Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Cartels ppt
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Cartels ppt

  • 1,672 views
Published

Cartel economy the best ppt slide you can download & present.

Cartel economy the best ppt slide you can download & present.

Published in Education , Business
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,672
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
111
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • SmartArt custom animation effects: horizontal organization chart(Intermediate)Tip: The instructions below describe how to reproduce the exact organization chart and animation effects in the example above. In the animation procedures, the number of animation effects that require modification in the Custom Animation task pane will vary if the chart contains a different number of managers and employees.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then clickBlank. On the Design tab, in the Background group, click BackgroundStyles, and then click Style 8 (second row, fourth option from the left). (Note: If this action is taken in a PowerPoint presentation containing more than one slide, the background style will be applied to all of the slides.)To insert and arrange the SmartArt effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click SmartArt. In the Choose a SmartArt Graphic dialog box, in the left pane, click Hierarchy. In the Hierarchy pane, click Horizontal Labeled Hierarchy (second row, second option from the left), and then click OK to insert the graphic into the slide.Select the graphic, and then click one of the arrows on the left border. In the Type your text here dialog box, next to the first first-level bullet, enter DIRECTOR (or the name of the director). Next to the bullets for the second-level rectangles, enter MANAGER 1 and MANAGER 2 (or the names of the managers). Also in the Typeyourtext here dialog box, do the following:In the second first-level bullet, enter LEVEL 1.In the third first-level bullet, enter LEVEL 2.In the fourth first-level bullet, enter LEVEL 3.On the slide, do the following to add employee rectangles:Right-click the MANAGER 1 rectangle, point to Add Shape, and then click Add Shape Below. Right-click the MANAGER 2 rectangle, point to Add Shape, and then click Add Shape Below.Select the graphic, and then click one of the arrows on the left border. In the Type your text here dialog box, next to each of the five third-level bullets, enter EMPLOYEE (or the names of the employees).Select the graphic. Under SmartArt Tools, on the Format tab, click Size, and then do the following:In the Height box, enter6.82”.In the Width box, enter 9.3”. Under SmartArt Tools, on the Format tab, click Arrange, click Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Bottom. Click Align Center. Press and hold SHIFT, and then select all of the rectangles in the graphic. Under SmartArtTools, on the Format tab, in the Shapes group, click ChangeShape, and then under Rectangles click SnipDiagonalCornerRectangle (fifth option from the left).Press and hold SHIFT, and then select all three large level rectangles in the graphic. On the LEVEL 1 rectangle, on the middle of the left edge, drag the blue square adjustment handle slightly to the left to increase the width of all three rectangles. Press and hold SHIFT, and then select all of the director, manager, and employee rectangles. On the director rectangle, on the middle of the left edge, drag the blue square adjustment handle slightly to the left to increase the width of all the selected rectangles. If you would like to modify the number of directors, managers, and employees in the chart to match the structure of your organization, do one or more of the following: To add a rectangle within a particular level, right-click one of the rectangles in that level, point to Add Shape, and then click Add Shape After or Add Shape Before. To add a rectangle above another rectangle, right-click the lower-level rectangle, point to Add Shape, and then click Add Shape Above. To add a rectangle below another rectangle, right-click the higher-level rectangle, point to Add Shape, and then click Add Shape Below. To delete a rectangle, select the rectangle and then press DELETE.To add text to new rectangles, select the graphic, and then click one of the arrows on the left border. In the Type your text here dialog box, enter text. To reproduce the LEVEL 1 rectangle effects on this slide, do the following:On the slide, select the LEVEL 1 rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Font group, enter 24 in the Font Size box, click Character Spacing and then click Loose, and then click the arrow next to Font Color and click Blue, Accent 1, Lighter 40% (fourth row, fifth option from the left).On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the FormatShape dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click LinearDown (first row, second option from the left).Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left). Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors clickBlack, Background 1(first row, first option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 100%.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, select Gradient line in the LineColor pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click LinearDown (first row, second option from the left).Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list. Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Blue, Accent 1, Lighter 40% (fourth row, fifth option from the left). Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors clickBlack, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 100%.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineStyle in the left pane. In the LineStyle pane, in the Width box, enter 1.5pt.