Congress Andrew Martin
Theories of Representation <ul><li>Delegate Representation </li></ul>Representatives should “act in the same manner as the...
Theories of Representation <ul><li>Trustee Representation </li></ul>Legislators should protect the “general whole” -Edmund...
Theories of Representation <ul><li>Gyroscopic Representation </li></ul>Gyroscope: A device consisting of a spinning mass, ...
Theories of Representation <ul><li>Surrogate Representation </li></ul>Representing the interests of some marginalized grou...
Congress & the Constitution <ul><li>Article I of the Constitution deals with Congress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This suggests ...
The Details of Article I <ul><li>Section One: Bicameral legislature </li></ul><ul><li>Section Two: Length of terms for Hou...
Bicameral Legislature Bicameral  =   From www.lshm.net
Bicameral Legislature
Membership in Congress <ul><li>Constitutional Requirements </li></ul>Senate Must be 30 years old US citizen for 9 years St...
Membership in Congress  <ul><li>Informal Requirements </li></ul>From  www.wpclipart.com , rifuture.org,  www.flashreport.o...
Membership in Congress <ul><li>Congressional membership is largely dominated by: </li></ul><ul><li>Educated </li></ul><ul>...
Membership in Congress
Membership in Congress
Membership in Congress <ul><li>Can a body this different from society as a whole truly be representative of the interests ...
Legislative Rules and Norms <ul><li>Until recently, many norms guided the behavior of members of Congress.  Members were s...
Legislative Rules and Norms <ul><li>Specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Courtesy </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional Respect </li...
Longest-Serving Senator <ul><li>Sen.  Robert Byrd , D-W. Va. (1959-)  II </li></ul>
Reciprocity
Pork Sen. Stevens
Congressional Leadership <ul><li>Early on there was no true “leaders” in Congress </li></ul><ul><li>During this period all...
Why did Leadership Develop? From www.churchillcounty.org
Congressional Leadership
Congressional Leadership
Congressional Leadership <ul><li>House of Representatives </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker of the House </li></ul><ul><li>Majorit...
House Leadership
Senate Leadership
Kentucky Senators
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Standing Committee System <ul><li>Members of Congress are assigned to one or more permanent committees </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Advantages to the Committee System <ul><li>Members can become policy experts </li></ul><ul><li>More issues can be consider...
What Do Committees Do? <ul><li>1946: Legislative Preauthorization Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every piece of legislation int...
What Do Committees Do? <ul><li>Ninety percent of all measures get tabled in committee </li></ul><ul><li>Measures not table...
What Do Committees Do? <ul><li>In this stage, the actual language of the bill is forged </li></ul><ul><li>Prime sponsor: m...
What Do Committees Do? <ul><li>Report : summarizes bill’s provisions and the rationale behind it </li></ul><ul><li>Rules R...
What Do Committees Do? <ul><li>Special committees may conduct investigations or hold hearings, such as the investigations ...
Committees in Congress Standing Committees
Committees in Congress Standing Committees Subcommittees
Committees in Congress Standing Committees Subcommittees Select Committees
Committees in Congress Standing Committees Subcommittees Select Committees Rules Committees
Committees in Congress Standing Committees Subcommittees Select   Committees Rules   Committees Joint Committees
Committees in Congress Standing Committees Subcommittees Select Committees Rules Committees Joint Committees Conference Co...
How a Bill becomes a Law
How a Bill Becomes a Law <ul><li>The Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill Introduction </li></ul></ul>
Bill Introduction <ul><li>Any member of Congress can introduce a bill. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals and groups outside of...
How a Bill Becomes a Law <ul><li>The Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committee...
How a Bill Becomes a Law <ul><li>The Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committee...
The Filibuster
How a Bill Becomes a Law <ul><li>The Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committee...
Conference Committee <ul><li>Members of each party from the House and Senate meet to iron out differences between the two ...
How a Bill Becomes a Law <ul><li>The Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committee...
President Bush has used the veto power very little compared with other modern presidents.
