ROBOTICSUBMARINES a large crewed autonomous vessel. However, historically or colloquially, submarine can also refer to medium- sized or smaller vessels (midgetABSTRACT submarines, wet subs), remotelyToday’s Navy is a blue-water force--its operated vehicles or robots. Thestrengths are in the depths, not the adjective submarine in terms suchshallows -- but it’s preparing for a as submarine cable, means "under thebrown-water fight. sea". The noun submarine evolved as aThe adaptations and inventions that shortened form of submarine boat (andallow sailors to not only fight a battle, is often further shortened to sub).[citationbut also live for months or even years needed] For reasons of navalunderwater are some of the most brilliant tradition submarines are usually referreddevelopments in military history. to as "boats" rather than as "ships",Not so long ago, a naval force worked regardless of their sizeentirely above the water; with the Although experimental submarines hadaddition of the submarine to the standard been built before, submarine design tooknaval arsenal, the world below the off during the 19th century, and theysurface be “Studying the creatures at were adopted by several different navies.these vents, and comparing them with Submarines were first widely usedspecies at other vents around the world; during World War I (1914–1918) andwill help us to understand how animals now figure in many large navies.disperse and evolve in the deep ocean,” Military usage includes attacking enemysaid Jon Copley with the University of surface ships or submarines, protection,Southampton. blockade running, ballistic missile submarines as part of a nuclear strikeINTRODUCTION force, reconnaissance, conventional land attack (for example using a cruiseA submarine is a watercraft capable of missile), and covert insertion of specialindependent operation underwater. It forces. Civilian uses for submarinesdiffers from a submersible, which has include marine science, salvage,more limited underwater capability. The exploration and facilityterm submarine most commonly refers to inspection/maintenance. Submarines can
also be modified to perform more the bathyscaphe, which in turn was anspecialized functions such as search-and- evolution of the diving bell.rescue missions or undersea cable repair.Submarines are also used in tourism, andfor undersea archaeology.Most large submarines consist of acylindrical body with hemispherical(and/or conical) ends and a verticalstructure, usually located amidships,which houses communications andsensing devices as well as periscopes. Inmodern submarines this structure is the"sail" in American usage, and "fin" inEuropean usage. FIRST SUBMERSIBLES A "conning tower" was a feature ofearlier designs: a separate pressure hullabove the main body of the boat thatallowed the use of shorter periscopes.There is a propeller (or pump jet) at therear and various hydrodynamic controlfins as well as ballast tanks. Smaller,deep diving and specialty submarinesmay deviate significantly from thistraditional layout.Submarines have one of the largest The Drebbel, the first navigable submarineranges of capabilities in any vessel, The first submersible with reliableranging from small autonomous information on its construction was builtexamples to one- or two-person vessels in 1620 by Cornelius Drebbel,operating for a few hours, to vessels a Dutchman in the service of James I ofwhich can remain submerged for 6 England. It was created to the standardsmonths such as the Russian Typhoon of the design outlined by Englishclass - the biggest submarines ever built mathematician William Bourne. It wasand in use. Submarines can work at propelled by means of oars. The precisegreater depths than are survivable or nature of the submarine type is a matterpractical for human divers. Modern deep of some controversy; some claim that itdiving submarines are derived from was merely a bell towed by a boat. Two improved types were tested in
the Thames between 1620 and 1624. In 5. It may be of unspeakable benefit for2002 a two-person version of Bournes submarine experimentdesign was built for the BBC TVprogramme Building the IN THE AMERICAN CIVILImpossible by Mark Edwards, and WARsuccessfully rowed under waterat Dorney Lake, Eton.Though the first submersible vehicleswere tools for exploring under water, itdid not take long for inventors torecognize their military potential. Thestrategic advantages of submarines wereset out by Bishop JohnWilkins of Chester, England,in Mathematicall Magick in 1648:1. This private: a man may thus go toany coast in the world invisibly, without The adjective submarine in terms suchdiscovery or prevented in his journey. as submarine cable, means "under the sea". The noun submarine evolved as2. This safe, from the uncertainty of The 1862 Alligator, first submarine ofTides, and the violence of Tempests, the United States Navy. It was designedwhich do never move the sea above five by the French engineer, Brutus deor six paces deep. From Pirates and villeroi. During the American Civil warRobbers which do so infest other both sides successfully built workingvoyages; from ice and great frost, which submarines. The Confederate States ofdo so much endanger the passages America submarines were all designed totowards the Poles. attack the Union blockade of Southern3. It may be of great advantages against ports. Two operational unnameda Navy of enemies, who by this may be Confederate submarines were spottedundermined in the water and blown up. during the latter half of 1861, one in James River in Virginia and another in4. It may be of special use for the relief New Orleans. The United States Navyof any place besieged by water, to was first interested in submarines as aconvey unto them invisible supplies; and way to clear obstacles. Interest in attackso likewise for the surprisal of any place submarines began at least by May 1861,that is accessible by water. when French engineer Brutus de villeroi
