Alternative Views Of Evaluation


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Alternative Views Of Evaluation

  1. 1. Chapter 3 By Amanda Fontenot
  2. 2. The many evaluation approaches that have emerged since 1965 range from comprehensive prescriptions to checklists of suggestions. Evaluation takes many forms depending on how it is viewed .
  3. 3. Views of Evaluation <ul><li>Professional judgment </li></ul><ul><li>A comparison between student performance and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Decision-oriented approach </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying curriculum goals, collect information, and make a recommendation. </li></ul>Obviously, the way in which one views evaluation has a direct impact on the type of evaluation activities conducted.
  4. 4. Contributing Factors to Alternative Views of Evaluation <ul><li>The authors view comes from their philosophical and ideological beliefs , methodological preferences , and practical choices from prior experience. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Philosophical and Ideological beliefs <ul><li>Objectivism and Subjectivism </li></ul><ul><li>Epistemology (the theory of human knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>Objectivism is scientifically objective using data-collection and analysis techniques that give results that are reproducible and verifiable by people using the same techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Subjectivism is based on experience rather than science. </li></ul><ul><li>* The objectivists still depend upon replicable facts as their touchstone of truth, whereas subjectivists still depend upon accumulated experience as their way to understanding. (p.61) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Utilitarian versus Intuitionist-Pluralist Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Utilitarian approaches assess the overall impact of a program on those affected. ( A GROUP ) </li></ul><ul><li>Intuitionist-Pluralist is based on the idea that value depends on the impact of the program on each individual. ( THE INDIVIDUAL ) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Methodological Backgrounds and Preferences <ul><li>Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative data are numerical and statistics are often used to summarize data </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative data are non-numerical. They take the form of narrative, verbal descriptions. </li></ul><ul><li>* Both are important in most evaluations. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Practical Considerations <ul><li>1 st - evaluators disagree about whether the intent of evaluation is to render a value judgment </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd - evaluators differ in their general view of the political roles of evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd - evaluators are influenced by their prior experience </li></ul><ul><li>4 th - evaluators differ in their views about who should conduct the evaluation and the nature of the expertise that the evaluator must possess </li></ul><ul><li>5 th - evaluators differ even in their perception of whether it is desirable to have a wide variety of approaches to evaluation </li></ul>
  9. 9. A Classification Schema for Evaluation approaches <ul><li>Objectives-oriented approaches- focus on specifying goals and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Management-oriented approaches- meeting informal needs of managerial decision makers </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer-oriented approaches- developing evaluative information on “products” </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise-oriented approaches- depend primarily on the direct application of professional expertise to judge quality </li></ul><ul><li>Participant-oriented approaches- involvement of participants (stakeholders) are central in determining the values, criteria, needs, data, and conclusions for the evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>(see figure 3.1 on page 68) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Application Exercise <ul><li>As an administrator, what indicators would you include on an evaluation tool to evaluate your teachers? </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the sample given. What would you change? Does the model use qualitative methods, quantitative methods, or both? </li></ul>