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Congress

  1. 1. Congress Andrew Martin
  2. 2. Theories of Representation <ul><li>Delegate Representation </li></ul>Representatives should “act in the same manner as the whole body would act, were they present.” - Thomas Paine From www.billofrightsinstitute.org
  3. 3. Theories of Representation <ul><li>Trustee Representation </li></ul>Legislators should protect the “general whole” -Edmund Burke From www.nnbd.com
  4. 4. Theories of Representation <ul><li>Gyroscopic Representation </li></ul>Gyroscope: A device consisting of a spinning mass, typically a disk or wheel, mounted on a base so that its axis can turn freely in one or more directions and thereby maintain its orientation regardless of any movement of the base. - American Heritage Dictionary
  5. 5. Theories of Representation <ul><li>Surrogate Representation </li></ul>Representing the interests of some marginalized group outside a legislator’s own district
  6. 6. Congress & the Constitution <ul><li>Article I of the Constitution deals with Congress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This suggests that the founders intended Congress to be the most powerful of the three branches of government </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Details of Article I <ul><li>Section One: Bicameral legislature </li></ul><ul><li>Section Two: Length of terms for House members and qualifications for service </li></ul><ul><li>Section Three: Selection of Senators, length of terms </li></ul><ul><li>Section Four: Congressional election process </li></ul><ul><li>Section Seven: How a bill becomes a law </li></ul><ul><li>Section Eight: Powers of the legislative branch </li></ul>
  8. 8. Bicameral Legislature Bicameral = From www.lshm.net
  9. 9. Bicameral Legislature
  10. 10. Membership in Congress <ul><li>Constitutional Requirements </li></ul>Senate Must be 30 years old US citizen for 9 years State Resident House Must be 25 years old US citizen for 7 years State Resident
  11. 11. Membership in Congress <ul><li>Informal Requirements </li></ul>From www.wpclipart.com , rifuture.org, www.flashreport.org , projectlogic.blogspot.com
  12. 12. Membership in Congress <ul><li>Congressional membership is largely dominated by: </li></ul><ul><li>Educated </li></ul><ul><li>White </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant </li></ul><ul><li>Men </li></ul>
  13. 13. Membership in Congress
  14. 14. Membership in Congress
  15. 15. Membership in Congress <ul><li>Can a body this different from society as a whole truly be representative of the interests of all groups? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Legislative Rules and Norms <ul><li>Until recently, many norms guided the behavior of members of Congress. Members were supposed to specialize in a small number of issues, defer to members with longer tenure in office, never criticize anyone personally, and wait their turn to speak and introduce legislation. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Legislative Rules and Norms <ul><li>Specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Courtesy </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional Respect </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocity </li></ul>
  18. 18. Longest-Serving Senator <ul><li>Sen. Robert Byrd , D-W. Va. (1959-) II </li></ul>
  19. 19. Reciprocity
  20. 20. Pork Sen. Stevens
  21. 21. Congressional Leadership <ul><li>Early on there was no true “leaders” in Congress </li></ul><ul><li>During this period all members were more or less equal </li></ul>
  22. 22. Why did Leadership Develop? From www.churchillcounty.org
  23. 23. Congressional Leadership
  24. 24. Congressional Leadership
  25. 25. Congressional Leadership <ul><li>House of Representatives </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker of the House </li></ul><ul><li>Majority Leader </li></ul><ul><li>Majority Whip </li></ul><ul><li>Minority Leader </li></ul><ul><li>Minority Whip </li></ul><ul><li>Senate </li></ul><ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>President Pro Tempore </li></ul><ul><li>Majority Leader </li></ul><ul><li>Majority Whip </li></ul><ul><li>Minority Leader </li></ul><ul><li>Minority Whip </li></ul>
  26. 26. House Leadership
  27. 27. Senate Leadership
  28. 28. Kentucky Senators
  29. 42. Standing Committee System <ul><li>Members of Congress are assigned to one or more permanent committees </li></ul><ul><li>These committees – known as standing committees – are where the bulk of Congressional work takes place </li></ul>
  30. 43. Advantages to the Committee System <ul><li>Members can become policy experts </li></ul><ul><li>More issues can be considered </li></ul><ul><li>Legislators can be on committees relevant to constituents </li></ul><ul><li>“ Safety valve” function </li></ul>
  31. 44. What Do Committees Do? <ul><li>1946: Legislative Preauthorization Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every piece of legislation introduced for consideration must first be referred to a committee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1970s: House adopted process of multiple referrals </li></ul>Referral and Jurisdiction
  32. 45. What Do Committees Do? <ul><li>Ninety percent of all measures get tabled in committee </li></ul><ul><li>Measures not tabled are given a hearing, occasionally with celebrity witnesses </li></ul>Hearings
  33. 46. What Do Committees Do? <ul><li>In this stage, the actual language of the bill is forged </li></ul><ul><li>Prime sponsor: member responsible for crafting the language </li></ul>Markup
  34. 47. What Do Committees Do? <ul><li>Report : summarizes bill’s provisions and the rationale behind it </li></ul><ul><li>Rules Report : stipulates whether a bill is open, closed, modified or subject to the time-structured rule </li></ul>Reports and Rules Report
  35. 48. What Do Committees Do? <ul><li>Special committees may conduct investigations or hold hearings, such as the investigations relating to the firing of several U.S. Attorneys </li></ul>Bureaucratic Oversight and Investigations
  36. 49. Committees in Congress Standing Committees
  37. 50. Committees in Congress Standing Committees Subcommittees
  38. 51. Committees in Congress Standing Committees Subcommittees Select Committees
  39. 52. Committees in Congress Standing Committees Subcommittees Select Committees Rules Committees
  40. 53. Committees in Congress Standing Committees Subcommittees Select Committees Rules Committees Joint Committees
  41. 54. Committees in Congress Standing Committees Subcommittees Select Committees Rules Committees Joint Committees Conference Committees
  42. 55. How a Bill becomes a Law
  43. 56. How a Bill Becomes a Law <ul><li>The Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill Introduction </li></ul></ul>
  44. 57. Bill Introduction <ul><li>Any member of Congress can introduce a bill. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals and groups outside of Congress also influence this process. </li></ul>From www.aramnaharaim.org , www.hposoft.com , www.dcgiftshop.com
  45. 58. How a Bill Becomes a Law <ul><li>The Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committee Process </li></ul></ul>
  46. 59. How a Bill Becomes a Law <ul><li>The Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committee Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floor Action </li></ul></ul>
  47. 60. The Filibuster
  48. 61. How a Bill Becomes a Law <ul><li>The Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committee Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floor Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conference Committee </li></ul></ul>
  49. 62. Conference Committee <ul><li>Members of each party from the House and Senate meet to iron out differences between the two versions of a bill </li></ul>From www.snopes.com
  50. 63. How a Bill Becomes a Law <ul><li>The Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committee Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floor Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conference Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential Decision </li></ul></ul>
  51. 64. President Bush has used the veto power very little compared with other modern presidents.
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