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  • 1. Case studies of local pilots WP 4.2.3 Task No.D02 by EnerMaTec
  • 2. Disclaimer The sole responsibility for the content of this publication lies with the authors. It does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Communities. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein. Imprint All material is strictly copyrighted and all rights are reserved. The utmost care has been taken to ensure that accuracy of the information in this publication at the time of going to print, but we accept no responsibility for omission or errors. If not differently indicated the photos are provided by the RURENER partners or the RURENER project has received the agreement from the originator for publishing. ISBN: project: RURENER - Network of small RURal communities for ENERgetic- neutrality website: www.rurener.eu, email: info@rurener.eu publisher: EnerMaTec GmbH, Bohlweg 8, D-38100 Braunschweig author: Ralf Hönicke editors: Dr. Werner Neumann layout: Ralf Hönicke print: Printed on woodfree paper, manufactured from fibre which is 100% bleached without chlorine.
  • 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS: 1 Adzeneta del Maestrazgo .....................................................................................6 1.1 Territory ......................................................................................................... 6 1.2 Population ..................................................................................................... 7 1.3 Energy ........................................................................................................... 8 1.4 Legislation and political initiatives in Energy.................................................. 8 1.5 SWOT - Analysis ......................................................................................... 10 2 Calimanesti-Caciulata .........................................................................................11 2.1 Geographical position .................................................................................. 11 2.2 Natural environment .................................................................................... 11 2.3 Use of land .................................................................................................. 12 2.4 Renewable Energy Use ............................................................................... 13 2.5 SWOT - Analysis ......................................................................................... 14 3 Keratea ...............................................................................................................15 3.1 Geographical, climatical position ................................................................. 15 3.2 Inhabitants and activities ............................................................................. 17 3.3 Rational use of energy................................................................................. 18 3.4 SWOT - Analysis ......................................................................................... 20 4 Nagypali ..............................................................................................................23 4.1 Renewable Energy Sources ........................................................................ 23 4.2 Rational Use of Energy................................................................................ 23 4.3 SWOT – Analysis ........................................................................................ 24 5 Nikiforos Dramas ................................................................................................25 5.1 Geography, climate ..................................................................................... 25 5.2 Inhabitants and activities ............................................................................. 26 5.3 Rational use of energy................................................................................. 27 5.4 SWOT - Analysis ......................................................................................... 28 6 Perkupa...............................................................................................................30 6.1 Renewable Energy Sources ........................................................................ 30 6.2 Rational Use of Energy................................................................................ 30 6.3 SWOT – Analysis ........................................................................................ 31
  • 4. 7 Peyrelevade ........................................................................................................32 7.1 Territorial characteristics ............................................................................. 32 7.2 Inhabitants and activities ............................................................................. 33 7.3 Rational Use of Energy................................................................................ 34 7.4 Legislation and public policies ..................................................................... 35 7.5 SWOT – Analysis ........................................................................................ 36 8 Schladen .............................................................................................................37 8.1 Geographical position .................................................................................. 37 8.2 Natural environment .................................................................................... 37 8.3 Economy ..................................................................................................... 37 8.4 Energetic situation ....................................................................................... 38 8.5 SWOT – Analysis ........................................................................................ 39 9 Schoeningen .......................................................................................................40 9.1 Geographical position .................................................................................. 40 9.2 Natural environment .................................................................................... 40 9.3 Economy ..................................................................................................... 40 9.4 Energetic situation ....................................................................................... 41 9.5 SWOT – Analysis ........................................................................................ 42 10 St. Etienne de Lugdares .....................................................................................43 10.1 Geographical, climatical position .............................................................. 43 10.2 Inhabitants and activities .......................................................................... 43 10.3 Rational use of energy ............................................................................. 43 10.4 SWOT – Analysis ..................................................................................... 45 11 St. Jean d'Alcapiès..............................................................................................46 11.1 Geographical, climatical position .............................................................. 46 11.2 Inhabitants and activities .......................................................................... 47 11.3 Rational use of energy ............................................................................. 47 11.4 SWOT – Analysis ..................................................................................... 49 12 Tasca ..................................................................................................................51 12.1 Geographical position............................................................................... 51 12.2 Natural environment ................................................................................. 51 12.3 Use of land ............................................................................................... 51 12.4 Renewable Energy Use............................................................................ 52 12.5 SWOT – Analysis ..................................................................................... 55
  • 5. 13 Tirano ..................................................................................................................56 13.1 Territory .................................................................................................... 56 13.2 Population ................................................................................................ 62 13.3 Energy ...................................................................................................... 64 13.4 Legislation and public policies .................................................................. 66 13.5 SWOT – Analysis ..................................................................................... 71 14 Wesendorf...........................................................................................................72 14.1 Geographical position............................................................................... 72 14.2 Natural environment ................................................................................. 72 14.3 Economy .................................................................................................. 72 14.4 Energetic situation .................................................................................... 73 14.5 SWOT – Analysis ..................................................................................... 74
  • 6. 1 Adzeneta del Maestrazgo 1.1 Territory 1.1.1 Geographic situation Adzeneta is a small population placed to the East of Spain, in the north of Comunidad Valenciana region and in the Castellon province. It is at 47 kms from the province capital, Castellón de la Plana (172.264 inhabitants in 2007) The municipal territory it’s extended along 71 millions kms2. It limits with Les Useres, Vistabella, Benafigos, La Vall d’Alba. Adzeneta is placed in a valley to 410 m of altitude surrounded of medium level mountains, like La Nevera (1.194 m) or Peñagolosa (1.800 m). Along the municipality passes the Monlleó River with seasonal water only in winter with prolonged rainfall. Adzaneta has 1.462 inhabitants, so 20,5 inhabitants/km2. 1.1.2 Natural surroundings • Adzeneta it is placed in a valley at the foot of the Iberian System Mountains with the Peñagolosa peak like highest regional peak and near from a Natural Park with 1.094 ha. • La Cueva Oscura has one ha. and it is qualified like a SCI (Site of Community Importante) • Near Adzaneta we have a Municipal Interest Area regarding his cultural and landscape value: the fortified convent knew like El Castell (the Castle, in valencian language). 1.1.3 The uses of space (urbanization, forest, agriculture, tourism, protected areas…) The region is composed for several municipalities The new constructions from 2005 have been increased by the city-planning growth. Most of its land is forest (69%) and 20% of the agrarian land is unirrigated. The irrigation areas dos not reach to 0,4%. The plot size is very low in the two types of culture which makes them difficult to viability. Regarding livestock, important element to define the population, there is a significant livestock unit from pig farms with 2.200 pieces in small holdings and closed-loop generally.
  • 7. Tourism is another economic activity in the area since 1.999. Adzaneta has four houses of rural tourism with thirty-four places and six restaurants with 372 places together. 1.1.4 Natural resources for Energy The lack of viability of actual corps and the prolonged effects of light and solar heat have made the energy solar an attractive and interesting resource for this area. In this moment, it’s only a project, but Adzaneta population wants to use the manures and slurries to produce biogas after burning process to generate electricity. In both cases it is energy to sell to general network electricity companies because they aren’t, at the moment, the intention to consume it in the area. Only there is some small installations in several small farms and isolated familiar houses to use the solar heat like energy to own consume, 1.2 Population 1.2.1 Inhabitants Actually, the population of Adzaneta is 1.462 inhabitants The active population works generally in the services sector (35%), agriculture (23%) and construction (11%). There is an important part of this population that must g oto work in ceramic industries placed in L’Alcora, 28 km far from Adzaneta or to Sant Joan de Moro, 32 km. far. • Unemployment rate is 5,75% (6th June 2009). • Active population rate is: 46,18% (2001) The industry locates in the territory: one slaughterhouse, one flour mill, one olive oil mill, one plywood factory and five construction companies. 1.2.2 Production and consumption of electrical energy There are four photovoltaic plants placed in Adzaneta area: three with 1,5Mw and one with 2Mw. The power of the Adzaneta’s transformer, which offer the urban consumption, are maximum from 400Kva each one. The medium daily consumption in Adzaneta is about 2.700 Kw daily and the medium production plants are 3.350 Kw. So, Adzaneta area is a self-sufficient territory with the advantage of being connected to the network
  • 8. and overcome the deficiencies that will produce in cloudy days. 1.2.3 Services and Infrastructure Adzaneta accumulates several regional services • The Obligatory School • The Health Ambulatory • Day Centre for Senior People • The Agrarian Cooperative • Cooperative Supermarket (400 m2 ) 1.3 Energy 1.3.1 Local political initiatives from rural area energy They aren’t, at the moment, defined political strategies in relation with the Energy. This is one of the subjects raised in the “Agenda 21” but it only a statement of intents. The global economical interest to energy production with a photovoltaic system had generated that the Town Council think about it like economical resource for the community. Only during the last year in the province of Castellón it has gone from producing 5.428 kw. to produce 38.121 kw. in 2008. 1.3.2 Electrical Energy Production and Consumption 1.4 Legislation and political initiatives in Energy 1.4.1 Public Initiatives The Regional Government has a saving energy plan to decrease yearly by 1,1% the energy intensity from Comunidad Valenciana Region Decreasing the consumption Improving the efficiency Producing clean energy and lowering the dependence on fossil fuels. Reduce the fossil fuels impact on the climate change. 1.4.2 Legislation It is very difficult to be producers of energy in our rural areas not only for the high level investment that is necessary but by the bureaucratic difficulties.