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click TextBox in the left pane, and then do the following in the TextBox pane:Under Textlayout, in the Verticalalignment list, select Top. Under Internalmargin, in the Left box, enter 0.19”.Under Internalmargin, in the Top box, enter 0.4”.Under Internalmargin, in the Right box, enter 0.19”.Under Internalmargin, in the Bottom box, enter 0.19”.To reproduce the LEVEL 2 rectangle effects on this slide, do the following:On the slide, select the LEVEL 2 rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Font group, enter 24 in the Font Size box, click Character Spacing and then click Loose, and then click the arrow next to Font Color and click Purple, Accent 4, Lighter 40% (fourth row, eighth option from the left).On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the FormatShape dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click LinearDown (first row, second option from the left).Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left). Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors clickBlack, Background 1(first row, first option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 100%.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, select Gradient line in the LineColor pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click LinearDown (first row, second option from the left).Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list. Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Purple, Accent 4, Lighter 40% (fourth row, eighth option from the left). Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors clickBlack, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 100%.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineStyle in the left pane. In the LineStyle pane, in the Width box, enter 1.5pt.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click TextBox in the left pane, and then do the following in the TextBox pane:Under Textlayout, in the Verticalalignment list, select Top. Under Internalmargin, in the Left box, enter 0.19”.Under Internalmargin, in the Top box, enter 0.4”.Under Internalmargin, in the Right box, enter 0.19”.Under Internalmargin, in the Bottom box, enter 0.19”.To reproduce the LEVEL 3 rectangle effects on this slide, do the following:On the slide, select the LEVEL 3 rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Font group, enter 24 in the Font Size box, click Character Spacing and then click Loose, and then click the arrow next to Font Color and click Olive Green, Accent 3, Lighter 40% (fourth row, seventh option from the left).On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click the FormatShape Dialog Box Launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then clickLinearDown (first row, second option from the left).Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left). Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors clickBlack, Background 1(first row, first option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 100%.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane, select Gradient line in the LineColor pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click LinearDown (first row, second option from the left).Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list. Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Olive Green, Accent 3, Lighter 40% (fourth row, seventh option from the left). Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors clickBlack, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 100%.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineStyle in the left pane. In the LineStyle pane, in the Width box, enter 1.5pt.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click TextBox in the left pane, and then do the following in the TextBox pane:Under Textlayout, in the Verticalalignment list, select Top. Under Internalmargin, in the Left box, enter 0.19”.Under Internalmargin, in the Top box, enter 0.4”.Under Internalmargin, in the Right box, enter 0.19”.Under Internalmargin, in the Bottom box, enter 0.19”.To reproduce the director rectangle effects on this slide, do the following:On the slide, select the director rectangle. Press the RIGHT ARROW key as needed to move the rectangle slightly off the right edge of the LEVEL 1 rectangle.On the Home tab, in the Font group, enter 23 in the FontSize box, and then click TextShadow. On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the FormatShape dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, in the left pane, click Fill, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click LinearDown (first row, second option from the left).Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list. Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Blue, Accent 1, Lighter 40% (fourth row, fifth option from the left). Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors clickBlue , Accent 1, Darker 25% (fifth row, fifth option from the left). Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane. In the LineColor pane, select Solidline, click the button next to Color, and then click Blue, Accent 1, Darker 25% (fifth row, fifth option from the left). Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineStyle in the left pane. In the LineStyle pane, in the Width box, enter 1 pt.Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Shadow in the left pane. In the Shadow pane, click the button next to Presets, and then under Outer click OffsetCenter (second row, second option from the left).To reproduce the manager rectangle effects on this slide, do the following:Press and hold SHIFT, and then select the manager rectangles. Press the RIGHT ARROW key as needed to move the manager rectangles slightly off the right edge of the LEVEL 2 rectangle.On the Home tab, in the Font group, enter 23 pt in the FontSize box, and then click TextShadow. On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the FormatShape dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, in the left pane, click Fill, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click LinearDown (first row, second option from the left).Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list. Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Purple, Accent 4, Lighter 40% (fourth row, eighth option from the left). Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors clickPurple , Accent 4, Darker 25% (fifth row, eighth option from the left). Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane. In the LineColor pane, select Solidline, click the button next to Color, and then clickPurple, Accent 4, Darker 25% (fifth row, eighth option from the left).Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineStyle in the left pane. In the LineStyle pane, in the Width box, enter 1 pt. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Shadow in the left pane. In the Shadow pane, click the button next to Presets , and then under Outer click OffsetCenter (second row, second option from the left). To reproduce the employee rectangle effects on this slide, do the following:Press and hold SHIFT, and then select the employee rectangles. Press the RIGHT ARROW key as needed to move the employee rectangles slightly off the right edge of the LEVEL 3 rectangle.On the Home tab, in the Font group, enter 23 pt in the FontSize box, and then click TextShadow. On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the FormatShape dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, in the left pane, click Fill, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click LinearDown (first row, second option from the left).Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list. Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Olive Green, Accent 3, Lighter 40% (fourth row, seventh option from the left). Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors clickOlive Green, Accent 3, Darker 25% (fifth row, seventh option from the left). Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineColor in the left pane. In the LineColor pane, select Solidline, click the button next to Color, and then clickPurple, Accent 4, Darker 25% (fifth row, eighth option from the left).Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineStyle in the left pane. In the LineStyle pane, in the Width box, enter 1 pt. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click Shadow in the left pane. In the Shadow pane, click the button next to Presets , and then under Outer click OffsetCenter (second row, second option from the left). To vertically position the director, manager, and employee rectangles on the slide, do the following:Press and hold SHIFT, and then select the top three employee rectangles. Press the UP ARROW key as needed to move the rectangles up, just below the Level 3 text box.Select the MANAGER 1 rectangle. Press the UP ARROW key as needed to move this rectangle up slightly, to realign the connecting lines to the top three employee rectangles. Select the director rectangle. Press the UP ARROW key as needed to move this rectangle up slightly, to realign the connecting lines to the manager rectangles. To reproduce the line effects on this slide, do the following:Press and hold SHIFT, and then select all of the connecting lines. On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of theDrawing group, click the FormatShape dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, in the left pane, click LineColor, select Solid line in the LineColor pane, and then do the following:Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors clickWhite, Text 1 (first row, second option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 80%. Also in the FormatShape dialog box, click LineStyle in the left pane. In the LineStyle pane, do the following:In the Width box, enter 2.5 pt.In the Dashtype list select RoundDot (second option from the top).To reproduce the animation effects for the rectangles on this slide, do the following:On the Animations tab, in the Animations group, click CustomAnimation.On the slide, select the graphic. In the CustomAnimationtask pane, do the following:Click the arrow next to AddEffect, point to Entrance, and then click MoreEffects. In the AddEntranceEffect dialog box, under Moderate, click Descend.Under Modify: Descend, in the Speed list, select Fast. Also in the Custom Animation task pane, select the animation effect (descend effect). Click the arrow to the right of the effect, and then click EffectOptions. In the Descend dialog box, on the SmartArtAnimation tab, in the Group graphic list, select By level one by one. Also in the Custom Animation task pane, click the double arrow under the animation effect to expand the contents of the list of effects, and then do the following:Press and hold CTRL, and then select the first four animationeffects (descend effects). Under Modify: Descend, in the Start list, select WithPrevious.Select the first animation effect. Click the arrow to the right of the effect, and then click Timing. In the Descend dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 2.Select the second animation effect. ClickChange, point to Entrance, and then click MoreEffects. In the ChangeEntranceEffect dialog box, under Moderate, click RiseUp.Select the third animation effect, and then do the following: Click Change, point to Entrance, and then click MoreEffects. In the ChangeEntranceEffect dialog box, under Moderate,click RiseUp.Click the arrow to the right of the effect (rise up entrance effect), and then click Timing. In the RiseUp dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 0.5.Select the fourth animation effect, and then do the following:Click Change, point to Entrance, and then click MoreEffects. In the ChangeEntranceEffect dialog box, under Moderate, click RiseUp.Click the arrow to the right of the effect, and then click Timing. In the RiseUp dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 1. To reproduce the animation effects for the connecting lines on this slide, do the following:Press and hold CTRL, and then select the fifth and ninth animation effects (descend entrance effects) in the Custom