1. Gr. 9 P ORTFOLIO: SS Social & Environmental Conflict.[25 marks](LO1 AS7; LO3 AS1, 2, 3, 4)Social and environmental issues can lead to conflict. South Africa has many socialissues (e.g. racism, poverty, xenophobia, sexism, unemployment, poor service deliveryetc.). But while there are so many social issues, there are only two environmentalissues; land and water.Choose one environmental issue and one social issue. Write a paragraph (± 50 words)on each issue suggesting how you think they could best be solved. (10)
2. Read the following extract and answer the 3 questions below:Housing in the city“One hundred years ago a tenth of the worlds population lived in cities. Today one halfis urbanized. Cities all over the world are growing.”Housing in citiesThere are many social factors to consider as cities grow and the demand for housingincreases. Different people have different ways of living. Housing should promote goodhealth and safety as well as community involvement.There are also environmental factors. The climate, vegetation and relief of an areamake a difference to the kinds of housing that can develop. Building houses anddeveloping services, such as roads and sewerage systems, all have a direct impact onthe natural environment.Changes in South African citiesSouth African cities are an interesting mix of the developed and the developing world.There is a great shortage of urban housing for the poorer people. This is largely due toour history. Before the 1990s there were very strict controls on who could live in SouthAfrican cities. Apartheid laws forced most black Africans to live in special rural areascalled homelands. Those living in the cities had to have jobs and their families werenot allowed to live with them.Since the collapse of apartheid hundreds of thousands of South Africans have movedfrom the homelands to the towns and cities. People from other parts of Africa, escapingpoverty, drought, war and other kinds of conflict have also come to settle in these areas.Many have built shacks in informal settlements. With limited land available these placeshave become overcrowded. Many lack toilets and access to clean water and servicessuch as electricity and the removal of rubbish.1. List six or more reasons why people around the world may be moving to cities. (6)
3. 2. What difficulties may people moving from rural areas to cities experience?(6)3. What conflicts could develop between people who have lived in a city for a long time and newcomers? What resources could they be competing for? (4)Read the following extract and answer the 2 questions below:
4. Rwanda: How the genocide happenedBetween April and June 1994, an estimated 800,000 Rwandans were killed in the space of 100 dMost of the dead were Tutsis - and most of those who perpetrated the violence were Hutus.Even for a country with such a turbulent history as Rwanda, the scale and speed of the slaughter left its peThe genocide was sparked by the death of the Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana, a Hutu, when hisshot down above Kigali airport on 6 April 1994...History of violenceEthnic tension in Rwanda is nothing new. There have been always been disagreements between the majoritand minority Tutsis, but the animosity between them has grown substantially since the colonial period.The two ethnic groups are actually very similar - they speak the same language, inhabit the same areas anHowever, Tutsis are often taller and thinner than Hutus, with some saying their origins lie in Ethiopia.During the genocide, the bodies of Tutsis were thrown into rivers, with their killers saying they were beingEthiopia...Building up to genocideThis was still the case in the years before the genocide. The economic situation worsened and the incumbenpresident, Juvenal Habyarimana, began losing popularity.At the same time, Tutsi refugees in Uganda - supported by some moderate Hutus - were forming the RwanPatriotic Front (RPF), led by Mr Kagame. Their aim was to overthrow Habyarimana and secure their right totheir homeland.Habyarimana chose to exploit this threat as a way to bring dissident Hutus back to his side, and Tutsis insidwere accused of being RPF collaborators.In August 1993, after several attacks and months of negotiation, a peace accord was signed between Habyand the RPF, but it did little to stop the continued unrest.When Habyarimanas plane was shot down at the beginning of April 1994, it was the final nail in the coffin..
5. 1. What kind of conflict was the Rwanda genocide? Explain.(2)2. What lessons can we learn from such events? (3)