  • 9. The general facilities to connect with the electrical network to evacuate the energy produced in this area are very poor. Actually there is a project to extend the power facilities so that, it is possible, to have more possibilities to connect in the near future. Since 2009 we have a low quota of support for photovoltaic soils facilities and, also, it has lowed the KW price that have to review the feasibility studies 1.4.3 Public bonus to obtain electrical energy The system established by their viability is selling network to 0.32 Kw euros and buy to consumption for 0,14 Kw in emerging photovoltaic. 1.4.4 Communitarian Support There are not clear support for the new strategies to collective energy production and consumption. The Public Valencian Energy Agency has a plan of support to enterprises and productive sectors.
  • 10. 1.5 SWOT - Analysis
  • 11. 2 Calimanesti-Caciulata 2.1 Geographical position Călimăneşti is a small city located in the central-southern part of Romania, on the right bank of the river Olt, in the sub-captahian depression Jilbea-Călimăneşti, at an altitude of 260-280 m. At 18 km distance from the city of Râmnicu Vâlcea (the administrative residence of Vâlcea County), Călimăneşti has a population of 8633 inhabitants. Since 1890, together with its nearest locality Căciulata, Călimăneşti is known as the famous resort Călimăneşti-Căciulata, being considered „the pearl” of the resorts on Olt. 2.2 Natural environment Topographic data. Călimăneşti-Căciulata has an area of 10.632 ha, 264 of which represent the intravillage. Climate. Călimăneşti-Căciulata has a continental, temperate clime, without sudden changes of temperature. The annual average temperature is 9.8ºC, the average temperature of July is 20ºC and that of January is -1.5ºC. The annual average of precipitations rate is 750-800 mm. Hydrography. The main water course is the river Olt. The local feeders of Olt are the small rivers Păuşa and Sălătrucul on the left side, Puturoasa, Căciulata and Căldările on the right side. Flora and fauna. The micro-climate of the resort offers the conditions for rich flora and fauna. Almost half of the resort area is covered with forests: 13% evergreen needleleaf forest and 87% deciduous broadleaf forests. We can find alpine and sub- alpine plants, together with rare plants such as Fritillaria orientalis and Leontopodium alpinum. Fauna includes deers, Carpathian bears, wood grouses, hawks. On Nărutu one can see the chamois and a lot of singing birds, vipers and snakes, as well as Mediterranean species as the scorpion and the migratory locust. The pass of Olt, which is part of the National Park Cozia, is a corridor for the migration of birds toward Europe. Geomorphological data. The touristic resources in Călimăneşti-Căciulata and surroundings are represented by: Cozia Mountains. Situated in the south-western part of Făgăraş Mountains, these mountains present anthropomorphic shapes such as: Cozia’s Sphinx, The Bear, The Pharaoh. Cozia edge has the maximum altitude, 1660 m. CăpăŃânii Mountains. From NăruŃiu (1.550 m high in Cârligele Olăneştilor) start several short chains with the edges: Sturii (1.380 m), Foarfeca (857 m), Plaiul Lotrişorului (876 m), Vârful Olăneştilor (1.416 m), Dosul Pământului (1.219 m), Fruntea lui Dat (1.1.79 m).
  • 12. 2.3 Use of land Tourism. Cozia Monastery, UNESCO monument, is the oldest and the most important architectural and art monument in the southern Romanian. Build between 1387-1388 on the place of an old cult building, the monastery had remained the most beautiful foundation of Mircea cel Batrân, whose portrait and tomb is here. Constantin Brâncoveanu, who adored Cozia, added a beautiful stone porch. Also, he has built a chapel, a well and a watch tower with a great view over Olt valley. In the watch tower there is now a museum with old printings, icons and embroideries. During the time, the walls, like those of a fortress, protected the people who got here during the wars and attacks. So it was in 1739 when the Turks, in war with the Austrians, have arrived to the gates of the monastery. Turnu Monastery is an old monastic place, neighbouring the Roman camp Arutela, a rock stone called “The table of Traian” and the thermal waters at Bivolari. Schitu Ostrov, made by Neagoe Basarab between 1518-1522 is situated on an island in the middle of Olt, where a park with 50 species of trees exists. Mânăstirea Cornetu and Mânăstirea Stânişoara can also be visited around. Due to the rich resources in Călimăneşti-Căciulata and surroundings, the following tourism forms have developed: Balneary tourism. During the whole year, due to the protective climate and to the springs (discovered in 1827). There are sulphourous, clorate, brom, calcium, magnezian weaters, with various chemical compositions and temperatures: nonthermal, mezothermal (41° and hiperthermal (49.5° C) C). They say that Napoleon was treated with waters brought from Călimăneşti- Căciulata. Also, king Franz Joseph of Austria benefit from this resort. Mountainous tourism. There are several lines that can be accessed by those who love mountains: Căciulata - Păuşa - Dealul Păuşa – Curmătura La TroiŃă - Poiana Stânişoarei -Muchia Vlădesei - Muntele Durduc; Căciulata - Cozia - Poiana Bivolari - Stâna La MuşeŃel - Curmătura La TroiŃă - Poiana Stânişoarei. Traveling/transit tourism. Due to the placement of Călimăneşti-Căciulata on the European road E81 (Halmeu-Satu Mare-Cluj Napoca -Sebeş - Sibiu - Piteşti - Bucureşti), that connects the northern-west part of Romania with its capital, Bucharest. Nautic tourism. Hunting and fishing tourism. Cultural and pilgrimage tourism. Weekend tourism. Leasure tourism. Business tourism. Natural reservations. The Cozia National Park has around 17.100 ha and a specific collection of geological and biological resources.
  • 13. Industry. The basic industry of the town is that of balneary tourism. Completing the income from agriculture cannot cover the neccesities of a family. The areas are small enough, so this source cannot lead to an improvement of the life. Infrastructure. In order to sustain the touristic infrastructure of the resort, serveral projects have been proposed. Some of them are already at the government, in order to receive funds. Among them, two projects intend to change the face of the resort. One of them refers to the building of a „Northern Oltenia Conventions and Exhibitions Centre”, that will gather exhibition and conference halls. 2.4 Renewable Energy Use The geographic area of Călimăneşti pilot community has an important potential of geothermal energy. There are 3 systems that exploit geothermal waters, capturing them at a depth of 3000 m and at a temperature of 90-950C. Afterwards, the water is distributed to hotels, administrative buildings and around 700 apartments, in order to ensure thermal energy. The three energetic drills are placed on the right bank of river Olt, at a distance of 1-1,2 km far from each other, between the resort Călimăneşti, up to the exit from Căciulata resort, towards Cozia Monastery: - Drill 1006 Căciulata has a flow (artesian) capacity of 9,4 l/s (33,8 m3/h) and a temerature of 96° C; - Drill 1008 Cozia has a flow (artesian) capacity of 23 l/s (82,8 m3/h) and a temerature of 92° C; - Drill 1009 Călimăneşti has a flow (artesian) capacity of 18 l/s (64,8 m3/h) and a temerature of 92° C. The three drills, with a total capacity of 50,4 l/s ensure a thermal potential calculated as 13,24 MWt. Considering a medium rated capacity of the system around 55 - 60 %, the useful final resulting energy is at 301.835 GJ/year. Until 2002, the small town Călimăneşti (with 8500 inhabitants), placed at about 1,2 km away from the location of the drill 1009 (the last built after 1990) did not benefit of the geothermal water as an energetic agent, the water being exploited only locally, in the neighboring resorts. The solution to put good use of the geothermal water was conceived to solve, mainly, an acute lack of heat for urban consumers in Călimăneşti. This deficit came from an inefficient (and, therefore, very expensive) functionality of the old thermal power stations. In order to improve the efficiency of the exploitation of the geothermal resource, the local council intends to replace the pipes of the secondary line of the thermal distribution network with materials having high isolation properties.
  • 14. 2.5 SWOT - Analysis
  • 15. 3 Keratea 3.1 Geographical, climatical position Situation: Central Greece, Attica region, South-East department of Attica, known as Layreotiki. Layreotiki Mean Altitude: The seat of Municipality is found in its north-west part in height of 200 metres from the surface of the sea, between mountain Paneio or Pani (altitude 648 m. in the place Keratoboyni) and the elevation Fanari (or Fanosi, 313 m.). Area: The total extent of the Municipality of Keratea is roughly 12.900 hectares (129 square kilometres approximately). Inhabitants: 13.246 inhabitants (2001 census). Population density: Biggest city close to Keratea: Keratea lies about 41km South-East from Athens Surroundings environment: Keratea consists of 58 settlements. The Municipality occupies ground that is basically mountainous in all its extent. The total length of Keratea's coastlines is 21 Km. The older archaeological discoveries which testify the existence of people in the region of Keratea are dated from the Mycenean era (1600- 1100 BC). Up until the last few decades, Keratea was mainly an agricultural region, but nowadays it is developing a strong service industry as it belongs to the Greater Athens Metropolitan Area. Its location along axons on new Attica road, and its proximity to the new Athens airport aswell as the important harbour of Lavrion, is creating many socioeconomic and employment opportunities for Keratea. A part of the population is still rural. 3.1.1 Land use. The region of Keratea with a total area of 12,900 ha during 1985 includes cultivated land and fallow (3,400 ha), 7,000 ha pastures, forests 2,200 ha, settlements and facilities 600 ha and areas with water or other uses of 200 ha. By 1985 the decline in agricultural land is 4 times greater than the decline suffered in the country. On the contrary the surface of the Illustration 1: Satelit vue of Keratea, residential areas grow. Source: Google Earth Particular rural area inundated by scattered buildings, whose very low density is not sufficient to bring the character of the village.