Animation task pane. Click Change, point to Entrance, and then click MoreEffects. In the ChangeEntranceEffect dialog box, under Basic, click Wipe. Under Modify: Wipe, do the following:In the Start list, select OnClick. In the Direction list, select FromLeft.In the Speed list, select Fast.Press and hold CTRL, and then select the seventh and 11th animation effects (descend entrance effects). Click Change, point to Entrance, and then click MoreEffects. In the ChangeEntranceEffect dialog box, under Basic, click Wipe. Under Modify: Wipe, do the following:In the Start list, select With Previous.In the Direction list, select FromLeft.In the Speed list, select Fast.With the seventh and 11th animation effects still selected, click the arrow to the right of the eleventh effect (wipe entrance effect), and then click Timing. In the Wipe dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 0.5.Select the eighth animation effect (descend entrance effect). Click the arrow to the right of the effect, and then click Timing. In the Descend dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 0.5. Press and hold CTRL, and then select the 13th, 15th, and 17th animation effects (descend entrance effects). Click Change, point to Entrance, and then click MoreEffects. In the ChangeEntranceEffects dialog box, under Basic, click Wipe. Under Modify: Wipe, do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Direction list, select FromLeft.In the Speed list, select Fast.Select the 13th animation effect (wipe entrance effect). Click the arrow to the right of the effect, and then click Timing. In the Wipe dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 1. Select the 15th animation effect (wipe entrance effect). Click the arrow to the right of the effect, and then click Timing. In the Wipe dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 1.5. Select the 17th animation effect (wipe entrance effect). Click the arrow to the right of the effect and select Timing. In the Wipe dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box enter 2 seconds. Select the 12th, 14th, 16th, and 18th animation effects (descend entrance effects). Under Modify: Descend, in the Start list, select WithPrevious.
  • Custom animation effects: fly-in and shrink lines, stretch rectangles(Intermediate)To reproduce the first vertical line on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Lines click Line. On the slide, press and hold SHIFT, and then drag to draw a straight, vertical line.UnderDrawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, in the Shape Width box, enter 4.5”.On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Line Color pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click Linear Right (first row, fourth option from the left).In the Angle box, enter 0°.Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until three stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, select More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 148, Green: 172, and Blue: 208.In the Transparency box, enter 100%.Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 50%.Click the button next to Color, select More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 148, Green: 172, and Blue: 208.In the Transparency box, enter 0%.Select Stop 3 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 99%.Click the button next to Color, select More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 148, Green: 172, and Blue: 208.In the Transparency box, enter 100%.Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Style in the left pane. In the Line Style pane, in the Width box, enter 6 pt.To reproduce the first rectangle on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle (first option from the left). On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, do the following:In the ShapeHeight box, enter 2”.In the ShapeWidth box, enter 2”.Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the ShapeStyles group, click the FormatShape dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click Linear Up (second row, second option from the left).In the Angle box, enter 270°.Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until three stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 44, Green: 93, and Blue: 152.In the Transparency box, enter 0%.Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 80%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 60, Green: 123, Blue: 199.In the Transparency box, enter 0%.Select Stop 3 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 58, Green: 124, Blue: 203.In the Transparency box, enter 0%.Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane. In the Line Color pane, select No line. Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click 3-D Format in the left pane, and in the 3-D Format pane, do the following:Under Bevel, click the button next to Top, and then under Bevel click Circle (first row, first option from the left). Next to Top, in the Width box, enter 5 pt, and in the Height box, enter 2 pt.Under Surface, in the Angle box, enter 20°.On the slide, right-click the rectangle and then click Edit Text.Enter text in the text box and select the text. On the Home tab, in the Font group, do the following:In the Font list, select Calibri.In the Font Size list, select 32.Click the button next to Font Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).On the slide, press and hold CTRL, and then select the line and the rectangle.On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align Selected Objects.Click Align Left.With the line and rectangle still selected, drag them to the left side of the slide. To reproduce the animation effects for the first vertical line and rectangle on this slide, do the following:On the Animations tab, in the Animations group, click CustomAnimation. On the slide, select the line. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to Entrance, and then click MoreEffects. In the AddEntranceEffect dialog box, under Basic, click FlyIn.Select the first animation effect (fly-in effect for the line), and then under Modify: Fly In,do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Direction list, select FromTop.In the Speed list, select Fast.On the slide, select the line. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to Emphasis, and then click MoreEffects. In the AddEmphasisEffect dialog box, under Basic, click Grow/Shrink.Select the second animation effect (grow/shrink effect for the line). Click the arrow to the right of the effect, and then click Effect Options. In the Grow/Shrink dialog box, do the following:On the Effect tab, do the following:In the Size list, select Tiny. Also in the Size list, select Vertical.On the Timing tab, do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Delay box, enter 0.5.In the Speed list, select 1 seconds (Fast).On the slide, select the rectangle. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to Entrance, and then click MoreEffects. In the AddEntranceEffect dialog box, under Moderate, click Stretch.Select the third animation effect (stretch effect for the rectangle), and then under Modify: Stretch,do the following:In the Start list, select AfterPrevious.In the Direction list, select FromLeft.In the Speed list, select Fast.To reproduce the other shapes with animation effects on this slide, do the following:On the slide, press and hold CTRL, and then select the rectangle and the line. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow under Paste, and then click Duplicate. On the slide, drag the second line and rectangle to the center of the slide. With the second line and rectangle still selected, on the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow under Paste, and then click Duplicate. On the slide, drag the third line and rectangle to the right side of the slide. On the slide, press CTRL+A to select all the objects. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Middle. Click the text in each of the duplicate rectangles, and then edit the text.On the slide, select the second (middle) line. On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Line Color pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click Linear Right (first row, fourth option from the left).In the Angle box, enter 0°.Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until three stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, select More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 154, Green: 181, Blue: 228.In the Transparency box, enter 100%.Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 50%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1, Darker 25% (fourth row, first option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 0%.Select Stop 3 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 99%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1, Darker 25% (fourth row, first option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 100%.On the slide, select the second (middle) rectangle. On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click Linear Up (second row, second option from the left).In the Angle box, enter 270°.Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until three stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 118, Green: 149, Blue: 53.Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 80%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 115, Green: 195, Blue: 72.Select Stop 3 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 156, Green: 199, Blue: 70.On the slide, select the third (right) line. On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Line Color pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click Linear Right (first row, fourth option from the left).In the Angle box, enter 0°.Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until three stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then underTheme Colorsclick Aqua, Accent 5, Lighter 40% (fourth row, ninth option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 100%.Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 50%.Click the button next to Color, and then underTheme Colorsclick Aqua, Accent 5, Lighter 40% (fourth row, ninth option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 0%.Select Stop 3 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 99%.Click the button next to Color, and then underTheme Colorsclick Aqua, Accent 5, Lighter 40% (fourth row, ninth option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 100%.On the slide, select the third (right) rectangle. On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click Linear Up (second row, second option from the left).In the Angle box, enter 270°.Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until three stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, select More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 39, Green: 135, Blue: 160.Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 80%.Click the button next to Color, select More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 54, Green: 177, Blue: 210.Select Stop 3 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, select More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 52, Green: 179, Blue: 214.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:Right-click the slide background area, and then click Format Background. In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Radial.Click the button next to Direction, and then click From Center (third option from the left).Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until three stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 33%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 67%.Click the button next to Color, select More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 228, Green: 233, Blue: 236.Select Stop 3 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, select More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 178, Green: 186, Blue: 210.
