3G & 4G Networks By Yun Li Com 597 MCDM Summer 2010
3G is an ITU (The International Telecommunications Union) specification for the third generation (analog cellular was the first generation, digital PCS the second) of mobile communications technology.
The ITU defined the third generation (3G) of mobile telephony standards – IMT-2000 – to facilitate growth, increase bandwidth, and support more diverse applications.
Mobile devices with 3G capabilities must offer the potential for a minimum peak bit rate of 200 kbps.
Wireless data providers that offer 3G wireless access frequently go well above this minimum 3G speed, in order to remain competitive against current 3G speeds of up to 7.2 mbps. The highest 3G available is around 14 mbps for uplink speed, and 5.8 mbps for downlink speed.
3GPP & 3GPP2
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) was formed in 1998 to foster deployment of 3G networks that descended from GSM. 3GPP technologies evolved as follows.
• General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) offered speeds up to 114 Kbps.
• Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) reached up to 384 Kbps.
• UMTS Wideband CDMA (WCDMA) offered downlink speeds up to 1.92 Mbps.
• High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) boosted the downlink to 14Mbps.
• LTE Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) is aiming for 100 Mbps.
A second organization – the 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) -- was formed to help North American and Asian operators using CDMA2000 transition to 3G. 3GPP2 technologies evolved as follows.
• One Times Radio Transmission Technology (1xRTT) offered speeds up to 144 Kbps.
• Evolution – Data Optimized ( EV-DO ) increased downlink speeds up to 2.4 Mbps.
• EV-DO Rev. A boosted downlink peak speed to 3.1 Mbps and reduced latency.
• EV-DO Rev. B can use 2 to 15 channels, with each downlink peaking at 4.9 Mbps.
• Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB) was slated to reach 288 Mbps on the downlink.
The first pre-commercial 3G network was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan branded FoMA, in May 2001 on a pre-release of W-CDMA technology.The first commercial launch of 3G was also by NTT DoCoMo in Japan on 1 October 2001
The first commercial United States 3G network was by Monet Mobile Networks, on CDMA2000 1x EV-DO technology, but this network provider later shut down operations.
The second 3G network operator in the USA was Verizon Wireless in October 2003 also on CDMA2000 1x EV-DO.
The Benefits to 3G Capability in Mobile Devices
3G provides mobile device users with faster email downloads;
especially for Windows phones using Outlook. Other benefits
to 3G capability include:
Faster internet connectivity
Quicker video, music and file downloads
Support for location-based services, including weather and traffic
Live video or VoIP mobile communications
In December 2007, 190 3G networks were operating in 40 countries and 154 High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) networks were operating in 71 countries, according to the Global Mobile Suppliers Association (GSA).
In Asia, Europe, Canada and the USA, telecommunication companies use W-CDMA technology with the support of around 100 terminal designs to operate 3G mobile networks.
Short for fourth generation, 4G is an ITU specification that is currently being developed for broadband mobile capabilities. 4G technologies would enable IP-based voice, data and streaming multimedia at higher speeds and offer at least 100 Mbit/s with high mobility and up to 1GBit/s with low mobility (nomadic).
4G is an IP-based and packet-switched evolution of 3G technologies (such as WCDMA, HSDPA, CDMA2000 and EVDO) that uses voice communications. A number of technologies considered to be 4G standards include Long Term Evolution (LTE), Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB) and the IEEE 802.16 (WiMax) standard.
While 3G is defined by ITU as IMT-2000, IMT-Advanced is being studied by ITU as 4G. IMT is now used as the generic name for 3G and 4G.
4G is being developed to accommodate the QoS and rate requirements set by further development of existing 3G applications like mobile broadband access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), video chat , mobile TV , but also new services like HDTV . 4G may allow roaming with wireless local area networks, and may interact with digital video broadcasting systems.