  • 16. 3.1.2 Resources for energy Natural gas grid From the area, then main gas pipeline is passing with a length of about 14Km in order to feed the Public Power Corporation Plant near Lavrio. CRES wind park The Greek Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES) has developed its own 3 MW demonstration wind farm. The wind farm of CRES is situated in Lavreotiki, SE Attica (Municipality of Keratea), adjacent to its older wind turbine Test Station. It operates in a complex terrain site including hills up to 120m high above sea level and coastal regions. The total budget for the project was 4.12 M€ and was wholly financed by the Operational Programme for Energy of the Greek Ministry of Development. The annual income from electricity sales amounts to 440 k€. With an annual mean wind speed of 6.7m/sec at the site, it is expected that the five wind turbines will produce 7.6 GWh of electricity per year, which is equivalent to 2000 TOE and 6,000 tons of CO2. Resources for energy - Strong sun shining and wind potential in some cases - Low capacity for small hydro plants The area has a potential for RES and ES applications like PV installations, bioclimatic design applications, sustainable development initiatives.
  • 17. 3.2 Inhabitants and activities The following diagram shows the evolution of the population in Keratea Municipality during the period 1991-2001. 13246 14000 12000 9715 10000 6620 6626 8000 4821 4894 6000 4000 2000 0 Σύνολο Αρρένες Θήλεις 1991 2001 Data Source: General Secretariat of the National Statistical Services of Greece The main feature of the Region of Attica is the movement of the employment to the tertiary sector. Similar trends occur in the Municipality of Keratea as the economically active population is mainly concentrated in the tertiary sector (from 57.7% in 1991 increased to 60.82% in 2001). The economically active population which concentrated in the primary sector is 4.34% of the total population for the year 2001. This rate is higher than in the Region of Attica (1.28%), while showing a decrease compared with 1991 figures (6.50 in 1991). In the secondary sector involved 34.26% of the economically active population. Over time, a reduction of the participation of the population in the secondary sector occurs and from 35.42% in 1991, fell to 34.26% in 2001. The same phenomenon occurs in Attica Region too (from 23.79% in 1991 to 22.15% in 2001).
  • 18. Finally, the tertiary sector showing the largest percentage of economically active population of the municipality of Keratea. Over time, employment in the tertiary sector in the municipality Keratea rise from 57.70% in 1991 to 60.82% in 2001. The upward trend in the Municipality (3.12%) can be easily explained by the growth that occurs at the regional level, which is around 1.65% at the same period. The following diagram shows the evolution of the employment in Keratea Municipality during the period 1991-2001. 70% 57,70% 60,82% 60% 50% 35,42% 34,26% 40% 30% 6,50% 4,34% 20% 10% 0% Primary Secondary Tertiary 1991 2001 Data Source: General Secretariat of the National Statistical Services of Greece 3.3 Rational use of energy Municipality of Keratea wants to work further to the direction of energy saving and energy production from RES and it is still in the beginning of undertaking such actions. The regional action plan in Keratea will focus mainly on RES, Energy Saving applications and Energy Efficiency (e.g PV installations and autonomous electricity producers using RES, Energy Saving in the Industrial, tertiary sector, public buildings). 3.3.1 Mobilization of the population The Municipality of KERATEA and its representatives know every actor at a local level and have “access” and support to/from them (eg. Citizens/householders, schools, farmers, SME’s, enterprises, energy policy makers, RES developers, market actors, investors, technology providers, energy companies, NGO’s etc). CRES as the Greek National Energy Centre will support the Municipality with its networks at a local, regional and National level.
  • 19. During the first project stages the different type of stakeholders will be identified mainly by the Municipality of KERATEA with CRES support. Stakeholders mobilization will be achieved with the involvement of the stakeholders from the very beginning through regular communication, exchange of ideas, knowledge and motivation and meetings at local level. Moreover, a local Energy-day will be organized to gather and inform the stakeholders. During the first months of the project implementation the exactly time of the Energy-day will be decided and the number and place of meetings will be determined by CRES and Municipality representatives Till now there is no specific mobilization of the population. 3.3.2 Legal framework and public policies In Greece like in the most other OECD countries the energy sector is one of the most dynamic and important of the economy. Beyond that, the production, consumption and general the energy management at national level has become one of the most prominent issues of our times. Even though many of the market reform laws required by the EU are now in place, the market power of the incumbent energy suppliers still continues to restrict competition. Unless this issue is addressed, a fully competitive energy market is inconceivable and the potential benefits that consumers could derive will be significantly diminished. Of particular concern are the arrangements for ownership of the electricity and gas transmission systems. Another challenge is the rise in CO2 emissions. As the country’s energy needs are increasing, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are already very close to the 2010 Kyoto target of 25% above 1990 levels (+23.5% in 2003). Lignite, the main domestic fossil fuel resource of Greece, will continue to play a major role in the country’s fuel mix in the future. Greek renewables development is positively affected by the country’s very good resource potential. Greece’s primary development in new renewables is in the wind sector, but care has been taken to ensure that other renewable sources are developed where they provide an economical alternative (provisions of the new Law 3438/2006). A serious barrier encountered by renewables development in the past was a long licensing process of at least two to three years, tackled by the new law on renewables. The new law for the promotion of electricity production from RES was passed in Parliament in June 2006. The new regulatory framework provides for a simplified licensing procedure for the installation and operation of RES systems, a
  • 20. new set of prices for electricity produced from RES, with increased prices for power generated by photovoltaic and solar systems. Furthermore, The Greek Minister of Development, on 4th of June 2009, signed the Joint Ministerial Decision for the free PV installation projects till 10 KWp, in houses and business buildings. The program will be last till December 2019 and the owner of the building will shell the excess electricity to the grid in a higher price than he pays for each KWh Programme “EXOIKONOMO” (SAVE). The programme refers to the improvement of energy efficiency in municipal plants, is a 100-million-euro energy saving programme to be implemented in 228 municipalities nationwide, with a population of over 10,000 people each 3.4 SWOT - Analysis In the framework of the “OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME OF KERATEA MUNICIPALITY” the SWOT analysis was applied in order to identify in the fist stage the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the region. This analysis is valuable for the purposes of RURENER project as it can be the basis for further evolution. SWOT analysis for Natural Sources - Energy Thematic area: Environment and Quality of Life Topic: Natural sources - Energy Strengths Weaknesses • Presence of significant ecological • Low use and penetration of RES sites (beaches, hills) and ES in the Municipal buildings and cars. • Good soil quality in the area • wastage of drinking water for local • Public Power Corporation Plant irrigation of green spaces • Pass of the main gas pipeline • Adequacy of drinking water through the area especially during the summer • Existing recycling programmes months • Composting porgrammes under • Forest fires preparation • Pressure to the ecosystems due to • Public acceptance and arbitrary construction participation in the recycling • dramatic reduction of agricultural
  • 21. programmes land Opportunities Threats • Use of RES in several applications • Forest areas burns for nwe (PVs). housing purposes • Use of natural gas in all the • Sea pollution from the sewage settlements disposal of the setlements • Hills reforestation • Declining of the agricultural land • Use of bioclimatic design Crucial issues of local development 1. Restoration of the river banks vegetation 2. Reforestation 3. Forest protection form fires 4. Water recycling 5. Drinking water management 6. Use of RES 7. Energy Saving 8. Conservation of the agricultural land with adaptation of best available techniques 9. Building regulations and building in already urbanized settlements 10. Necessity for environmental awareness – education of the public in the meaning of energy saving, bioclimatic design and sustainable development.
