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Congress
 

Congress

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    Congress Congress Presentation Transcript

    • Congress Andrew Martin
    • Theories of Representation
      • Delegate Representation
      Representatives should “act in the same manner as the whole body would act, were they present.” - Thomas Paine From www.billofrightsinstitute.org
    • Theories of Representation
      • Trustee Representation
      Legislators should protect the “general whole” -Edmund Burke From www.nnbd.com
    • Theories of Representation
      • Gyroscopic Representation
      Gyroscope: A device consisting of a spinning mass, typically a disk or wheel, mounted on a base so that its axis can turn freely in one or more directions and thereby maintain its orientation regardless of any movement of the base. - American Heritage Dictionary
    • Theories of Representation
      • Surrogate Representation
      Representing the interests of some marginalized group outside a legislator’s own district
    • Congress & the Constitution
      • Article I of the Constitution deals with Congress
        • This suggests that the founders intended Congress to be the most powerful of the three branches of government
    • The Details of Article I
      • Section One: Bicameral legislature
      • Section Two: Length of terms for House members and qualifications for service
      • Section Three: Selection of Senators, length of terms
      • Section Four: Congressional election process
      • Section Seven: How a bill becomes a law
      • Section Eight: Powers of the legislative branch
    • Bicameral Legislature Bicameral = From www.lshm.net
    • Bicameral Legislature
    • Membership in Congress
      • Constitutional Requirements
      Senate Must be 30 years old US citizen for 9 years State Resident House Must be 25 years old US citizen for 7 years State Resident
    • Membership in Congress
      • Informal Requirements
      From www.wpclipart.com , rifuture.org, www.flashreport.org , projectlogic.blogspot.com
    • Membership in Congress
      • Congressional membership is largely dominated by:
      • Educated
      • White
      • Protestant
      • Men
    • Membership in Congress
    • Membership in Congress
    • Membership in Congress
      • Can a body this different from society as a whole truly be representative of the interests of all groups?
    • Legislative Rules and Norms
      • Until recently, many norms guided the behavior of members of Congress. Members were supposed to specialize in a small number of issues, defer to members with longer tenure in office, never criticize anyone personally, and wait their turn to speak and introduce legislation.
    • Legislative Rules and Norms
      • Specialization
      • Courtesy
      • Institutional Respect
      • Reciprocity
    • Longest-Serving Senator
      • Sen. Robert Byrd , D-W. Va. (1959-) II
    • Reciprocity
    • Pork Sen. Stevens
    • Congressional Leadership
      • Early on there was no true “leaders” in Congress
      • During this period all members were more or less equal
    • Why did Leadership Develop? From www.churchillcounty.org
    • Congressional Leadership
    • Congressional Leadership
    • Congressional Leadership
      • House of Representatives
      • Speaker of the House
      • Majority Leader
      • Majority Whip
      • Minority Leader
      • Minority Whip
      • Senate
      • President of the Senate
      • President Pro Tempore
      • Majority Leader
      • Majority Whip
      • Minority Leader
      • Minority Whip
    • House Leadership
    • Senate Leadership
    • Kentucky Senators
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    • Standing Committee System
      • Members of Congress are assigned to one or more permanent committees
      • These committees – known as standing committees – are where the bulk of Congressional work takes place
    • Advantages to the Committee System
      • Members can become policy experts
      • More issues can be considered
      • Legislators can be on committees relevant to constituents
      • “ Safety valve” function
    • What Do Committees Do?
      • 1946: Legislative Preauthorization Act
        • Every piece of legislation introduced for consideration must first be referred to a committee
      • 1970s: House adopted process of multiple referrals
      Referral and Jurisdiction
    • What Do Committees Do?
      • Ninety percent of all measures get tabled in committee
      • Measures not tabled are given a hearing, occasionally with celebrity witnesses
      Hearings
    • What Do Committees Do?
      • In this stage, the actual language of the bill is forged
      • Prime sponsor: member responsible for crafting the language
      Markup
    • What Do Committees Do?
      • Report : summarizes bill’s provisions and the rationale behind it
      • Rules Report : stipulates whether a bill is open, closed, modified or subject to the time-structured rule
      Reports and Rules Report
    • What Do Committees Do?
      • Special committees may conduct investigations or hold hearings, such as the investigations relating to the firing of several U.S. Attorneys
      Bureaucratic Oversight and Investigations
    • Committees in Congress Standing Committees
    • Committees in Congress Standing Committees Subcommittees
    • Committees in Congress Standing Committees Subcommittees Select Committees
    • Committees in Congress Standing Committees Subcommittees Select Committees Rules Committees
    • Committees in Congress Standing Committees Subcommittees Select Committees Rules Committees Joint Committees
    • Committees in Congress Standing Committees Subcommittees Select Committees Rules Committees Joint Committees Conference Committees
    • How a Bill becomes a Law
    • How a Bill Becomes a Law
      • The Process:
        • Bill Introduction
    • Bill Introduction
      • Any member of Congress can introduce a bill.
      • Individuals and groups outside of Congress also influence this process.
      From www.aramnaharaim.org , www.hposoft.com , www.dcgiftshop.com
    • How a Bill Becomes a Law
      • The Process:
        • Bill Introduction
        • Committee Process
    • How a Bill Becomes a Law
      • The Process:
        • Bill Introduction
        • Committee Process
        • Floor Action
    • The Filibuster
    • How a Bill Becomes a Law
      • The Process:
        • Bill Introduction
        • Committee Process
        • Floor Action
        • Conference Committee
    • Conference Committee
      • Members of each party from the House and Senate meet to iron out differences between the two versions of a bill
      From www.snopes.com
    • How a Bill Becomes a Law
      • The Process:
        • Bill Introduction
        • Committee Process
        • Floor Action
        • Conference Committee
        • Presidential Decision
    • President Bush has used the veto power very little compared with other modern presidents.