Insulin molecules circulate throughout the blood stream until they bind to their associated (insulin) receptors.
Insulin receptors promote the uptake of glucose into various tissues that contain type 4 glucose transporters (GLUT4). Such tissues include skeletal muscles (which burn glucose for energy) and fat tissues (which convert glucose to triglycerides for storage).
The initial binding of insulin to its receptor initiates a signal transduction cascade that communicates the message delivered by insulin: remove glucose from blood plasma .
By the facilitative transport of glucose into the cells, the glucose transporters effectively remove glucose from the blood stream.
Use Avandia with caution if you have a problem with fluid retention or swelling. The drug has been known to cause this problem ,which in turn can lead to heart failure. Avandia should be avoided by anyone who has been diagnosed with heart failure, and it should be discontinued by anyone who develops it. Make sure doctor is aware of any heart problems you may have. Alert him immediately if you develop symptoms of heart failure such as fatigue and shortness of breath. * You should be aware that people taking Avandia tend to gain a weight, typically around 5 to 10 pounds. The cause is thought to be a combination of fluid retention and fat accumulation
Effects of Glucocorticoids on Body Systems System Effect of Glucocorticoids, Cortisol CNS Euphoria and behavioural changes Lower Seizure Threshold Resp Opens airways. Stabilize mast cells, to inhibit release of bronchoconstrictive and inflammatory substances, eg histamine GI Facilitation of fat absorption Increased acid, pepsin, and trypsin Skeletal Muscle Weakness (excess and deficiency) Muscle atrophy (chronic excess) Skin Atrophy and thinning (chronic excess) Hematopeoietic system Decrease in peripheral lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, clotting time Increase in peripheral neutrophils, platelets, RBCs Decreased phagocyte competence CVS Increased blood pressure (increased blood volume) Kidneys Increased reabsorption of water, sodium, chloride Increased excretion of potassium, calcium Bone Inhibition of collagen synthesis by fibroblasts Antagonism of Vitamin D Inflammatory and Immune response Decrease inflammatory response, decrease capillary permeability, decrease immune response, decrease antibodies, anti-allergic actions
System Effects of thyroid hormone Metabolism Lipid metabolism : Increased thyroid hormone levels stimulate fat mobilization, leading to increased concentrations of fatty acids in plasma. They also enhance oxidation of fatty acids in many tissues. Finally, plasma concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides are inversely correlated with thyroid hormone levels - one diagnostic indiction of hypothyroidism is increased blood cholesterol concentration. Carbohydrate metabolism : Thyroid hormones stimulate almost all aspects of carbohydrate metabolism, including enhancement of insulin-dependent entry of glucose into cells and increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis to generate free glucose. Growth Growth hormones CVS Increases heart rate, cardiac contractility and cardiac output. They also promote vasodilation, which leads to enhanced blood flow to many organs. CNS Both decreased and increased concentrations of thyroid hormones lead to alterations in mental state. Too little thyroid hormone, and the individual tends to feel mentally sluggish, while too much induces anxiety and nervousness
Excessive glucocorticoid levels resulting from administration as a drug or hyperadrenocorticism have effects on many systems. Some examples include inhibition of bone formation, suppression of calcium absorption (both of which can lead to osteoporosis), delayed wound healing, muscle weakness and increased risk of infection.