  • 22. Annex : position
  • 23. 4 Nagypali Population: 380 inhabitants Area: 6,28 km2 Nagypáli is situated in Zala County, 8 km away from Zalaegerszeg. It can be found between the Kemeneshát and the Middle-Zala Hill, North side of Zala River. Nagypáli is currently developing a new modern housing estate with 95 new sites. This will help to support a younger population and create the opportunity to double the number of inhabitants within a few years. The village has an active civil society with many groups engaging in cultural and social activities that enrich community life for residents. 4.1 Renewable Energy Sources Existing detailed plans for a biomass power station, Innovation Ecocentre for renewable energy sources with working solar system, pellet heating system, geothermal system for heating and cooling, wind rotor, to propagate RES technologies. Activities of the Ecocentre are: organization of how-to training, conferences, development of a best-practice book about renewable energy projects, creation of a regional energy concept and development plan. Plans to the future: to build a biomass and biogas power station, that will create an independent energy supply. Six companies are ready to manage the RES business activities in the village. One of them is going to establish a pellet making plant and energy plantation on 600 ha area. 4.2 Rational Use of Energy Realized heating reconstruction of the municipality buildings (the community house, the shop and the health centre).This new heating system consists of a solar technology and a wood gas heating system, called ATMOS. This technology is really cost and energy efficient. Plans to the future: Climatisation system using solar system. Organization of conferences, exhibitions, forums in the Innovation Ecocentre for renewable energy resources
  • 24. 4.3 SWOT – Analysis STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES - RES potential (solar energy, - lack of financial support biomass) - Insufficient infrastructure for - High value of natural heritage, RES use favouring the development of - No feed-in-law for thermal clean energies applications - Research & Development in - Energy efficiency in buildings RES issues in not an obligation yet - Existence of energy market - Absence of TOR for the - Existence of Energy construction of the building management Agency - Low public awareness (Innovation Ecocentre) - Low sensitiveness to energy - Existing working solar system, saving pellet heating system, geothermal system for heating and cooling, wind rotor, to propagate RES technologies - Acquaintance in RES policy and opportunities - Prompt mayor - Active participating in getting funds - Existing data regarding RES consumption - Existing energy strategy OPPORTUNITIES THREATS - Funds to invest in clean - Bureaucracy technologies - Excessive dependency on - Secured tariff for RES electricity fossil fuels - Private investors - Unwillingness to changes - Country commitments - Lack of capacity and - Subsidies – incentives resources at regional and local - Liberalization of electricity level market - Reactions and suspicious to - Suitable climate for bioclimatic RES applications applications - Existence of areas suitable of taking measures
  • 25. 5 Nikiforos Dramas 5.1 Geography, climate Location: Northern Greece, Region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, Prefecture of Drama Altitude: Ranges between 250m in the villages to 1260 m in the mountains of the municipality’s territory borders. Area: 243.81 km² Population: 3.821 inhabitants, who live in the area throughout the year Population Density: 15.67 habitants/ km² Biggest city close to Nikiforos: The city of Drama with 40.000 inhabitants (2001) located 16 km west of the Nikiforos village. The Nikiforos municipality land is characterized as mountainous at about 43% of it and semi-mountainous at the remaining 57%. The landscape of the area is dominated by a semi-mountainous strip of land enclosed by two mountain massifs. The mountain area’s relief is rough with steep slopes mainly due to the presence of marbles dominating this land of the municipality. On the contrary, the relief of the lowlands consists of low hills with mild slopes, as a result of the underlying sedimentary rocks, which are easily eroded. Interrupted aquifers are deployed only at the surface eroded part of the area and this makes their potential exploitation difficult. In terms of the area’s vegetation, three zones are distinguished; the typical low elevation Mediterranean vegetation of Illustration 2: Satelitte view of the Nikiforos macquis and garrigue, the thermophilic municipality: main village deciduous oaks and the oro- Mediterranean vegetation zone with beaches and firs as the main tree species. 5.1.1 Land use The Nikiforos municipality consists of five villages: Nikiforos, Andriani, Ano Pixari, Platanias, Platanovrisi, Ptelea and Ipsili Rachi. Most of the non-urbanised space is used for wheat crops, vineyards, olive groves and mainly animal breeding. A natural attraction of the area for mountaineering is a
  • 26. gorge at the crossing of two local torrents and a small zoo near the Platanias plane forest. The land use distribution of the Nikiforos Municipality includes rangelands (70.5%), agricultural land (15%), forest land (10.36%), residential land (0.8%), public buildings (1.27%), industrial land (0.1%) and mines (1%). The community is connected to electricity network, but not to gas network. 5.1.2 Natural resources for energy The main RES of the area are: i) solar radiation, ii) wind energy, iii) energy crops and iv) biomass. A wind farm of total power 19.8 MW is already under construction near the village of Andriani, as a result of the cooperation between a private company (IKTINOS HELLAS S.A) and the Municipality of Nikiforos. It consists of 11 wind generators and it is expected when finished at the end of 2009 to produce 57 GW. This is equivalent to saving 44.000 tn of CO2 emissions, that is as much as it could be saved by a forest of 6000 ha with 3300000 trees. This wind farm in full operation will cover the annual electricity consumption of about 11000 households. Two more wind farm investments are in the process of obtaining the required licenses and their construction will soon begin. 5.2 Inhabitants and activities There are 1583 households in the municipality of Nikiforos. Its total population increased from 3.350 inhabitants in 1991 to 3819 in 2001, that is, by 14%. Males constitute 48.8% of the total population and females 51.2%. Most of the inhabitants (45.89%) work in primary sector of economy, 25.61% in the secondary sector and 28.5% are occupied in the tertiary sector of economy. The unemployment rate in the municipality of Nikiforos is near 14%. Livestock is very important activity in the area. The total number of cattle, pigs and sheep rises to 20,978. There are also 2.000 beehives and 59 horses. The total number of agricultural holdings recorded in the area rises to 417. Oregano, tea, seeds and ornamental branches are some of the non wood forest products that are produced in the Nikiforos municipality. There are 17 schools in total (kindergarten, primary schools and high school) in the area.
  • 27. 5.3 Rational use of energy Although energy is among the three top priorities for the mayor of the Nikiforos municipality, Mr. Georgios Kariotis, no concrete energy policy plan has been developed for the municipality. However, some actions Mr. Kariotis is pursuing indicate his interest to develop soon such a plan. He has granted permission for installation of photovoltaic plants in communal land and he is also considering installing photovoltaic plants in a municipal building opposite the town hall in order to cover the Municipal buildings energy needs. The mayor although he enjoys good social acceptability for the wind farm construction permits in the area, he believes that the population should become more aware of energy saving and renewable energy production. He is also interested in exploring possibilities for biomass energy production and energy production from residues and garbage. The 2008 energy consumption in the Municipality of Nikiforos was recorded equal to 19,347,012 kWh, which was distributed as follows: • Residential: 8,864,800 kWh (45.82% of the total consumption) • Commercial: 2,990,400 kWh (15.46% of the total consumption) • Industrial: 720,000 kWh (3.72% of the total consumption) • Public buildings: 141,812 kWh (0.73% of the total consumption) • Agriculture: 6,630,000 kWh (34.27% of the total consumption) The total cost for the above energy consumption was calculated equal to €1,987,624. The mean consumption for the households is close to 2066.38 kWh/ inhabitant/year. The 2008 fuel consumption in the public sector was close to 21,960L (both for heat and vehicles) and the petrol consumption was 10,623.51L. There are no data for energy used for transport, wood for fireplace and bottle gas. Mobilization of the population Several farmers in the area have already have changed their food crops to energy crops and it seems that this trend is increasing. Legal framework and public policies There is still too much bureaucracy for renewable energy production and lack of incentives at the local level. Recently specific measures and incentives mainly for photovoltaic installations targeted to natural persons and small enterprises were announced by the Minister of Development. But, the results of these measures will be evaluated in the longer run. Some energy saving programs were also run for Municipalities, but the urban ones. There is still much to be done in the legal framework to stimulate initiatives for the small rural Municipalities.
