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Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
Ultra wide band
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Ultra wide band

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  • 1. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 Ultra Wide Band (UWB) Technology & Its Applications by Dr.A.T.Kalghatgi Chief Scientist Central Research Laboratory Bharat Electronics Limited., Bangalore
  • 2. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 Overview • Trends that drive short range wireless • Definition of UWB • Advantages of UWB • Applications of UWB • UWB Challenges
  • 3. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 • The growing demand for wireless data capability in portable devices at higher bandwidth • Crowding in the spectrum that is segmented and licensed by regulatory authorities in traditional ways. • The growth of high-speed wired access to the Internet in enterprises, homes, and public spaces. • Shrinking semiconductor cost and power consumption for signal processing. Trends that are driving short-range wireless
  • 4. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 Communication using Pulse A pulse is narrow in time and wideband in frequency Sinusoidal signals are narrow in frequency and "wide" over time
  • 5. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 Narrow band Problems Narrowband Problems • Multipath fading -Destructive interference of CW signals causes signal loss • Insecure -Narrow Band signals are easily detected and jammed • Poor range resolution -Range resolution for tracking applications is a function of RF bandwidth • Limited data rate -Narrow RF bandwidth means narrow data bandwidth
  • 6. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 The UWB solution •Ultimate in spectrum spreading •GHz of RF bandwidth •Has all the advantages of spread spectrum But to a much larger extent •Immune to multipath fading •Virtually undetectable •Unprecedented range resolution •Potential for very high data rates •Simple to implement •High capacity
  • 7. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 Comparison of UWB vs Spread Spectrum and Narrow Band
  • 8. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 Definition of UWB Conventional Definition- Short Pulse • “Carrier Free”,”Baseband” or “Impulse based” • Typically only a Free RF Cycles - Large fractional bandwidth (BW/f) • Very low duty cycles resulting in low average energy densities • Typically generated by impulse or step excited antennas and filters
  • 9. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 UWB Pulse Waveforms
  • 10. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 UWB Fractional Bandwidth As per FCC guidelines UWB fractional bandwidth is defined by, Where: fu = upper –10 dB point fl = lower –10 dB point   Either 25% fractional bandwidth criteria should be met or the instantaneous bandwidth of 500 MHz.
  • 11. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 Multi Band OFDM
  • 12. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 FCC Emission Requirements
  • 13. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 Comparison of occupied bandwidths by UWB and other wireless technologies
  • 14. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 Comparison of Spatial Capacity
  • 15. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 Comparison of Spatial Capacity of Various Indoor Wireless System System Maximum Data Rate [Mbps] Transmissio n Distance [m] Spatial Capacity [kbps/m2] Spectral Capacity [bps/Hz] UWB 100 10 318.3 0.013 IEEE 802.11a 54 50 6.90 2.7 Bluetooth 1 10 3.2 0.012 802.11b 11 100 0.35 0.1317
  • 16. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 Comparison of UWB bit rate with other wired and wireless standards Speed (Mbit s/ second) St andard 480 UWB,USB2.0 200 UWB(4m minimum),1394a (4.5m) 110 UWB(10m minimum) 90 Fast Et hernet 54 802.11a 20 802.11g 11 802.11b 10 Et hernet 1 Bluet oot h
  • 17. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 UWB Major Application Areas a) Communications –Wireless Audio, Data & Video Distribution –RF Tagging & Identification b) Radar –Collision/Obstacle Avoidance –Precision Altimetry –Intrusion Detection (“see through wall”) –Ground Penetrating Radar c) Precision Geolocation –Asset Tracking –Personnel localization
  • 18. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 Some of Military & Commercial Applications of UWB
  • 19. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 Source:MSSI
  • 20. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 Voice and Data Communications •With increasing congestion in the radio spectrum from communications appliances of all forms, new schemes for allowing more users in a given area are always sought. •UWB allows users to simultaneously share the spectrum with no interference to one another and to apply it in UWB devices, such as high-speed home and business networking devices as well as storage tank measurement.
