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Alternative Views Of Evaluation

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  • 1. Chapter 3 By Amanda Fontenot
  • 2. The many evaluation approaches that have emerged since 1965 range from comprehensive prescriptions to checklists of suggestions. Evaluation takes many forms depending on how it is viewed .
  • 3. Views of Evaluation
    • Professional judgment
    • A comparison between student performance and objectives
    • Decision-oriented approach
    • Identifying curriculum goals, collect information, and make a recommendation.
    Obviously, the way in which one views evaluation has a direct impact on the type of evaluation activities conducted.
  • 4. Contributing Factors to Alternative Views of Evaluation
    • The authors view comes from their philosophical and ideological beliefs , methodological preferences , and practical choices from prior experience.
  • 5. Philosophical and Ideological beliefs
    • Objectivism and Subjectivism
    • Epistemology (the theory of human knowledge)
    • Objectivism is scientifically objective using data-collection and analysis techniques that give results that are reproducible and verifiable by people using the same techniques.
    • Subjectivism is based on experience rather than science.
    • * The objectivists still depend upon replicable facts as their touchstone of truth, whereas subjectivists still depend upon accumulated experience as their way to understanding. (p.61)
  • 6.
    • Utilitarian versus Intuitionist-Pluralist Evaluation
    • Utilitarian approaches assess the overall impact of a program on those affected. ( A GROUP )
    • Intuitionist-Pluralist is based on the idea that value depends on the impact of the program on each individual. ( THE INDIVIDUAL )
  • 7. Methodological Backgrounds and Preferences
    • Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluation
    • Quantitative data are numerical and statistics are often used to summarize data
    • Qualitative data are non-numerical. They take the form of narrative, verbal descriptions.
    • * Both are important in most evaluations.
  • 8. Practical Considerations
    • 1 st - evaluators disagree about whether the intent of evaluation is to render a value judgment
    • 2 nd - evaluators differ in their general view of the political roles of evaluation
    • 3 rd - evaluators are influenced by their prior experience
    • 4 th - evaluators differ in their views about who should conduct the evaluation and the nature of the expertise that the evaluator must possess
    • 5 th - evaluators differ even in their perception of whether it is desirable to have a wide variety of approaches to evaluation
  • 9. A Classification Schema for Evaluation approaches
    • Objectives-oriented approaches- focus on specifying goals and objectives
    • Management-oriented approaches- meeting informal needs of managerial decision makers
    • Consumer-oriented approaches- developing evaluative information on “products”
    • Expertise-oriented approaches- depend primarily on the direct application of professional expertise to judge quality
    • Participant-oriented approaches- involvement of participants (stakeholders) are central in determining the values, criteria, needs, data, and conclusions for the evaluation
    • (see figure 3.1 on page 68)
  • 10. Application Exercise
    • As an administrator, what indicators would you include on an evaluation tool to evaluate your teachers?
    • Look at the sample given. What would you change? Does the model use qualitative methods, quantitative methods, or both?