  • 28. 5.4 SWOT - Analysis SWOT Analysis Template Municipality of Nikiforos Drmas INTERNAL Strengths Weaknesses 1. RES potential 1. Absence of a local Energy Plan -Solar radiation 2. Insufficient infrastructure for RES use (eg. Injection of Biomethane into - wind energy the natural gas grid) -biomass 3. Few RES/ES/RUE applications in -residues the area -garbage 4. Low public awareness 2. Energy crops 5. No incentives at a local level 6. No feed-in-law for thermal P applications N O E S G I A Opportunities Threats T T I I 1. Existence of areas suitable of 1. Lack of capacity and resources at V regional and local level V taking measures E 2. Bureaucracy E 2. Suitable climate for bioclimatic applications 3. Private investors 4. Liberalization of electricity market 5. Subsidies – incentives EXTERNAL
  • 29. Annex : Geographic location
  • 30. 6 Perkupa Population: 941 inhabitants Area: 1940 ha Perkupa is situated in the northern part of Hungary, in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County, 10 km away from the Slovakian border, in the valley of the Bódva river. The traditional economical activities of the inhabitants are connected with agriculture, animal breeding and forestry. The most important mineral resources in this area are chalk-stone and gypsum. There was a gypsum mine and a mill functioning up until 1990, then a marble and band-stone factory operated up until 2008. 6.1 Renewable Energy Sources Existing plans to build an air-conditioner and a heat-pump assembling factory. The high-priced heating with gas is a big problem for inhabitants with low solvency, because of high unemployment Plans to the future: Proceeding biomass for solid fuel and modernising the heating system of public buildings 6.2 Rational Use of Energy Preparation of projects and initiatives based on the utilisation of RES and creation of new work opportunities related to these activities Plans to the future: Collecting the solid biomass produced in the neighbourhood and using it within the heating system of governmental buildings instead of gas
  • 31. 6.3 SWOT – Analysis STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES - RES potential (biomass) - lack of financial support - High value of natural heritage, - No feed-in-law for thermal favouring the development of applications clean energies - Absence of TOR for the - Research & Development in construction of the building RES issues - Energy efficiency in buildings - Promotion of RES investments in not an obligation yet (Plans of air-conditioner and a - Insufficient infrastructure for heat-pump assembling factory) RES use - Ambitious mayor - Low public awareness - - Low sensitiveness to energy saving - Few RES/ES/RUE applications in the area - No incentives at a local level - Absence of a local Energy Plan - Lack of RES recourses OPPORTUNITIES THREATS - Funds to invest in clean - Bureaucracy technologies - Excessive dependency on - Secured tariff for RES electricity fossil fuels - Private investors - Reactions and suspicious to - Country commitments RES applications - Subsidies – incentives - Unwillingness to changes - Liberalization of electricity - Lack of capacity and market resources at regional and local - Suitable climate for bioclimatic level applications - Existence of areas suitable of taking measures
  • 32. 7 Peyrelevade 7.1 Territorial characteristics Peyrelevade is situated in Corrèze department in the Limousin Region, centre of France. At more than 800 m high are living 859 inhabitants on an of 6,6 km². (12,9 inhab/km²) The municipality is part of a joint community with 6 other municipality leading to 2259 inhabitants totally The closest urban center is Ussel (11448 inhabitants in 2004), situated in the South- East, 37 km far (40 minutes) Natural environment is of high quality as situated on the Millevache plateau, natural regional Park with exceptional fauna and flora. Climate is mixed oceanic and continental. Winter is cold with snow, summer is soft. The average daily temperature 8° with a high level of pluviometry : 1550 mm C annually. Sunshining is evaluated at an average of 1665 hours/year when south-oriented. Landscape is soft, characterized by open spaces, hills and meadows, while the forest (mainly conifers) is getting more and more important since agriculture declined. Peyrelevade municipality is fragmented with one main settlement and around 20 small hamlets. New parcels should be urbanised as housing is tackled as one of the most crucial issues for the municipality. A new rest-home for elders should be built as well as a medical house gathering together all the medical professionals. The whole Millevache Plateau is under protection Natura 2000 and under status of Regional Natural Park. Major rare species live there. Il lustration 3: Vue satellite de la commune : village principal Natural resources available for energy Pierre Coutaud, Mayor of Peyrelevade feels that the resource in wood, sunshining and building isolation are the main issues to be tackled, convinced that the high level of environment is a chance for setting up a energy strategy.
  • 33. Energie pour demain "energy for tomorrow", local association tells that 1/3 of the population is using wood for heating and it is a huge potential for economic development too. Highly windy, the Millevache Plateau is a good place for wind farms as illustrated by 6 machines on the community. 7.2 Inhabitants and activities Census 1990 : 1012 Census 1999 : 830 Last census (2006) 859 Number of households 579 People live mainly in individual houses, among which 1/3 is used as second home, and this part is increasing. Around 10% of the population comes from foreign countries. Unemployment rate was 8,2 in 2004 against 10,7 in 1999, while the part of retired people is increasing (from 25% in 1999 to 35% in 2004) The main employer is the socio-educative center dedicated to disabled children, whose salaries mostly live outside the municipality, having difficulties to find jobs for the spouse. 25 enterprises are identified in the primary sector, mainly as cattle and sheep breading. 16 enterprises are specialized on forest exploitation. The second sector is artisans for buildings, while there are several small shops in the village. But most of the active population is working in the neighbouring towns, Ussel, Egletons, Aubusson, Bourganeuf... The joint municipality is leading a project of local medical house which whould be with renewable energies. A crèche, elementary school (with lunch service), a library and a rest-home for elders are set-up in the village. The postal service still keep an office although it is regularly questionned by the private company because of the low activity. Tourism and leisure activities are well developed : screening sessions, hiking, fishing, tennis and golf in the neighbouring community. In terms of accomodation, a hotel, a camping and an old holiday resort welcome tourists.The closest rail station is 24 km far while the first airport is 50 km (1h) far.
  • 34. 7.3 Rational Use of Energy Peyrelevade has started a program withe regional authority and national energy agency (ADEME) wich objective is "energy : -20%". It is listed as a major opportunity presented by the mayor, Pierre Coutaud who identified the existing private and public building renovation as the main priority. He still have to get a clear vision of who is consumming more energy between housing, agriculture, transports, and enterprises. After energy issues, the problems tackled by Mr Coutaud are housing, economic development and development of services. Energy is thus a strategy to develop such activities, as well as a global policy on sustainable development thanks to a starting "agenda 21" (french methodoloy for sustainable planning). The local energy agency, Energies pour demain (3 persons) is an asset for the community, as it gives training, information, experience sharing, etc... at the local level. Peyrelevade is part of national network "notre village", dedicated to sustainable development of small villages. Data are available on electric consumption and public lighting. The environmental audit started for Agenda 21 is also full of information for energy issues. In order to decrease the energy consumption, initiatives have been started such as public lights out in the night, use of low-wattage in public lighting. switch off public machines and regulate heating during nights and week-ends. The community started a policy on transports : collective transports, carpool, set-up of cycling roads... But transport is still a major issue for population due to high needs of go working and back home. The municipal cantine for school uses local products in order to reduce transport and support local economy. Every 2 years the municipality organises a local energy festival, dedicated to the community inhabitants and visitors in order to raise awareness, communicate on different energy sources, etc... In spite of those many initiatives, the mayor Pierre Coutaud still feels that the main weakness is in the fact that there is no real local energy plan for energy. He also tackle the low amount of local subsidies. The small resources of the municipality is also a difficulty as there is no technical staff to support the mayor. Only the local energy agency helps in the steering committee but is dedicated to a larger territory (not only the community). Peyrelevade inhabitants are particularly vulnerable toward fuel costs for transports (for home-office and home city-center shuttle).There is one fuel station in the municipality. Heating cost in not knowed yet (cost fuel) as the community is not
  • 35. connected to gas network and it is much difficult to know the quantity of wood used for heating individually. Electricity is sold 0,079€ per kwh (national price june 2009) Wind farm of Gentioux-Peyrelevade started in december 2004 to produce a maximum of 1,5 MW. They could theoretically give electricity to a 18000 inhabitant city. The public buildings (municipality, creche, school) are equiped with a wood boiler, supplied by a young farmer from the village who got specialized in wood supply activity. Pierre Coutaud identified the potential in renewable energy sources as the main opportunity for its municipality, while the main threats are the low financial capacity from private sector and the municipality itself, the too strong bureaucracy and resistance to change 7.4 Legislation and public policies Millevache Regional Natural Park (113 municipalities) is committed in a strong action for renovating buildings, together with State, Regional Council and Department Council. This programmes allows subisidies for renovation works, as well as for wood-heating installations. A group for forestry development was born in 2005 in the joint community to gather forest owners and share information, training about forest valorization. The group was 190 members in 2008. Already identified earlier is the local energy agency, supported by Region and State. Too much bureaucraty is a high threat according to M. Coutaud, even though the new laws that should come out from the "Grenelle de l'environnement" should be dedicated to energy and environmental issues. State energy agency (ADEME) and Regional Council of Limousin both have programmes supporting energy policies and actions, but the subsidies are now quite low compared to the number of projects in the field. Most of the actions developed in the community were supported financially by these 2 actors anyway.
  • 36. 7.5 SWOT – Analysis
  • 37. 8 Schladen 8.1 Geographical position Schladen is a rural joint community close to the former inner-German border. Schladen is located in the northern Harz region between the county town of Wolfenbüttel in the north, Goslar in the southwest and Bad Harzburg in the south. It is traversed in the south-north direction from the Oker river, which flows here into the Wedde brook (also called Weddebach). Schladen The associated villages are: Schladen, Hornburg, Gielde and Werlaburgdorf. Upon an area of about 74 km² are living at present close to 9500 inhabitants. The altitude is about 97 m above sea level. Historically, there is a high diversity: for example Hornburg is a romantic timber-framed village, Werlaburgdorf is over 1000 years and had an archaeological Imperial Palace since 931st. 8.2 Natural environment The climate of Schladen is located in a border area consisting mainly of continental climate and an edge influence of sea climate. The temperatures vary from about -10° in winter C up to about +30° in summer. The winter is in large parts free of frost, the mean annual C temperature is about 8,8°C. 8.3 Economy The traditional occupations of the inhabitants are in agriculture, animal breeding, forestry, tourism (because of Schladens close distance to the Harz) and the sugar processing industry. In Schladen operates a sugar factory of the Nordzucker AG. The largest employer is the Grotjahn-Foundation, a care- and nursing home. One attraction is the snake farm of Schladen, one of the biggest snake farms in Europe.
