two party cell (Figure 1). Due to limitedvoice call cannot be extended to a coverage provided by a BS, themulti-party audio and video mobile hosts change theirconference. IMS overcomes such connecting base stations as theylimitations and makes these move from one cell to another. Ascenarios possible. hand-off (later referred to asThe future of mobile systems is “horizontal handoff” in this article)largely dependent upon the occurs when a mobile systemdevelopment and evolution of 4G changes its BS. The mobile stationsystems, multimedia networking, communicates via the BS usingand upto some extent, photonic one of the wireless frequencynetworks. It is expected that sharing technologies such asinitially the 4G mobile systems FDMA, TDMA, CDMA etc. Eachwill be used independent from BS is connected to a Mobileother technologies. With gradual Switching Center (MSC) throughgrowth of high speed data support fixed links, and each MSC isto multimegabits per second, an connected to others via Publicintegrations of services will Switched Telephone Networkhappen. In addition, developments (PSTN). The MSC is a localin photonic switching might allow switching exchange that handlesmobile communication on a switching of mobile user from onecompletely photonic network using BS to another. It also locates theWavelength Division Multiplexing current cell location of a mobile
  • 6. user via a Home Location Register progress. In 1998, a Third(HLR) that stores current location Generation Partnership Projectof each mobile that belongs to the (3GPP) was formed to unify andMSC. In addition, the MSC continue the technical specificationcontains a Visitor Locations work. Later, the Third GenerationRegister (VLR) with information Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) wasof visiting mobiles from other formed for technical developmentcells. The MSC is responsible for of CDMA-2000 technology.determining the current location of 3G mobile offers access toa target mobile using HLR, VLR broadband multimedia services,and by communicating with other which is expected to become all IPMSCs. The source MSC initiates a based in future 4G systems ([11],call setup message to MSC [12]). However, current 3Gcovering target area for this networks are not based on IP;purpose.The first generation rather they are an evolution fromcellular implementation consisted existing 2G networks. Work isof analog systems in 450-900 MHz going on to provide 3G supportfrequency range using frequency and Quality of Service (QoS) in IPshift keying for signaling and and mobility protocols. TheFrequency Division Multiple situation gets more complex whenAccess (FDMA) for spectrum we consider the WLAN researchsharing. The second generation and when we expect it to becomeimplementations consist of mobile. It is expected that WLANsTDMA/CDMA implementations will be installed in trains, trucks,with 900, 1800 MHz frequencies. and buildings. In addition, it mayThese systems are called GSM for just be formed on an ad-hoc basisEurope and IS-136 for US. The (like ad-hoc networks [13-[15])respective 2.5G implementations between random collections ofare called GPRS and CDPD devices that happen to come withinfollowed by 3G implementations. radio range of one another (Figure 2).Third generation mobile systemsare intended to provide a global In general, 4G architecturemobility with wide range of includes three basic areas ofservices including voice calls, connectivity ([16]-[19]); PANspaging, messaging, Internet and (such as Bluetooth), WANs (suchbroadband data. IMT-2000 defines as IEEE 802.11), and cellularthe standard applicable for North connectivity. Under this umbrella,America. In Europe, the equivalent 4G will provide a wide range ofUMTS standardization is in mobile devices that support global
  • 7. roaming ([20]- [23]). Each device communication between cellwill be able to interact with phones and personal computers. SoInternet-based information that once the communication pathwill be modified on the fly for the between cell and PC is established,network being used by the device care-of address will be usedat that moment (Figure 3).In 5G instead of home address thus usingmobile IP, each cell phone is the second part of IPv6 address.expected to have a permanent"home" IP address, along with a The third part (III) of IPv6 address"care-of" address that represents may be used for tunneling toits actual location. When a establish a connection betweencomputer somewhere on the wire line and wireless network. InInternet needs to communicate this case an agent (a directorywith the cell phone, it first sends a server) will use the mobile IPpacket to the phones home address to establish a channel toaddress. A directory server on the cell phones. The fourth and lasthome network forwards this to the part (IV) of IPv6 address may becare-of address via a tunnel, as in used for local address for VPNregular mobile IP. However, the sharing. Figure 4 illustrates thedirectory server also sends a concept.message to the computerinforming it of the correct care-of The goal of 4G and 5G is toaddress, so future packets can be replace the current proliferation ofsent directly. This should enable core mobile networks with a singleTCP sessions and HTTP worldwide core network standard,downloads to be maintained as based on IPv6 for control, video,users move between different packet data, and voice. This willtypes of networks. Because of the provide uniform video, voice, andmany addresses and the multiple data services to the mobile host,layers of subnetting, IPv6 is based entirely on IPv6. Theneeded for this type of mobility. objective is to offer seamlessFor instance, 128 bits (4 times multimedia services to usersmore than current 32 bit IPv4 accessing an all IP-basedaddress) may be divided into four infrastructure throughparts (I thru IV) for supporting heterogeneous access technologies.different functions. The first 32-bit IPv6 is assumed to act as anpart (I) may be defined as the adhesive for providing globalhome address of a device while the connectivity and mobility amongsecond part (II) may be declared as networks. Most of the wirelessthe care-of address allowing companies are looking forward to