  • Detecting cartels in industry is a challenging task
  • In September, 1996, American Natural Soda Ash Corporation (ANSAC) comprising of six American producers of soda ash attempted to ship a consignment of soda ash at cartelize price to India. Based on the ANSAC membership agreement, the MRTP Commission held it as a prima facie cartelCartelization in the bidding process of RailwaysCartelization in the Cement Industry in India

Transcript

  • 1. ECONOMIC OF GLOBAL TRADE & FINANCE Economic of Integation- Cartel. M-com- 1 By Mangesh Barhate Roll No: 25
  • 2. 2
  • 3. CONTENT  What is Cartel?  Facts of Cartels.  Definition.  Type of Cartels.  Cartel success.  Why cartel often fail.  Detecting cheat.  OPEC  American anti-trust law.  Cartels in India.  Conclusion.
  • 4. WHAT IS CARTEL ? A Cartel is formal “agreement’’ among competing firms. It is a formal organization of producers and manufacturers that agree to fix prices, marketing, and production. Cartels usually occur in an oligopolistic industry. A group of parties, factions, or nations united in a common cause; a bloc.
  • 5. Firms form a cartel so that they can raise Profits 9-Oct-13 5
  • 6. FACTS OF CARTELS  The name is derived from Edmund Cartel and Georges Cartel. The aim of such collusion is to increase individual members' profits by reducing competition. Cartels usually occur in an Oligopolistic Industry .Cartel members may agree on matters as Price Fixing Total Industry Output , Market Shares, Allocation Of Customers
  • 7. ' A cartel is a collection of businesses or countries that act together as a single producer and agree to influence prices for certain goods and services by controlling production and marketing. A cartel has less command over an industry than a monopoly - a situation where a single group or company owns all or nearly all of a given product or service's market Definition of 'Cartel'
  • 8. CARTEL PUBLIC CARTEL DEPRESSION CARTEL CRISIS CARTEL PRIVATE CARTEL Types of cartel 9-Oct-13 8
  • 9. Conditions for cartel success 9-Oct-13 9 Cheating can be detected and prevented Low expectation of severe government punishment Low organizational costs Cartel controls market
  • 10. They earn greater profit by coordinating their activities rather than acting independently 9-Oct-13 10
  • 11. firms don't cooperate due to a lack of trust Firms “cheat” Produce extra output (or lower the price) Why Cartels often fail ? 9-Oct-13 11
  • 12. Detecting Cartels Detecting Cartels Structural Methodology Behavioral Methodology 9-Oct-13 12
  • 13. Structural Methodology Number of Firms Concentration and Firms Size Demand Variability Capacity Utilization Cost/Expense to Sales Ratio Entry Barriers 9-Oct-13 13
  • 14. Examples Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Sa udi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. Cartel of twelve countries Mechanism for implementing production restrictions. Incentives to cheat Enforcement requires detection and effective penalties. 9-Oct-13 14  In the United States, cartels are illegal; however, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) - the world's largest cartel - is protected by U.S. foreign trade laws.
  • 15. Refers to seven oil companies that dominated mid 20th century oil production, refining, and distribution According to a report, 56 per cent of cartel complaints relate to the petrol sector. 9-Oct-13 15
  • 16. AMERICAN ANTITRUST LAW The Clayton Act and its Amendments Clayton Act 1914 Robinson-Patman Act 1936 Cellar-Kefauver Act 1950 These Acts prohibit the following practices only if they substantially lessen competition or create monopoly.
  • 17. AMERICAN ANTITRUST LAW The Clayton Act and its Amendments 1. Contracts that prevent a buyer from reselling a product outside a specified area (called territorial confinement). 2. Acquiring competitor’s shares or assets. 3. Interlocking directorships among competing firms.
  • 18. Cartels in India Cartels in Soda Ash • In 1996 (ANSAC) comprising of 6 American producers. • Attempted to ship a consignment @ cartelize price but held by MRTP Cartelization in the bidding process of Railways Cartelization in the Cement Industry in India 9-Oct-13 18
  • 19. Conclusion 9-Oct-13 19  Cartel agreements are economically unstable.  Once a cartel is broken, the incentives to form the cartel return and the cartel may be re-formed.  International and national cartels are hard to burst.  Cartels do not abolish competition, but regulate it.
  • 20. 9-Oct-13 20