  • 38. 8.4 Energetic situation Energy issues will be referred to by the administration as the highest of the five main priorities for the community, even before education, and job security. Although so far no energy policy plan has been developed, that now belongs to the short-term priorities and will be available shortly. There are high efforts to save energy through thermal insulation and to extend the use of renewable energy. Some projects have already been started: The administration offers energy consulting to all of the entire population and carries out annually an energy fair on issues of rational use of energy. The administration seeks an energetic analysis of all properties of the joint community and takes part as well in the campaign "Climate Region Northern Harz region," an action for the determination of deep geothermal energy potential and bioenergy potentials in all areas of the municipality. The district Beuchte (380 inhabitants) is working to become the 2nd Low-emission community (after Jühnde [www.bioenergiedorf.de]) in Lower Saxony. Base is a wood chip-fired district heating network with private consumers. With the heat of a new biogas plant will the supply of additional customers be assured. Also in the planning of biomass heating systems, the community is active. It supports for example the creation of a district heating network in Hornburg to supply many buildings with heat from a biomass heating system. In the solar sector, the community supports an action called "roof supports exchange market”. Together with a local contractor roof surfaces suitable for solar power generation will be determined and registered into a public database. Sometimes the community itself builds photovoltaic plants on the roofs of their properties, sometimes it makes them available for citizen-participated-facilities
  • 39. 8.5 SWOT – Analysis
  • 40. 9 Schoeningen 9.1 Geographical position The city Schoeningen is a town in the Brunswick region, close to the former inner-German border. The town includes the hamlets Schoeningen Esbeck and Hoiersdorf. Upon an area of about 35 km² are living at present close to 12600 inhabitants. Schöningen The altitude is about 114 m above sea level. The area around Schoeningen was already inhabited in the Paleolithic period. Since 1995 the 400,000-year-old "Schoeninger spears" have been found on the edge of the brown-coal mine of Schoeningen. These Paleolithic throwing devices are the oldest surviving complete hunting weapons ever. They show that people have been operated at this time big-game hunting. A continuous settlement for the city Schoeningen, which gained special importance because of its salt deposits, has been detectable for about Nativity. It has been mentioned first in a documentary of 747 as Carolingian royal court. 9.2 Natural environment The climate of Schoeningen is located in a border area consisting mainly of continental climate and an edge influence of sea climate. The temperatures vary from about -10° inC winter up to about +30° in summer. The winter is in large parts free of frost, the mean C annual temperature is about 8,8°C. 9.3 Economy The main areas of employment of the population are in the brown coal mining operations and the associated power plant, agriculture, administration and retail. Schoeningen wants to develop tourism through an experience center around the spears. In the field of lignite opencast mine are found protected species of plants and animals.
  • 41. 9.4 Energetic situation Energy is one of the five main priorities of the city Schoeningen. This is reflected, among other things, in a free initial consultation offered by the administration on energy saving for private homeowners. There are high efforts to save energy through thermal insulation and to extend the planned deployment of renewable energy. Schoeningen runs 2 cogeneration plants (CHP), one in the town hall and one in a primary school . Many roofs are equipped with photovoltaic systems, one located on the roof of a church. The development of photovoltaic systems in public buildings is planned. For the production facilities in the city's new industrial area, the use of waste heat from the nearby waste incinerator is planned. Currently the city is looking to target energy-intensive businesses, which can make good use of the proffered temperature level. In another project is tested in the context of a model testing whether conventional street lighting can be replaced with LED lighting. Currently, four employees of the Department Environment, Planning, Building and Urban Development are involved with the environmental progress. An estimate of the energy needs of the community is currently not available yet. As most energy intensive sectors are provided by the administration industry and housing, followed by agriculture, public buildings and transportation.
  • 42. 9.5 SWOT – Analysis
  • 43. 10 St. Etienne de Lugdares 10.1 Geographical, climatical position The “Cévennes et Montagne Ardéchoises” community is situated on the crossroads of three regions in the heart of the Ardèche Mountains: Rhône Alpes, Languedoc Roussillon and Haute Loire. The community includes seven municipalities; Borne, Cellier du Luc, Laval d’Aurelle, Laveyrune, Le Plagnal, Saint Etienne de Lugdarès and Saint Laurent les Bains. These villages are geographically scattered on a surface of more than 160 km2 and differing in altitude between 600 (Laval d’Aurelle) and 1506 meters (Borne). The community is situated on the Ardèche mountains in the southeast part of the Massif Central. The climate in this part of the Ardèche area is very cold in winter and soft/fresh in summer. The “Cévenne et Montagne Ardéchoises” community is situated in a protected natural space. It belongs partially to the Natural Regional Park of the “Monts d’ Ardèche”, in a countryside called “Ardèche Méridoniale”. Its territory counts Natura 2000 zones. This demonstrates well the quality of the ecosystem, the fauna and the flora of the region. The high environmental value of the region is a factor which facilitates the development of clean energies. 10.2 Inhabitants and activities Today, the community counts 1014 inhabitants and of the 1154 registered "living units" only 403 are principal residences. The municipality of Saint Etienne de Lugdarès is the most populated village of the community with 460 inhabitants. 10.3 Rational use of energy Mr. Champel, chairman of the community, as well as the elected representatives have a real voluntarist policy towards renewable energies. Meanwhile job creation remains the priority within the community and the development of renewable energies appears to be the right tool to achieve this. The most interesting renewable sources of energy to be developed in the region are wind energy, biomass, solar energy and geothermal energy. In 2006, the inauguration of the wind site of Cham Longe (12 wind generators) marked the start of this policy turned to sustainable development. This wind farm which took 10 years before becoming a reality is constituted by 12 wind turbines of 1.5MW each, situated on the municipality of Saint Etienne de Lugdarès (11) and Astet (1). They can provide a population of 70 000 inhabitants with electricity. A wind turbine turns for an average of 25 % of the time - that is some 2500 hours in a
  • 44. year -, knowing that it cannot turn when there is not enough wind nor when there is too much. Those situated to Saint Etienne de Lugdarès have a higher production capacity than average, the sector being ideally windy, is with approximately 3000 hours a year. Two more supplementary wind turbines of 2.3 MW each for which work has started, will be added to the current site. Meanwhile, the forest is considered the main wealthsource of the region. Today however the wood industry is underdeveloped but there is a real political will on the scale of the “Montagne Ardéchoises” to develop the sector. The region is also ideal for the photovoltaic energy. The height authorizes a high rate of return and the air is much less polluted than elsewhere. Furthermore, there is no shortage of space. But the technology is not still in its optimum and the elected representatives prefer to wait for another few years before committing themselves to the development of this type of energy. Concerning the geothermal science, the village of Saint-Laurent-les-Bains is very wellknown for its thermal waters, resurgence of a volcanic past. A warm water source of more than 50° wells up from more than 2500 meters deep. Part of this heat is C already reused for the househeating in particular, but there is important potential of energy left. And the creation of a network of heat is not excluded. Thanks to the presence of a development area for wind energy (DAW), a project for the implantation of another 35 wind turbines is on the way. The DAW allows the resale of the electricity (to EDF) at a guaranteed price. If this project will see the light of day, the expected tax-revenues should allow setting up a cash desk to equip individual people with renewable and soft energies. The current tax-revenues help the community to display an active policy for the employment and the development of the seven municipalities. This year, a micro- day-nursery was opened and there is a project of a business incubator and a cultural space. The will of the community to make a commitment towards energy neutrality is symbolized by numerous projects such as the implementation of a wood-fired boiler for public buildings, isolation of public buildings and geothermal heating of low rate housing. As we can see the prospects of renewable energies imply a realistic choice for rural areas. Furthermore, the house of the renewable energies, a totally energy self- sufficient building will open its doors soon. In a playful and demonstrative way it will demonstrate the visitors the interest and the functioning of renewable energies. Today, the community is still confronted with some reluctance by a part of the public opinion as to the forthcoming changes. However thanks to its membership in the RERUNER network in particular she will be able to develop the mentalities, to change the habit. The road will be long to aim towards the energy excellence. The sustainable development is in our reach, it is only up to the inhabitants of the “Cévenne et Montagne Ardéchoises” community to make their creed.