  • 8. IPv6, because they will be able to given by other internationalintroduce new services. The organizations such as Institute ofJapanese government is requiring Electrical and Electronicsall of Japans ISPs to support IPv6 Engineers (IEEE) and Internetwith its first 4G launch. Although Engineering Taskforce (IETF).the US upgrade to IPv6 is less Among other organizations, theadvanced, WLAN’s advancement most well known aremay provide a shortcut to 4G. Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in US, European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI), China WirelessStandards Telecommunications Standards Group (CWTS), Japan’sThe role of standards is to Association of Radio Industriesfacilitate interconnections between and Businesses(ARIB) anddifferent types of Telecommunications Technologytelecommunication networks, Committee (TTC), and Korea’sprovide interoperability over Telecommunication Technologynetwork and terminal interfaces, Association (TTA).and enable free movement andtrade of equipment. There are The ITU began its studies onstandard bodies in different global personal communications incountries that develop 1985, resulting in a systemtelecommunications standards referred to as International Mobilebased upon the government Telecommunications for the yearregulations, business trends and 2000 (IMT-2000). Later, ITUpublic demands. In addition, Radio Communications Sectorinternational standard (ITU-R) and ITU-organizations provide global Telecommunications (ITU-T)standardizations. In groups were formed for radiotelecommunications area, communications andInternational Telecommunications telecommunications standards,Union (ITU) and International respectively. In Europe, theStandards Organization (ISO) have concepts of Universal Mobilebeen recognized as major Telecommunications Systeminternational standards developer. (UMTS) have been the subject ofMany popular telecommunications extensive research. In 1990, ETSIand networking standards are established an ad hoc group for
  • 9. UMTS that focused on the critical frequency without interference topoints to be studied for systems the same receiver. Other widelysuitable for mobile users Since used multiple access techniques1998, ETSI’s standardization of are TDMA and FDMA mostlythe 3G mobile system has been associated with 3G and previouscarried out in the 3G Partnership systems. In these three schemesProject (3GPP) that focuses on the (CDMA, TDMA, FDMA),GSM-UMTS migration path. The receivers discriminate among3GPP2 is an effort headed by various signals by the use ofANSI for evolved IS-41 networks different codes, time slots andand related radio transmission frequency channels, respectively.technique.The standard Digital cellular systems is anorganizations propose the mobile extension of IS-95 standard and issystem standards that change as the first CDMA-based digitalnew technologies emerge, and the cellular standard pioneered byregulations and market demand Qualcomm. The brand name forchange. The changing features and IS-95 is cdmaOne. It is now beingused technologies from first to replaced by IS-2000 and is alsofifth generation mobile systems are known as CDMA-2000, which is asummarized in Table 1. It is 3G mobile telecommunicationsnoticeable that the fifth generation standard from ITU’s IMT-2000.system not only provides a CDMA-2000 is considered anhorizontal handoff like the incompatible competitor of theprevious systems but also provide other major 3G standarda vertical handoff. While a global WCDMA. Due to its importance inroaming may be provided by future systems, let’s now examinesatellite systems, a regional the different CDMA standardsroaming by 5G cellular systems, a currently available. CDMA-2000local area roaming by WLANs, 1x, also known as CDMA-2000and a personal area roaming by 1xMC (Multi-Carrier), is the corewireless PANs, it will also be 3G CDMA-2000 technology. Thepossible to roam vertically designation Multi-Carrier refers tobetween these systems as well as the possibility of using up to threesupport wwww services. One separate 1.25 MHz carriers fortechnology (or its variation) that is data transmission, and is used toexpected to remain in future distinguish this from WCDMA.mobile system is CDMA, which is WCDMA is the widebanda use of spread spectrum technique implementation of the CDMAby multiple transmitters to send multiplexing scheme, which is asignals simultaneously on the same 3G mobile communications
  • 10. standard tied with the GSM directly a function of availablestandard. WCDMA is the data rates. The key differencetechnology behind UMTS. between the 2G and 3G is the dataCDMA-2000 1xRTT (Radio rate support enabling the later toTransmission Technology) is the provide interactive videobasic layer of CDMA-2000, which communication, among othersupports up to 144 Kbps packet services. A type of service thatdata speeds. 1xRTT is considered gained popularity in 2G systems ismostly 2.5G technology, which is the messaging service known asused to describe systems that Short Messaging Services (SMS),provide faster services than 2G, which is a text messaging servicebut not quite as fast or advanced as for 2G and later mobile phones.newer 3G systems. CDMA-2000 The messages in SMS cannot be1xEV (Evolution) is CDMA-2000 longer than about 160 characters.1x with High Data Rate (HDR) An enhanced version of SMScapability added. 