tested an early submarine design in depths of up to 6,000 meters. NewPhiladelphia harbor in what may have developments in robotics have also led tobeen an effort to attract the Navy’s the creation of AUVs, or Autonomousattention. Most Confederate submarines Underwater Vehicles. The roboticwere built under the auspices of the submarines are programmed in advance,Confederate Secret Service rather than and receive no instruction from thethe Confederate Navy, with only three surface. HROV combine features of bothbeing well known and documented. ROVs and AUV, operatingOthers, both Confederate and Union, are independently or with a cable Argo wasknown to have existed but their names employed in 1985 to locate the wreck ofand designs have escaped the historical the RMS Titanic; the smaller Jason wasrecord. In all, evidence indicates that a also used to explore the ship wreck.combined total of over twentyoperational submarines were built byboth sides during the conflict.UNMANNED SUBMARINESOne of the first unmanned deep seavehicles was developed by theUniversity of California with a grantfrom the Alan Hancock Foundation inthe early 1950s to develop a moreeconomical method of taking photosmiles under the sea with an unmannedsteel high pressure 3,000lb sphere calleda benthograph which contained a camera According to the BBC, UK’s newestand strobe light. The original autonomous underwater vehicle knownbenthograph built by USC was very as Autosub6000 is on its way to exploresuccessful in taking a series of the deepest undersea volcanoes in theunderwater photos till it became wedged Caribbean. The robotic submarine canbetween some rocks and could not be dive as far as 6000 meters and it will beretrieved. complemented by the remote controlledROVs, or Remote Operated Vehicles, submarine Isis. The robots will exploreare seeing increasing use in underwater the volcanoes all along the Caymanexploration. These submersibles are Trough with Autosub6000 going first topiloted through a cable which connects locate the volcanic vents at the bottom ofto the surface ship, and they can reach the ocean and Isis going second to
collect samples around the vents. The of-concept artificial lateral line system. Ittwo submarines will help scientists learn enables a distant touch hydrodynamicmore about life in the deep ocean; the imaging capability to critically augmentteam on board the vessel James Cook sonar and vision systems. We show thatwhich will be heading to the Cayman the artificial lateral line can successfullyTrough expects to find many new perform dipole source localization andspecies during the expeditions. Robots hydrodynamic wake detection. Theare helping us explore so much of nature development of the artificial lateral linewe could never hope to explore is aimed at fundamentally enhancingourselves in the near future. Several human ability to detect, navigate, androbots are currently studying the surface survive in the underwater environment.of Mars looking for water and traces of A submarine will have a variety ofpast or current life while these two sensors determined by its missions.submarines will help us understand life Modern military submarines rely almoston our planet. The Lunar X-Prize is entirely on a suite of passive and activedetermined to prove that robotic sonars to find their prey. Active sonarmissions to the Moon can be both cheap relies on an audible “ping” to generateand an effective method for scientific echoes to reveal objects around theresearch (not that the latter has not been submarine. Active systems are rarelyproved already by NASA’s planetary used, as doing so reveals the sub’srovers but those were definitely not presence. Passive sonar is a set ofcheap.) Scientific applications for sensitive hydrophones set into the hull orrobotics are by far the most valuable and trailed in a towed array, generallyworthwhile of all robotics endeavors several hundred feet long. The towedundertaken today. array is the mainstay of NATO submarine detection systems, as itSENSORS reduces the flow noise heard byNearly all underwater vehicles and operators. Hull mounted sonar issurface ships today use sonar and vision employed to back up the towed array,for imaging and navigation. However, and in confined waters where a towedsonar and vision systems face various array could be fouled by obstacles.limitations, e.g., sonar blind zones, dark Submarines also carry radar equipmentor murky environments, etc. Evolved for detection of surface ships andover millions of years, fish use the lateral aircraft. Sub captains are more likely toline, a distributed linear array of flow use radar detection gear rather thansensing organs, for underwater active radar to detect targets, as radar canhydrodynamic imaging and information be detected far beyond its own returnextraction. We demonstrate here a proof- range, revealing the submarine.