  • 45. 10.4 SWOT – Analysis
  • 46. 11 St. Jean d'Alcapiès 11.1 Geographical, climatical position Situation : South of France, region of Midi-Pyrénées, department of Aveyron Altitude : 556 m high. Area : 8,62 km² Inhabitants : 257 inhabitants live throughout the year Density : 29,8 hab/km² Biggest city close to Saint-Jean-d'Alcapiès : Millau (22133 inhabitants in 2006) 18 km north-east far. Surroundings environment, "les Grands Causses" is soft montains and valleys, close to dry calcareous area. Spectacular underground waters are back to surface in the area. Low rain pluviometry and generous sunshine (2300 - 2400 hours/year) allow a Mediterranean vegetation. Local speciality is Roquefort cheese, made from ewe milk and prepared in calcareous cellar. 11.1.1 Land use Organisation of village : one village, 5 small settlements and remote houses. No further urbanisation if planned. Most of the non-urbanised space is used for agriculture, especially sheep breeding. Part of regional natural park of "Grands Causse", Saint Jean d'Alcapiès is a protected area for natural heritage. The community is connected to electricity network, (sending electricity from its photovoltaic plant), but not to gas network. Illustration 4: Satelit vue of the municipality : main village 11.1.2 Natural ressources for energy - Low capacity for hydroelectricity, - strong resources in wood and forest (which is under-exploited), - willingness to avoid wind farms in the landscape and - strong sunshining brought local authority to prefer solar technologies + wood boilers. Saint Jean d'Alcapiès's mayor see the potential of RES as the highest strength in terms of energetic neutrality, especially industrial photovoltaic as it may not be
  • 47. exclusive from ewe/sheep breeding, as already experimented in other European countries. 11.2 Inhabitants and activities - 163 inhabitants in 1990, 252 in 2006, 100 households - Most of the inhabitants work in Saint Affrique (7 km) and Millau (18 km). Unemployment rate was 3% in 2006 and 7,7% in 1999. - Breeding goats and sheeps (the only animals able to live on the dry "Causses") producing, 70 millions litres of milk for 19000 t of Roquefort Cheese every year. - Above agriculture, the village counts 3 artisans on the building sector among which one is specialised on solar installations for warm water. - A high quality restaurant and rooms is proposed by a family in a restored farm in the village. There is no shop and no schools in the village, the closest school is a few km far within the joint community. 11.3 Rational use of energy Rational Use of Energy is a high priority for Mayor Jérome Rouve, first with energy savings and then production of RES. ALCAPIA, public building for multi-activity were built in 2008, to become a demonstration site for renewable energy sources and energy saves. The only human resources dedicated to energy are the mayor and his steering committee, composed by citizens and local representatives. There is no technical staff to drive the projects. As the smallest community having realized an Agenda 21 (methodology for sustainable territorial approach), Saint Jean d'Alcapiès focused on 3 actions regarding energy : - Solar boiler for warm water in community buildings. - photovoltaic plant - getting awareness within the population to energy savings and renewable energy. The 2008 consumption of energy is evaluated thanks to the School of Architecture works: - electricity : 279 325 kWh - fuel (heating) : 1 385 700 kWh Meaning a consumption for building close to 6660 kWh/inhabitant/year.
  • 48. There is no evaluation of the energy used for transport, wood for fireplace and bottle gas. The 2008 production was as follow : 36 kW from photovoltaics sources; 54 kW from thermal-solar; 155 kW from wood boiler; 5 kW from a small wind (demonstration). 11.3.1 Mobilization of the population From the 100 households, 49 answered to a specific questionnaire, within one week. Most of the time, people think about energy from the production of renewable energy sources point of view (rather than from energy savings). 30% of people said that their vision changed thanks to ALCAPIA, 30% that they have a project on their own house, and 20% announced that they would follow ecological principles when having work done. 11.3.2 Legal framework and public policies Legal framework regarding landscape, village protection, public decisions... In Aveyron department are set up many initiatives such as industrial photovoltaic of 24 ha in a neighbouring village, the Association "wood energy aveyron" aims at promoting wood boilers, prices for photovoltaic offers good conditions... At the national level, Grenelle de l'Environnement made the government aware of the urgency and a new framework is getting set up. As said Jérome Rouve, their is never enough public subsidies and procedures and bureau cracy are the main issues to be tackled.
  • 49. 11.4 SWOT – Analysis
  • 50. Annex : position
  • 51. 12 Tasca 12.1 Geographical position Taşca is a joint community located in the north-eastern part of Romania, on the river Bicaz. At 29 km distance from the city of Piatra NeamŃ (the administrative residence of NeamŃ County), Taşca has a population of 2715 inhabitants. Together with its small villages Hamzoaia, Secu, Neagra and Ticoş Florea, Taşca is a beautiful, typical village for Bicaz Valley. 12.2 Natural environment Topographic data. Taşca has an area of 9.563 ha, 63% of which being covered with forests. Climate. Taşca is located into the mountainous climatic zone of Oriental Carpathians. The annual average temperature is 8ºC, the average temperature of July is around 19ºC and that of January is -4ºC. The annual average of precipitations rate is 750-800 mm. Hydrography. The main water course is the river Bicaz. The local feeders of Bicaz are Secu, Florea, Neagra and Chişirig. Flora and fauna. On the territory of Taşca, the vegetation consists of bushes of blueberries and red billberies, a species of rare needleleaf tree with falling leaves, some protected species such as Nigritella rubra, Gentiana lutea and the queen of alpine flowers, Leontopodium alpinum. The rich forests in Taşca host bears, foxes, wild boars, squirrels and also some rare species such as the black goat (Rupicapra rupicapra) and the lynx (Lynx lynx). Bicaz and the other permanent water courses offer the trout and rainbow trout. Among birds we can find the wood grouse and the golden eagle. Geomorphological data. The touristic resources in Taşca and surroundings are represented by: Ceahlău Mountain. Ceahlău is National park, with restrictive access. The landscapes are amazing in clear days. One can see many rocks with bizarre aspects, deep forests and a large alpine plateau. Bicaz Gorges. Descending in Bicaz valley, cross spectacular Bicaz Gorges to Lacu Rosu resort. Bicaz Gorges is the most spectacular gorges from Orientali Carpathians. With huge rocks over 350m high, this is a rock climbing paradise. The Cement Factory Moldocim. 12.3 Use of land The surface of Taşca is used as follows: agriculture (115 ha), hayfields (1418 ha), pasture (1083 ha), forests (6609 ha) and other uses (338 ha).
  • 52. Tourism. Sf. Nicolae Church. Going 5 km on the national road from Taşca to Lacu Roşu we find, at Neagra, the church „Sf. Nicolae”. This church was built on the place where an old, small church made of wood, has been brought, around 1800, from Ceahlău mountain. Heros’ Monument in centrul Taşca (1994). The Monument of Ştefan cel Mare Voievod in Neagra (2004). The Monument in Poiana Crucii. Sf. Spiridon Church in Taşca. Due to the rich resources in Taşca and surroundings, the following tourism forms have developed: Mountainous tourism. There are several lines that can be accessed by those who love mountains: Taşca - Vârful Secuiesc – Furcituri river - Izvorul Muntelui river - Izvorul Muntelui chalet; Neagra village – crossing of rivers Neagra Mica and Neagra Mare - Vf. Negrii - Poiana Varatec - Poiana Maicilor - Ocolasul Mic – Dochia chalet. Traveling/transit tourism. Taşca is placed on the national road DN 12C. Hunting and fishing tourism. Cultural and pilgrimage tourism. Weekend tourism. Leasure tourism. Business tourism, due to the Cement Factory in Bicaz. Natural reservations. Ceahlău National Park shelters a large variety of flora and fauna; some of the species are endemic or rarely seen elsewhere in Romania. The entry point to the national park is Izvorul Muntelui village, 12 km north-east of Bicaz. Industry. The main occupation of the inhabitants in Taşca is agriculture, a small part of them working at the cement factory in Bicaz. 12.4 Renewable Energy Use In 1998, an agreement between municipality of Taşca, NeamŃ County authorities and DEPA was signed, establishing the basis for implementation of a pilot project in Taşca, based upon a considerable grant from DEPA. Grue & Hornstrup Consulting Engineers obtained, in August 1998, the assignment as consultants responsible for design, tendering and implementation of the project on the behalf of DEPA. Tendering based upon international tendering procedures (World Bank tender dossiers) was performed at the beginning of year 1999 and the entire project was implemented during the summer 1999. Before the heating season 1999-2000 the entire project was commissioned which included 1) new boiler plant, 2) district heating network, 3) consumer connection units, 4) replacement of pipes under buildings etc.
  • 53. In Taşca, single-family houses are spread all over the village whereas most public buildings (town hall, school, kindergarten etc.) and blocks of flats are concentrated in the centre of Taşca. The new biomass based district heating system is designed to supply hot water to buildings located in the centre of Taşca. The central heating system based on sawdust ensures thermal energy for 132 subscribers, namely: 125 families, 1 economic agent and 1 public institution. Table 1. Technical data Subject Unit Data Heat output capacity of the biomass MW 2.5 boiler system Inhabitants supplied with heat from the % 50 % of the inhabitants in Tasca. biomass boiler system Mostly sawdust, woodchips and Fuel bark Water content of biomass fuel % Up to 50 Efficiency of flue gas cleaning system mg/Nm3 CO emissions < 250 (multi cyclone and bag filter unit) at NOx emissions < 500 10% dry oxygen. Dust emissions < 40 Sawdust production in Neamt County tons/year Approx. 40 – 50 000 Sawdust consumed by the biomass Approx. 2500 (5 – 7% of sawdust tons/year boiler system in Tasca (excluding kiln). production in Neamt County) The demonstration project in Taşca could be implemented thanks to a considerable grant from DEPA under the Danish Ministry for the Environment and financial support from the Neamt County (funds paid by Municipality of Taşca came from the Neamt County). The financing scheme for the demonstration project in Taşca is presented below: · Municipality of Taşca 10 % · DEPA (grant) 90 % In addition to the above mentioned grant for purchasing technical equipment, DEPA also financed the expenses related to consultant services. The demonstration project in Taşca has resulted in environmental benefits and proved that a local environmentally friendly energy source (wood waste) could be used as fuel in district-heating systems in Romania. By substituting a CO2 neutral fuel (wood waste) for a fossil fuel (oil), the new biomass boiler contributes to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The estimation of saved CO2 emissions as a result of implementing the demonstration project in Taşca is based on the following assumptions.