1xEV is known as Enhanced Messagingcommonly separated into two Service (EMS) supports the abilityphases, CDMA-2000 1xEV-DO to send pictures, sounds andand CDMA-2000 1xEV-DV. animations. A newer type ofCDMA2000 1xEV-DO messaging service, Multimedia(Evolution-Data Only) supports Messaging Service (MMS), isdata rates up to 2.4 Mbps. It is likely to be very popular for 3Ggenerally deployed separately from systems and beyond. MMSvoice networks in its own provides its users the ability tospectrum. CDMA2000 1xEV-DV send and receive messages(Evolution-Data and Voice), consisting of multimedia elementssupports circuit and packet data from person to person as well asrates up to 5 Mbps. It fully Internet, and serves as the emailintegrates with 1xRTT voice client. MMS uses Wirelessnetworks. CDMA-2000 3x uses Application Protocol (WAP)three separate 1.25 MHz carriers. technology and is powered by theThis provides three times the well-known technologies, EDGE,capacity but also requires three GPRS and UTMS (usingtimes more bandwidth. WCDMA). The messages may include any combination of text,Network Services graphics, photographic images, speech and music clips or videoUsers relate to different systems clips The most exciting extensionwith the help of available of messaging services in MMS is aapplications and services that are video message capability. For
  • 11. instance, a short 30 seconds video standard for applications that useclip may be shot at a location, wireless communication on mobileedited with appropriate audio phones. The primary language ofbeing added and transmitted with WAP specification is Wirelessease using the mobile keys on the Markup Language (WML), whichcellular phones. In addition, by is the primary content based onusing Synchronized Multimedia XML (A general purpose markupIntegration Language (SMIL), language to encode text includingsmall presentations can be made the details about its structure andthat incorporate audio and video appearance). The original intent inalong with still images, animations WAP was to provide mobileand text to assemble full replacement of World Wide Web.multimedia presentation by using a However, due to performancemedia editor. With MMS, a new limitations and costs it did nottype of service Interfacing become quite popular as originallyMultimedia Messaging Services expected. Although WAP never(IMMS) is expected to emerge that became popular, a popular WAP-integrates MMS and Mobile like service called i-mode hasInstant Messaging (MIM) allowing recently been developed in Japanthe users to send messages in their that allows web browsing andMIM buddy list. This will bring several other well designedfull integration of state-of-the art services for the mobile phones. i-mobile messaging services mode is based upon Compactincluding MIM, MMS and chat HTML (C-HTML) as an alternateinto all types of mobile devices. to WML, and is compatible withA new term, “Mobile Decision HTML allowing the C-HTML webSupport (MDS)” has been coined sites to be viewed and edited usingrecently for a unique set of standard web browsers and tools.services and applications that willprovide instant access to Terminalsinformation in support of real-time A mobile phone system is used asbusiness and personal activities for a basic terminal forvehicle based 3G systems. Some communication. Also called aexample services are navigation, wireless phone, handset, cellularemergency services, remote mobile or cell phone, is a mobilemonitoring, business finder, email, communications system that uses aand voicemail. It is expected that combination of radio waveMDS based services will generate transmission and conventionala huge non-voice traffic over the telephone switching to permitnet. WAP is an open international telephone communication to and
  • 12. from mobile users within a concepts. The newer smartphonesspecified area. A 2.5G/3G terminal are expected to have themay consist of a mobile phone, a functionalities of a Pocket PC withcomputer/laptop, a television, a features such as Pocket Outlook,pager, a videoconferencing center, Pocket Internet Explorer,a newspaper, a diary or even a Windows Media Player and MSNcredit card. Often these terminals Messenger. These newer servicesmay require a compatible 3G card will obviously make theand specialized hardware to communication in fourthprovide the desired functionality. generation systems much easier.The terminal design considerations However, the biggest challengeare influenced by the potential remains the integration andapplications and bandwidth convergence of the technologies atrequirements. However, there are the lower layers.standards for mobile stationsspecifications as well, for instance CONCLUSIONin IMT-2000. The actual mobile The current and future trends indesign varies based mainly upon mobile systems is considered thatthe multiple available standards, includes the evolutionary pathspeeds, displays, and operating starting from first generationsystems. There are numerous smart mobile phone systems and isphone operating systems tailored continuing to the development ofto specific products by well-known 5th generation systems. Evolutioncompanies such as Palm, Nokia, in network design, architecture,Sony, Ericsson, Siemens, Alcatel, standards, services, and terminalsMotorola, Samsung, Sanyo, are discussed.Panasonic, Mitsubishi, LG, Sharp,Casio, NEC, NTT DoCoMo,KDDI etc. The key capability in REFERENCESmost of the supported products [1] T. Zahariadis, and D. Kazakos,being the camera, video clips, “(R)Evolution Toward 4Gkeyboards, touchscreen, voice Mobile Communicationrecognition, WiFi (IEEE 802.11b Systems,” IEEE WirelessWLAN), and bluetooth wireless. Communications, Volume 10, Issue 4, August 2003.The future trends in wireless [2] E. Gustafsson and A. Jonsson,terminals include the influences of "Always Best Connected," IEEEnew technology such as software Wireless Communications, pp.49-radio, wireless socket (WiFi), 55, Feb. 2003.portability, and new design/display
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