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# Dasar kelistrikan

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• 1. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 1 WHAT IS ELECTRICITY? 1) Generating electricity Atomic nucleus - Atomic nucleus + + + Proton - Electron - Neutron Helium Hydrogen atom - + + - - Lithium Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 2. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 2) Frictional electricity (1) When two different objects are rubbed together, electricity is produced. (2) Frictional electricity is positive or negative. (3) Similarly charged bodies repel each other. (4) Oppositely charged bodies attract each other. Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 3. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 1 CURRENT, VOLTAGE, RESISTANCE 1) Current (1) What is Current? Electric cable Free electron A B A B Electron move. Neutralized Supplied from B cak sol sumber HQS Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 4. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY (2) Current unit 1 Ampere = 1 Second 1 Coulomb < Units > 1 ampere = 1000 milliamperes 1 milliampere = 1000 microamperes < Symbols > Ampere (A) Milliampere (mA) Microampere (µA) Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 5. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 2) Voltage Water pressure Current Electron flow Voltage No water pressure Voltage is zero Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 6. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 3) Resistance Generator Current Load resistance Cable internal resistance Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 7. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY < Units > 1 megaohm = 1000000 ohms = 10 6 ohms 1 kiloohm = 1000 ohms = 103 ohms 1 ohm 1 microohm = 1/1000000 ohm = 10 -6 ohm < Symbols > Megaohm (MΩ ) Kiloohm (kΩ ) Ohm (Ω ) Microohm (µΩ ) Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 8. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 4) Ohms Law 2 3 1 Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 9. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY Voltage( volt ) Current(amper ) = Re sis tan ce(ohms ) E (V) I : Current I (A) = R (Ω ) E : Voltage R : Resistance E (V) R (Ω ) = I (A) E = I• R E (V) = I (A) x R (Ω ) E E R= I= I R Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 10. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 3 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT (APPLYING OHMS LAW) 1) Basic circuit Switch Fuse Lamp I=? 6Ω + - 12 V Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 11. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY (1) When voltage and current are known and resistance is determined When a resistance was applied to a voltage of 24V, a current of 8A was produced. What was the resistance value? I=8A 24 V R=? E From Ohms Law R= I E = 24 (V) I = 8 (A) 24 R= = 3(Ω ) 8 Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 12. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY (2) When resistance and current are known and voltage is determined How many volts is required to conduct a current of 2A through a resistance of 50 Ω I=2A 100 V R = 50 From Ohms Law E=IxR I = 2 (A) R = 50 Ω E = 2 x 50 = 100 (V) Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 13. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 2) Series circuit Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 14. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY R1 R2 R3 E1 E2 E3 E Total voltage E = E1 + E2 + E3 = I•R1 + I•R2 + I•R3 = I (R1 + R2 + R3) Combined resistance E = E1 + E2 + E3 14 Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 15. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY Lets obtain the values of the combined resistance and the current. 6Ω 4Ω 2Ω 12 V R = R1 + R2 + R3 6 + 4 + 2 = 12 Ω E 12 I= = = 1( A ) R 12 Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 16. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 3) Parallel circuit Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 17. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY R1 I2 R2 I1 I E E E 1 1 Total current I = I1 + I2 = + =E ( + ) R1 R2 R1 R 2 1 Ohms’ Low R= 1 1 E( V ) Combined + I( A ) = R1 R 2 R(Ω ) resistance 1 1 1 1 = + = E( V ) x R R1 R 2 R(Ω ) Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 18. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY What is the combined resistance value in the figure below? R1 = 20Ω R 2 = 30Ω R 3 = 60Ω 1 1 R= = 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + + R1 R 2 R3 20 30 60 1 1 60 = = = = 10[ Ω ] 3 2 1 6 6 + + 60 60 60 60 Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 19. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 4 SOLENOID PRINCIPLE 1) Current and magnetic field - + N S Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 20. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY Paper N S S N N S + + - S N - Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 21. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY Right-handed screw rule t rr en en t Cu rr Cu Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 22. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 2) Magnetic fields created by a coil Magnetic force lines Current Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 23. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY N pole S pole Magnetic force lines Right-hand grip Rule Current flow direction N S Right hand Current Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 24. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY Iron core Coil Iron bar Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 25. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 5 STARTER WORKING PRINCIPLE 1) Electromagnetic force (Flemings Left-hand rule) Conducting wire and Current direction Direction of magnetic force line is the same, so electromagnetic force is strong. Direction of magnetic force line is the opposite, so electromagnetic force is weak. Expulsion force Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 26. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY Flemings left-hand rule Force direction N S Magnetic force line direction + N to S - Current (A) Current direction Force (N) + to - Magnetic field (A/M) Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 27. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY Magnet Commutator Coil Brush Power supply + - Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 28. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY Current Force Current Force Magnetic Magnetic Magnetic force line Magnetic force line force line force line Force Current Force Current Current flow direction is reversed by commutator. Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 29. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 6 GENERATOR WORKING PRINCIPLE 1) Electromagnetic induction (Flemings right-hand rule) Ammeter + - Electromotive force is produced when the conductor is moved up and down Electromotive force (V) = magnetic flux ( Wb / m2 ) x conductor length (m) x conductor moving speed (m/s) Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 30. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY Flemings right-hand rule Conductor direction S N Magnetic force lines N to S + - Flemings left-hand rule Electromotive force direction Force + to - Magnetic force line Current Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 31. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 2) Current Generator Working Principle b d a C1 c C2 B1 B2 Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 32. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 3) Alternating current generating principle a d d a b c c b S2 B2 S1 B1 Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 33. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 34. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 7 BATTERY PRINCIPLE 1) Battery purpose Connected in parallel Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 35. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 2) Battery structure and function Terminal Positive plate Cell plug Connector Lid Pole Separator Pole Battery jar Glass mat Negative plate Positive plate Glass mat Negative plate Separator Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 36. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY Electron Current Negative pole Positive pole - + + - + + - + + - + + Lead ion + Hydrogen ion + Pb + 2H2SO4 +PbO2 PbSO4 + 2H2O + PbSO4 Negative pole plates Positive pole plates Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 37. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY Larger terminal is positive - + Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 38. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 3) In-service maintenance (1) Adjusting electrolyte level and specific gravity Diluted sulfuric acid Purified water (Specific gravity : 1.400) 240 Replaceable quantity (CC) (per 1 liter of electrolyte) 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1.240 1.250 1.260 1.270 1.280 1.290 1.300 1.310 1.320 Battery electricity specific gravity (20 degrees) Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 39. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY (2) Measuring electrolyte specific gravity Rubber ball Glass tube A Floating scale B Suction tube Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 40. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 4) Storage cautions Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 41. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 5) Charging (1) Charging type Initial charging Supplementary charging Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 42. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY (2) Charging methods 1 Constant-current charging method 2 Fast charging method Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 43. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY (3) Voltage and specific gravity changes during charging 2.9 2.8 Voltage 2.7 Terminal voltage (V) 2.6 2.5 2.4 Specific gravity 1.3 Specific gravity 2.3 2.2 1.2 2.1 2.0 1.1 1.9 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Charging time (H) Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 44. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY (4) Charging-related cautions - - + + - + - + Discharge rate(Ah) Charging time(h) = x (1.2 to 1.5) Charging current(A) Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 45. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY (5) Battery capacity Unit Ampere-hour (Ah) Ampere-hour capacity (Ah) = discharge current (A) x discharge time (h) Watt-hour capacity (Wh) = discharge current (A) x discharge time (h) x mean discharge voltage (V) Ampere-hour capacity (Ah) (Example) Discharge: 5 hours 6 (A) x 5 (h) = 30 (Ah) Current: 6A Voltage: 12V 40 (Ah) x 12 (V) = 480 (Ah) Battery: 40Ah Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 46. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 5A 10 A Heat loss Chemical 100Ah 100Ah reactions 20 hours at 5 A 10 hours at 10 A Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 47. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 8 CIRCUIT TESTER 1) Outline (1) Measurement of alternating or direct-current voltage and current (2) Measurement of resistance (3) Discovery of electric circuit shorts, grounds, and disconnections 2) Structure Measuring range Resistance measuring scale Alternating voltage measuring range 0 point adjusting screw Direct-current 0 point adjusting knob voltage measuring range Positive side measuring cord Negative side measuring cord Negative side Direct current Positive side cord terminal measuring range terminal Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 48. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 3) Measuring voltage Direct-current voltage 0 point adjusting screw measuring range Alternating voltage measuring range + - + - + - + - + Battery OK - Battery Household-use wall outlet Direct current Alternating current Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 49. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY Reading the tester Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 50. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 4) Measuring current 0 point adjusting screw Current up to 20A Current up to 250mA Tester Tester + + + - Battery Battery + - - - Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 51. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY Reading the tester Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 52. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 5) Measuring resistance 0 point adjusting knob Tester + - Battery OFF Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 53. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY Reading the tester Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 54. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 8 ELECTRIC COMPONENTS Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 55. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 1) Resistors Carbon film fixed resistor Symbol: RD Fixed body resistor Symbol: RC Fixed resistor Insulated carbon film process resistor Symbol: RF Resistor Power type covered wire wound resistor Symbol: RW Variable resistor Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 56. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY Symbols inscribed on resistors Normal resistance Properties value H RD 1/2 P X 150k Ω G Resistance Service value objective Type Shape allowance [%] Rated L X D : ±0 . 5 Carbon power(W) [ Ω] H when Y F : ±1 film 1/8 frequency Z [kΩ] fixed 1/4 G : ±2 is high P A [MΩ] resistor 1/2 J : ±5 B 1 K : ±10 Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 57. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY Fixed body resistor color code 4th color 3rd color 2nd color 1st color Resistance value Resistance value Color 2-digit number Multiplier allowance 1st color band 2nd color band 3rd color band 4th color band 0 Black 0 0 x10 - 1 Brown 1 1 x10 - 2 Red 2 2 x10 - 3 Orange 3 3 x10 - 4 Yellow 4 4 x10 - 5 Green 5 5 x10 - 6 Blue 6 6 x10 - Purple 7 7 - - Gray 8 8 - - White 9 9 - - -1 Gold - - x10 5% -2 Silver - - x10 10% No color - - - 20% Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 58. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 2 0 x 10 2 ± 10% Resistance value : 2,000 Ω Resistance value allowance : ± 10% Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 59. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY Fixed body resistor color code 5th color 4th color 3rd color 2nd color 1st color Resistance value Resistance value Color 3-digit number Multiplier allowance 1st color band 2nd color band 3rd color band 4th color band 5th color band Black 0 0 0 x10 0 0,5% Brown 1 1 1 x10 1 1% Red 2 2 2 x10 2 2% Orange 3 3 3 x10 3 - Yellow 4 4 4 x10 4 - Green 5 5 5 x10 5 - Blue 6 6 6 x10 6 - Purple 7 7 7 - - Gray 8 8 8 - - White 9 9 9 - - Gold - - - x10 -1 5% Silver - - - x10 -2 10% No color - - - - 20% Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 60. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 2 0 2 x 10 2 ±1% Resistance value : 20.200Ω = 20k 2 Resistance value allowance : ± 10% Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 61. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 2) Fuses Blade type Glass type Housing Fusible strip Terminal Fusible strip Terminal Capacity 10% current 135% current 150% current 5A Mast fuse Fuses within 60 min. Fuses within 15 sec. 10A Mast fuse Fuses within 60 min. Fuses within 15 sec. 15A Mast fuse Fuses within 60 min. Fuses within 15 sec. 20A Mast fuse Fuses within 60 min. Fuses within 15 sec. 25A Mast fuse Fuses within 60 min. Fuses within 15 sec. 30A Mast fuse Fuses within 60 min. Fuses within 30 sec. Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 62. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY (Reference) Electric wire allowable current Nomination (cross-sectional Strand diameter mm Number of strands Outer diameter mm Allowable current A area mm) 0.5 0.32 7 2.2 9 0.85 0.32 11 2.4 12 1.25 0.32 16 2.7 15 2 0.32 26 3.1 20 3 0.32 41 3.8 27 5 0.32 65 4.6 37 8 0.45 50 5.5 47 15 0.45 84 7.0 59 20 0.8 41 8.2 84 30 0.8 70 10.8 120 40 0.8 85 11.4 135 50 0.8 108 13.0 160 Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 63. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 3) Diodes General distribution diode Low voltage diode (Zener diode) Diodes Light-emitting diode Photo diode 1 General distribution diode Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 64. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 2 Zener diode Properties of general rectifier diodes Zener diode properties Germanium diode Forward direction 5V Zener diode Silicon diode 50 current (A) Forward direction current (A) Reverse direction voltage (V) Reverse direction voltage (V) -100 -5 0 1 0 1 2 Forward direction Forward direction Reverse direction voltage (V) voltage (V) current (mA) Reverse direction current (mA) 50 Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 65. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 3 Light-emitting diode P N Hole Electron Light Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 66. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 4) Transistors NPN type PNP type C C N P B B P N N P E E Straight line Emitter protrusion Emitter Collector Emitter Collector Base Base Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 67. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY Designation of Symbols 2 S C 154 A S Meaning of Twe-digit One-digit Letter of Letter of semiconductor or larger number parts alphabet number alphabet (Number of (Semiconductor S) (Application (Registration (Improvement rectifier Indication) number) number) Junctions) 0 … Photo transistor A … PNP high frequency use 1 … Diode B … PNP low frequency use 2 … 3-pole diode C … NPN high frequency use 4 … 4-pole diode D … NPN low frequency use F … Thyristor Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 68. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY 5) Thermistors Terminal Negative characteristic thermistor Positive characteristic thermistor Resistance Case Temperature Thermistor Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 69. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY (+) (-) A B + - + - + - + - Insulator Variable condenser Air condenser (variable condenser) Aluminum electrolytic condenser (AI condenser) Condenser Tantalum condenser (Ta condenser) (Capacitors) Barium titanate condenser Titanium dioxide porcelain condenser Fixed condenser Metallized paper condenser (MP condenser) Plastic film condenser Paper condenser Mica condenser Atas Kebaikan HQS
• 70. BASICS OF ELECTRICITY Condenser type Titanium condenser Tubular paper condenser Porcelain condenser Mica condenser Electrolytic condenser Oil-impregnated condenser Variable air condenser Atas Kebaikan HQS