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Judiciary Part 2

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  • 1. The Judiciary (Part II)‏ Michael P. Fix
  • 2. Dual Court System
    • Because of the Dual Court System in the U.S. each of the 50 states has its own unique judicial system.
    • Many basic features in the federal system are present in most – or all – of the states.
    • Yet, there are many important differences.
  • 3. Dual Court System Four methods of judicial selection in the states:
      • 1. Partisan elections
      • 2. Nonpartisan elections
      • 3. Merit selection
      • 4. Gubernatorial or legislative appointment
  • 4. Judicial Elections
    • 31 states select at least some of their judges through elections.
  • 5. Cost of a Seat on the Texas Supreme Court From tjp.org (Texans for Public Justice)‏
  • 6. Why Elect Judges?
    • Accountability
    • Democratic Values
  • 7. Why Oppose Judicial Elections?
    • Harms judicial independence
    • $$$
    • Politics
    • Do the most qualified people pass up the job?
  • 8. Judicial Elections What do you think?
  • 9. Judicial Review
    • The power of a court to review governmental actions to determine their Constitutionality
  • 10. Judicial Review
    • Marbury v. Madison (1803)‏
  • 11. From wikipedia.org
  • 12. Judicial Review Today
    • It is still use primarily against
    • state laws, but . . .
  • 13. Judicial Review Today
    • One important area where the U.S. Supreme Court has utilized judicial review against actions of the Federal government:
    • Presidential authority
  • 14. Judicial Review Today
    • The Court has only exercised its power of judicial review of presidential actions a handful of times since its inception.
    Jones v. Clinton (1997)‏
  • 15. Judicial Review Today Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (2004)‏
  • 16. Evading Judicial Review From www.inthesetimes.com
  • 17. How do Judges Make Decisions?
  • 18. The Legal Model
    • Only the Law matters in judicial decision making.
    From www.harvardlodge.com From www.fisher-price.com
  • 19. The Attitudinal Model From www.Amazon.com Theory that judges decide cases based solely on their personal policy preferences.
  • 20. The Rational Choice Model
    • Judges are rational-actors who consider their goals and external costs when making decisions.
    From library.thinkquest.org
  • 21. Implementation and Impact
    • Courts do not have the power of the “sword,” so they must depend on others to implement their decisions.
  • 22. Implementation and Impact
    • Many actors are responsible for translating court rulings into real-world applications.
    From www.pon.harvard.edu , www.hamburgeramerica.com, www.fbi.gov , www.cartoonstock.com
  • 23.
    • Courts as a Pathway for Social Change
  • 24. Interest Group Litigation
    • More attractive to smaller interest groups because it takes fewer resources than other pathways
    • Requires:
        • Litigation resources
        • Expertise
        • Patience
  • 25. Interest Group Litigation
    • NAACP began litigation in the 1930s to end segregation
    • Succeeded in 1964 with Brown v. Board of Education
  • 26. Interest Group Litigation
    • ACLU Women’s Rights Project worked to expand rights for women.
    • Got the Supreme Court to broaden the 14th Amendment’s Equal Protection clause to include some types of gender discrimination
  • 27. Strategy in Interest Group Litigation
    • Selection of Cases
    • Choice of Jurisdiction
    • Framing the Arguments
    • Public Relations and the Political Environment
  • 28. Can Courts Bring About Social Change? Some scholars argue that courts have no power to fundamentally alter society.
  • 29. Judicial Activism
    • When a judge replaces the views of the legislature with their own views.
  • 30. Does judicial review equal judicial activism?
  • 31. Judicial Activism
    • Do liberal judges engage in judicial activism more than their conservative counterparts?
    From cfic.org
  • 32. Judicial Activism
    • Other views:
      • Black’s Law Dictionary – “a philosophy of judicial decision-making whereby judges allow their personal views about public policy, among other factors, to guide their decisions, usu. with the suggestion that adherents of this philosophy tend to find constitutional violations and are willing to ignore precedent.“
      • Justice Sandra Day O’Connor
  • 33. Judicial Activism
    • Other views continued:
      • Justice Antonin Scalia - "What I am questioning is the propriety, indeed the sanity, of having value-laden decisions such as these [capital punishment, abortion, physician-assisted suicide] made for the entire society . . . by judges,"
  • 34. Judicial Self-Restraint
    • Judicial Deference to Congress and the President