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  1. 1. The Presidency Michael P. Fix
  2. 2. Early Debates over Executive Power
  3. 3. How Much Power? vs.
  4. 4. How Much Power? John Locke From Prerogative Powers An executive needs the power to do “several things of their own free choice, where the law is silent, and sometimes too, against the direct letter of the law, for the public good.”
  5. 5. Other Questions? <ul><li>Should the executive be a single person or several? </li></ul><ul><li>How should the executive be selected? </li></ul><ul><li>What should be the length of service? </li></ul><ul><li>Should the executive be removable from office? </li></ul><ul><li>Should the executive or Congress be supreme in foreign policy </li></ul><ul><li>Should the executive or Congress have power to make war? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Presidential Powers under the Constitution <ul><li>Must be a “natural born Citizen.” </li></ul><ul><li>Must be at least 35 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Must have lived in the U.S. for at least fourteen years. </li></ul>Formal Requirements Article II, Section 1
  7. 7. Presidential Powers under the Constitution <ul><li>Under the original text of the </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution there were </li></ul><ul><li>no term limits for </li></ul><ul><li>the presidency </li></ul>Term Limits
  8. 8. Presidential Term Limits <ul><li>Tradition of serving two terms </li></ul><ul><li>After two terms as president, George Washington left office. In his farewell address he advised that his successors follow this precedent. </li></ul>From
  9. 9. Presidential Term Limits <ul><li>In 1940 Franklin Roosevelt became the first president elected to a third term. In 1944, he was elected to his forth term. </li></ul>From
  10. 10. Presidential Term Limits The Twenty-Second Amendment The Twenty-Second Amendment formalized the tradition of presidents serving two terms. Prior to Franklin Roosevelt this had not been necessary as every had followed this tradition in practice.
  11. 11. Formal Constitutional Powers <ul><li>Commander-in-Chief </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty power </li></ul><ul><li>Appointment power </li></ul><ul><li>Recess appointments </li></ul>
  12. 12. Electoral College <ul><li>Nearly half of Article II deals with the method of presidential selection. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Electoral College <ul><li>Nearly half of Article II with the method of presidential selection. </li></ul><ul><li>The creation of the Electoral College was a check against “mob rule” while maintaining the independent of the executive branch from the legislature. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Evolution of Presidential Powers George Washington 1 st President 1789-1797 Image from
  15. 15. Evolution of Presidential Powers Thomas Jefferson 3 rd President 1801-1809 Image from
  16. 16. Evolution of Presidential Powers Andrew Jackson 7 th President 1829-1837 Image from
  17. 17. Evolution of Presidential Powers John Tyler 10 th President 1841-1845 Image from
  18. 18. Evolution of Presidential Powers James K. Polk 11 th President 1845-1849 Image from
  19. 19. Evolution of Presidential Powers Abraham Lincoln 16 th President 1861-1865 Image from
  20. 20. Evolution of Presidential Powers Theodore Roosevelt 26 th President 1901-1909 Image from
  21. 21. Evolution of Presidential Powers Woodrow Wilson 28 th President 1913-1921 Image from
  22. 22. Evolution of Presidential Powers Franklin D. Roosevelt 32 nd President 1933-1945 Image from
  23. 23. Evolution of Presidential Powers Images from Imperial Presidents Lyndon B. Johnson & Richard M. Nixon
  24. 24.
  25. 25. Evolution of Presidential Power Images from Reagan and Beyond
  26. 26. Presidential Roles
  27. 27. Chief of State <ul><li>As the first president, George Washington refused all formal titles and trapping of royalty. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Chief of State <ul><li>The role of Chief of State largely consists of performing ceremonial activities, designed to bring the nation together in good times and times of crisis. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Chief Legislator <ul><li>Presidential legislative authority: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommend measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State of the Union </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Chief Legislator <ul><li>While some early presidents took an active interest in legislative matters, it was not until the advent of the “modern presidency” that presidents became actively involved in the legislative process. </li></ul>From
  31. 31. Chief Legislator
  32. 32. Commander-in-Chief <ul><li>Constitution gives the president the role of Commander-in-Chief of the Armed forces </li></ul>
  33. 33. Commander-in-Chief In 1973, Congress enacted the War Powers act in order to limit the ability of the president to commit the armed forces of the United States
  34. 34. The Chief Executive <ul><li>The president is in many ways the nation’s chief administrator and head bureaucrat </li></ul><ul><li>Congressional policy vagueness gives the president and federal bureaucracy a chance to shape public policy </li></ul>
  35. 35. The Chief Executive Executive Order Formal regulation governing executive branch operations issued by the president Cabinet The heads (secretaries) of the executive departments together with other top officials accorded cabinet rank by the president; only occasionally does it meet as a body to advise and support the president
  36. 36. The Chief Executive
  37. 37. Chief Diplomat <ul><li>Appointing ambassadors </li></ul><ul><li>Receiving ambassadors </li></ul><ul><li>Treaties </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Fast-track trade authority </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting with foreign leaders to forge ties and make formal alliances </li></ul>Foreign policy tools