Periscopes are rarely used, except forposition fixes and to verify a contact’sidentity. Civilian submarines, such as theDSV Alvin or the Russian Mirsubmersibles, rely on small active sonarsets and viewing ports to navigate.Sunlight does not penetrate below about300 feet (91m) underwater, so highintensity lights are used to illuminate theviewing area. The Nautile submarine, owned by the French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea (IFREMER). Bruno Barnouin, a spokesman forSUBMARINE STEMS IFREMER, told New Scientist theTANKERS OIL LEAKS repairs ought to reduce the amount of oil A submarine repairing the sunken leaking from the ship’s hull to less thanprestige oil tanker has finished its work – one tonne per day. The original rate wasits operators claim they have stemmed estimated to be more than 100 tonnes per99 per cent of the leaking. The tanker day. He says the Spanish government,was patched where it lies, on the floor of who funded the work, will now inspectthe Atlantic, 3.5 kilometers below the the repairs.surface. It was damaged in November by Metal shotsevere weather off the north-west coast The Nautile performed its first dive onof Spain and was towed 200 kilometers 16 December. The submarine’s crewout to sea, where it sank. Oil has already used the submarine’s robotic arms topolluted hundreds of kilometers of the patch about 20 different leaks in theSpanish coastline. Prestige’s hull. The challenges posed by the leaks varied, so a number of different repair techniques were used. One solution involved placing metal plugs over ruptures and securing these using weighted bags. In another, a bag of metal shot was inserted into a tube leaking oil. Barnouin says the patches may last up to
40 years, but admits they could Tenerife and Barbados. It has a diameterdeteriorate much more quickly. of 10,000 to 13,000 feet. The team willPumped up use a remote controlled underwater vehicle to try and recover samples from“It’s a step in the right direction,” says what should be the Earth’s exposedSimon Cripps, director of the World mantle; mantle is the material that isWildlife Fund’s International Marine found under the Earth’s crust but cannotProgramme, but even a tonne a day is a be reached normally.serious ecological problem, he says.Cripps adds that the Spanish government Because of the extreme depth, a mannedshould find a way to retrieve the submarine mission is not possible. As aremaining oil from the prestige as result, the team will use an autonomousquickly as possible. “It’s the only underwater vehicle that is essential asolution,” he told New Scientist. remotely controlled robot with enoughBetween 17,000 and 20,000 tonnes of oil on-board decision making to make theis thought to have leaked from the tanker operator’s job easier. The robot will landso far, leaving about 60,000 tonnes of oil at the bottom of the crater and drill intostill on board. Much of the leaked oil has the mantle in order to return rockwashed up on the north-west coast of samples back to the ship. In addition, theSpain, severely damaging the local robot will use its on-board mappingfishing industry and wildlife. Some oil instruments to create a 3D map of thehas reached the Atlantic coast of France. ocean’s floor.The Spanish government is currentlyconsidering a proposal by the Dutchsalvage.Remote controlled robotto help solve themystery of Earth’smissing crust A 12-member team of British scientistsare on the way to the middle of theAtlantic Ocean in an effort to answer thequestions around Earth’s missing crustdeep in the bottom of the ocean.According to CNN, the hole is about16,400 feet under the surface of theAtlantic and located half way between
AUVs in Navy Underwater satellites Seventy-four percent of Persian Gulf and autonomouswaters are shallower than 180 feet. And robots help the huntin what the Navy terms very shallowwater – from about 40 feet to the 10-foot for enemydepths where waves begin to break – submarinesmines pose an especially acute threat.There, where ships and manned subscan’t venture, the Navy traditionallyrelies on dolphins to find and markmines, and on human divers to setcharges nearby, then swim away beforethey explode. The work is painstakinglyslow and dangerous. That’s why militaryplanners would love to send in a team ofAUVs instead. The AUVs in the NavySeals’ tests are programmed beforebeing dropped into the water. Eachvehicle dedicates itself to a discreteportion of the harbor, covering it in a Additionally, the lethality of theseseries of parallel runs -- a tactic called Submarines may sound like a bit of an old school Hunt for Red October style“mowing the grass.” Scanning 150 feet threat, but Anti-Submarine Warfarein each direction with sonar, the robot planning is still vital.subs note the location of all mine-likeobjects. To keep their bearings, they Diesel-electric submarines are a growingcontinually send signals to two threat for four primary reasons. They cantransponders that the Seals have dropped be built a relatively low cost inin the water at predetermined locations. comparison to traditional platforms and(The subs are programmed to know have therefore proliferated in numbers-where the transponders are, so by arguably in numbers that exceed ourassessing how long it takes for their maritime platforms.signals to bounce back, they ascertaintheir own location.) After a few hours, Diesel electric subs have also grownwhen the robot subs have covered the while their acoustic signatures are lower making them harder to detect.entire harbor, they gather at an appointedplace to be retrieved.
SATELLITES IN THE OCEAN A typical military mission for an AUV is- DASH to map an area to determine if there are any mines, or to monitor a protected areaDARPA’s Distributed Agile Submarine (such as a harbor) for new unidentifiedHunting or DASH program will detect objects. AUVs are also employed in anti-and locate submarines over vast areas in submarine warfare, to aid in theboth deep and shallow water. detection of manned submarines. Scientists use AUVs to study lakes, theDASH is a sort of an underwater versionof a satellite capable of operating at ocean, and the ocean floor. A variety ofextreme depths in Open Ocean. Known sensors can be affixed to AUVs toas “subullites,” these are being measure the concentration of variousdeveloped for deployment on deep sea elements or compounds, the absorptionenemy sub stake outs. or reflection of light, and the presence of microscopic life. Additionally, AUVsThe underwater satellites will be mobile, can be configured as tow-vehicles toquiet and unmanned. deliver customized sensor packages to specific locations.Just like a satellite in the sky, it will havea large field of view- but in this case ofthe water overhead so that it can scanupwards and from great depths detect thequiet diesel electric subs.To hunt submarines in the shallowercontinental shelf waters, state of the artmobile sensors will hunt from aboverather than from below the threat. Forthis area, non-acoustic sensing will bedeployed.Conclusion AUVs have been used for a limitednumber of tasks dictated by thetechnology available. With thedevelopment of more advancedprocessing capabilities and high yieldpower supplies, AUVs are now beingused for more and more tasks with rolesand missions constantly evolving.