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Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
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Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
Congress
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Congress
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  • 1. Congress Andrew Martin
  • 2. Theories of Representation
    • Delegate Representation
    Representatives should “act in the same manner as the whole body would act, were they present.” - Thomas Paine From www.billofrightsinstitute.org
  • 3. Theories of Representation
    • Trustee Representation
    Legislators should protect the “general whole” -Edmund Burke From www.nnbd.com
  • 4. Theories of Representation
    • Gyroscopic Representation
    Gyroscope: A device consisting of a spinning mass, typically a disk or wheel, mounted on a base so that its axis can turn freely in one or more directions and thereby maintain its orientation regardless of any movement of the base. - American Heritage Dictionary
  • 5. Theories of Representation
    • Surrogate Representation
    Representing the interests of some marginalized group outside a legislator’s own district
  • 6. Congress & the Constitution
    • Article I of the Constitution deals with Congress
      • This suggests that the founders intended Congress to be the most powerful of the three branches of government
  • 7. The Details of Article I
    • Section One: Bicameral legislature
    • Section Two: Length of terms for House members and qualifications for service
    • Section Three: Selection of Senators, length of terms
    • Section Four: Congressional election process
    • Section Seven: How a bill becomes a law
    • Section Eight: Powers of the legislative branch
  • 8. Bicameral Legislature Bicameral = From www.lshm.net
  • 9. Bicameral Legislature
  • 10. Membership in Congress
    • Constitutional Requirements
    Senate Must be 30 years old US citizen for 9 years State Resident House Must be 25 years old US citizen for 7 years State Resident
  • 11. Membership in Congress
    • Informal Requirements
    From www.wpclipart.com , rifuture.org, www.flashreport.org , projectlogic.blogspot.com
  • 12. Membership in Congress
    • Congressional membership is largely dominated by:
    • Educated
    • White
    • Protestant
    • Men
  • 13. Membership in Congress
  • 14. Membership in Congress
  • 15. Membership in Congress
    • Can a body this different from society as a whole truly be representative of the interests of all groups?
  • 16. Legislative Rules and Norms
    • Until recently, many norms guided the behavior of members of Congress. Members were supposed to specialize in a small number of issues, defer to members with longer tenure in office, never criticize anyone personally, and wait their turn to speak and introduce legislation.
  • 17. Legislative Rules and Norms
    • Specialization
    • Courtesy
    • Institutional Respect
    • Reciprocity
  • 18. Longest-Serving Senator
    • Sen. Robert Byrd , D-W. Va. (1959-) II
  • 19. Reciprocity
  • 20. Pork Sen. Stevens
  • 21. Congressional Leadership
    • Early on there was no true “leaders” in Congress
    • During this period all members were more or less equal
  • 22. Why did Leadership Develop? From www.churchillcounty.org
  • 23. Congressional Leadership
  • 24. Congressional Leadership
  • 25. Congressional Leadership
    • House of Representatives
    • Speaker of the House
    • Majority Leader
    • Majority Whip
    • Minority Leader
    • Minority Whip
    • Senate
    • President of the Senate
    • President Pro Tempore
    • Majority Leader
    • Majority Whip
    • Minority Leader
    • Minority Whip
  • 26. House Leadership
  • 27. Senate Leadership
  • 28. Kentucky Senators
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  • 42. Standing Committee System
    • Members of Congress are assigned to one or more permanent committees
    • These committees – known as standing committees – are where the bulk of Congressional work takes place
  • 43. Advantages to the Committee System
    • Members can become policy experts
    • More issues can be considered
    • Legislators can be on committees relevant to constituents
    • “ Safety valve” function
  • 44. What Do Committees Do?
    • 1946: Legislative Preauthorization Act
      • Every piece of legislation introduced for consideration must first be referred to a committee
    • 1970s: House adopted process of multiple referrals
    Referral and Jurisdiction
  • 45. What Do Committees Do?
    • Ninety percent of all measures get tabled in committee
    • Measures not tabled are given a hearing, occasionally with celebrity witnesses
    Hearings
  • 46. What Do Committees Do?
    • In this stage, the actual language of the bill is forged
    • Prime sponsor: member responsible for crafting the language
    Markup
  • 47. What Do Committees Do?
    • Report : summarizes bill’s provisions and the rationale behind it
    • Rules Report : stipulates whether a bill is open, closed, modified or subject to the time-structured rule
    Reports and Rules Report
  • 48. What Do Committees Do?
    • Special committees may conduct investigations or hold hearings, such as the investigations relating to the firing of several U.S. Attorneys
    Bureaucratic Oversight and Investigations
  • 49. Committees in Congress Standing Committees
  • 50. Committees in Congress Standing Committees Subcommittees
  • 51. Committees in Congress Standing Committees Subcommittees Select Committees
  • 52. Committees in Congress Standing Committees Subcommittees Select Committees Rules Committees
  • 53. Committees in Congress Standing Committees Subcommittees Select Committees Rules Committees Joint Committees
  • 54. Committees in Congress Standing Committees Subcommittees Select Committees Rules Committees Joint Committees Conference Committees
  • 55. How a Bill becomes a Law
  • 56. How a Bill Becomes a Law
    • The Process:
      • Bill Introduction
  • 57. Bill Introduction
    • Any member of Congress can introduce a bill.
    • Individuals and groups outside of Congress also influence this process.
    From www.aramnaharaim.org , www.hposoft.com , www.dcgiftshop.com
  • 58. How a Bill Becomes a Law
    • The Process:
      • Bill Introduction
      • Committee Process
  • 59. How a Bill Becomes a Law
    • The Process:
      • Bill Introduction
      • Committee Process
      • Floor Action
  • 60. The Filibuster
  • 61. How a Bill Becomes a Law
    • The Process:
      • Bill Introduction
      • Committee Process
      • Floor Action
      • Conference Committee
  • 62. Conference Committee
    • Members of each party from the House and Senate meet to iron out differences between the two versions of a bill
    From www.snopes.com
  • 63. How a Bill Becomes a Law
    • The Process:
      • Bill Introduction
      • Committee Process
      • Floor Action
      • Conference Committee
      • Presidential Decision
  • 64. President Bush has used the veto power very little compared with other modern presidents.

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