  • 21. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007  Ground and Ice Penetrating RADAR •  A system used to detect objects buried in the ground. •A special directional antenna to transmit the stimulus signal into the ground and receive the reflected waves. •Depth of penetration is typically between 0.5 and 10 m, very short pulses are needed to resolve typical buried targets.
  • 22. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 Wall Imaging Radar System •To detect the location of objects contained within a "wall," such as a concrete structure, the side of a bridge, or the wall of a mine. •Operation is restricted by FCC to law enforcement, fire and rescue organizations, to scientific research institutions, to commercial mining companies, and to construction companies.
  • 23. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 Through Wall Radar System•Uses very short pulses to provide detection of objects on the opposite side of a non-metallic wall. •The stimulus signal is transmitted into the wall. A portion of the signal incident on the wall is transmitted through the wall and into the space on the far side. •Objects in the field then reflect the signal back to the wall where part of the signal is transmitted through the wall to the receiver. •Freq of Operation: below 960 MHz or 3.1-10.6 GHz band.
  • 24. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 Surveillance Systems •UWB based Surveillance systems operate as "security fences" by establishing a stationary RF perimeter field ("bubble") and detecting the intrusion of persons or objects in that field. •"Bubble" can be established to cover either certain area or certain object, such as aircraft, vehicle etc. •Frequency band 1.99-10.6 GHz.
  • 25. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 Vehicular Radar Systems Potential applications include • collision avoidance, • proximity aids, •intelligent cruise control systems, •improved airbag activation •& suspension systems that better respond to road conditions. •FCC limits operation of vehicular radar to the 22-29 GHz band using directional antennas on terrestrial transportation vehicles provided the center frequency of the emission and the frequency at which the highest radiated emission occurs are greater than 24.075 GHz.
  • 26. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 Fluid Level Measurements UWB distance measuring hardware can be used as an electronic dipstick, to determine the level of a fluid in a tank by measuring the distance between the top of the tank and the interface with the surface of the fluid.   
  • 27. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 Asset Location • Another form of data communications. • Up-to-date inventory of assets in a given location. • A coded transmitter can be attached to each asset for instantaneous inventory control. • Not only can determine the presence of a particular object, but also provides information as to its exact location.
  • 28. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 ID Tags •Similar to asset tracking, ID tags can be used to wirelessly identify individuals with issued ID tags. •Other applications are Intelligent Transportation Systems, Electronic Signs and Smart Appliances
  • 29. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 UWB can enable a wide variety of WPAN applications. • Replacing IEEE1394 cables between portable multimedia CE devices, such as camcorders, digital cameras, and portable MP3 players, with wireless connectivity • Enabling high-speed wireless universal serial bus (WUSB) connectivity for PCs and PC peripherals, including printers,scanners, and external storage devices • Replacing cables in next-generation Bluetooth Technology devices, such as 3G cell phones, as well as IP/UPnP-based connectivity for the next generation of IP-based PC/CE/mobile devices • Creating ad-hoc high-bit-rate wireless connectivity for CE,PC, and mobile devices
  • 30. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 PC Clusters interconnected thru UWB enabled Wireless USB
  • 31. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 UWB Key Design Challenges • Co-existence with other services Strong narrow band interference • Shaping of spectrum of the TX signal (impulse radio, multi-band OFDM based UWB etc.) • Practical and Simple Receiver Design (Synchronisation/Coherent or non coherent receiver design) • Wideband RF components (antenna,LNA etc.) • Time Domain response of antenna is important since the antenna shapes the pulse •Antennas for impulse radio can no longer be optimized at the carrier frequency •Flat group delay so that high and low frequency signals arrive simultaneously • High Sampling rate ADCs for digital implementations
  • 32. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 For UWB technology to become a widely adopted radio solution, a few key areas need to be resolved: •Performance (including over-the-air data rate performance, power consumption, co-existence with other wireless devices, immunity to interference, and link robustness) •Interoperability •Time-to-market considerations •Ease of product integration and certification •Overall solution cost (to the OEM) •Fulfillment and support •Quality of service •Global spectrum allocation Other Challenges for UWB
  • 33. ELITEX 2007 Seminar on 1Oth January 2007 Thank You

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