  • 54. Subject Unit Data Quantity of wood waste combusted tons/year 2500 (sawdust) Heat calorific value of wet sawdust GJ/ton 8.27 (50% water content) Typical emission factor - oil kg CO2/GJ fuel used (based on 77.30 lower calorific values) CO2 emission reduction generated by tons/year Approx. 1600 the demonstration project in Tasca The sawdust project developed in the village of Taşca demonstrates that a modern combustion technology can provide a viable solution to two problems: an environmental problem caused by uncontrolled sawdust dumping and an energy- related problem concerning heat supply to the local population. Future development plans of Taşca community foresee an extension of the use of wood waste, in order to ensure thermal energy for the community by building a new biomass plant in the community. As we can see in Table 1, there is enough wood waste available for this purpose. Also, an evaluation of the aeolian and solar energy sources in the neighborhood is desired. For Taşca, being parther in RURENER network and joining RURENER project is an opportunity for new information and for finding new financial sources, and a support to persuade local authorities to involve in this project.
  • 55. 12.5 SWOT – Analysis
  • 56. 13 Tirano 13.1 Territory 13.1.1 Geographical position Tirano is one of the largest towns in Valtellina, the natural northern extremity of the region Lombardy. Located at the end of the flat part of Valtellina flood plain, crossed by river Adda, Turano is in a strategic geographical position as it is an important crossroad for traffic coming from and going to Switzerland through the Poschiavina valley and the Bernina Pass, and is also a railway terminus for both Italy and Switzerland (through the well known Rhaetian Railway, included by UNESCO in 2008 in the World Heritage List). Tirano has 9.168 inhabitants (as at 01/01/2009 – Source: municipal register and ISTAT, the State Statistics Institute) and is located 441 metres above the sea level. Tirano is 25 kilometres away from Sondrio, the Provincial capital, and about 150 km away from Milan, the regional capital. Its territory includes the flood plain, the Rhaetian mountains and the Orobic mountains, including the interesting plateau of Trivigno, part of a site of EU relevance (SIC IT2040024 “From Mount Belvedere to Vallorda”).
  • 57. 13.1.2 Natural environment, climate and geomorphology Geomorphologic configuration. It is the result of the modelling action carried out by various morphogenic agents, glacial flows in particular, which have repeatedly crossed the Adda valley giving it its typical glacial morphology with a U shaped cross section featuring a flat and wide bottom and steep slopes. Tirano is therefore located in a mountain valley environment, whose landscape in the flood plain is marked by a strong urbanisation and, to a lesser extent, apple (Cologna fan) and grapevine (Rhaetian slope, more sunny) crops. Hydrologic configuration. The municipality of Tirano is part of the catchment area of the Adda River (that belongs to the catchment area of the Po river), stretching over a surface of 7.927 square km, 70% of which being mountain territory. The Adda river originated from the release of the Cancano dam and flows north to south; from Tirano to the Como lake the river increases in discharge due to the input of torrents from lateral valleys and for the release of a number of hydro-electric plants. In particular, the main tributaries of the Tirano area are: Roasco torrent, Saiento torrent, Poschiavino torrent, Boalzo torrent and Belviso torrent. Rainfall. The municipality of Tirano is marked by a moderate rainfall (700 mm yearly average) thanks to the wind that from lake Como – penetrating into the valley – prevents air from condensing water vapour. This peculiarity makes Tirano a rainfall depression area. It is moreover useful to observe: − that the maximum rainfall occurs between May and October, with a Continental cold-humid climate; − that peaks occur between May and October, often stretching through to November, while minimum levels occur during winter; − that, in general, during rainy periods there are 2 to 3 peaks.
  • 58. The image shows Tirano, considered as a rainfall depression centre. Temperatures Winter 2007-2008: minimum and maximum temperatures Summer 2008: minimum and maximum temperatures
  • 59. 13.1.3 Use of man-used (urban, industrial, farming) and non man-used soil (forests, pasture land) The town of Tirano, in the flood plain, is the most largely urbanised area and is mainly a residential and commercial settlement. The urban area stretches along the state road SS38 while the industrial-handicraft area is located at the junction of Adda and Poschiavino. Most cropping areas is in the strip nearer to the urban zone. At higher altitudes, crops are replaced by chestnut trees and woods. The remaining plots are occupied by pasture, that is free spaces that are essential to the development of activities linked to animal husbandry. The area near to the river is totally built within the town, while the opposite Adda banks is made of bare gravel.
  • 60. Although the territory of the municipality has a strong inclination towards farming and animal husbandry, the progressive industrial development of the town of Tirano and the modern outsourcing phenomena turned them into secondary activities, often even liked to leisure. The Rhaetian slope of the valley is marked by a strong human presence linked to intensive farming, with a considerable terracing with dry masonry walls where registered designation of origin grapes are cropped. The ideal solar radiation and a particularly fertile land did create a very favourable condition to vine growing. Starting from the Adda river and going up between 500 and 750 m, it is easy to see the typical vineyard system of terraces with the inter row often dedicated to cereals and vegetable crops. After the terraced area there comes a slight plateau hosting the hamlet of Baruffini, surrounded both by cropped land (rye, vegetable crops and potatoes) and chestnut woods. At a further altitude, between 950 and 1800 metres, woods develop, with patches made by pasture land. A further area, the hamlet of Roncaiola, is in a situation of disuse, possibly due to the lack of an adequate road system that would allow its use as vineyard area. The Orobian slope is the southern area of the municipality of Tirano, very steep and with scarce solar radiation, making it unfit for agriculture. The main land use of the soil is woods and, at higher altitudes, pasture. In the past the area was actually cropped (potatoes and rye) and used for animal husbandry (there are still many “maggengo”, the intermediate pasture areas used between winter and summer). The area nearer to Tirano was once cropped with vineyards, while now specialised crops as apple orchards prevail (stark delicious and golden delicious DOP apple varieties), although profitability is lower as compared to the Rhaetian area. At higher altitudes, chestnut woods abound, to give way to true woods, in bands: both coppice (beech, hornbeam, birch, alder and durmast) at lower altitudes and resin (larch, fir and pine) higher up. The Orobian area is marked by the presence of many torrential water courses flowing along the slope in small valleys that they themselves dig. This slopes hosts the site of EU relevance “From Mount Belvedere to Vallorda” (SIC IT2040024).
  • 61. 13.1.4 Natural resources available for energy and their impact on the environment Wood. Wood is the most important resource for Tirano in terms of biomass. Wood is an neutral energy vector as far as CO2 is concerned, as when dissolved it does not produce more CO2 than the quantity taken by plants from the atmosphere during their growth. The use of wood for energy therefore has a neutral balance in terms of CO2, provided that the quantity of biomass used is lower than the quantity that grows. Wood produced may therefore, in a climate protection framework, replace a part of oil and gas used for heating. This choice, in the short and medium run, appears as technically and economically viable although the combustion of wood in traditional heating plants (without expensive filters) does produce an increase of atmospheric pollutants (mainly fine particles and nitrogen oxide). Firewood is moreover not an unlimited resource, it is therefore desirable to obtain a maximum energy return, without further damage to the environment. In this respect, it would be interesting to start wood gasification procedures, turning it into synthetic natural gas (SNG) as already done in Switzerland and Austria. The main steps of the transformation of wood into SNG. Synthetic natural gas preserves 60% of the caloric power of wood, the rest is lost in form of thermal heat which can partially be recovered as internal industrial heating or to produce electricity with steam turbines. The experience of the collective heating plant in Tirano with the use of wood splinters coming from the woods, highlighted that the rural world of forest owners is very fragmented and marked by a scarce entrepreneurial attitude. The first step to seize the opportunity of biomass is that of making forest owners associations more professional in their offer, aggregating and working together in order to be more interesting and competitive on the energy market. Water. In the framework of the rational use of “alternative” energies, the exploitation of hydraulic energy certainly has a great importance and interest for a series of reasons: its diffusion in the area, the long-standing technology in the sector and a desire to be independent from centralised services of production and distribution of electric energy, coupled with the unpredictability of fluctuations of prices of traditional fossil fuels and the awareness of how rapidly their reserves are running short.
  • 62. The province of Sondrio invested on an intensive exploitation of water for hydroelectric energy production, covering now over 90% of available discharge, with a provincial energetic production which, alone, covers 46% of power capacity of the region Lombardy. A few figures, as at 2007: 310 uptake plants, 71 large and average production plants, 500 Km of conduits, 800 Km power transmission lines and 56 dams with a storage capacity of over 400 million cubic metres. The aim now is to promote a wider and more capillary use of hydraulic energy on a small scale, as it offers many advantages both technical (reliability of the energy source, use of small and marginal water courses, protection of natural ecosystems with a very low environmental impact, high global yield, simple construction and duration of the plant) and economical (small financial investment, very low operational and maintenance costs. By small falls it is intended all hydroelectric concessions lower than 3000 kW. The construction of such plants is financially interesting for the production of clean renewable energy and to obtain the so called “green certificates”. It is interesting how the energy obtained from small falls in the 36 plants (operating or under construction) would increase the production of the province by about 100 million KWh (+1,7%) and if all the envisaged plants were to be actually built, that would lead to an increase by 500 million KWh. CRITICAL ISSUES: This 8% increase would however cause a countless environmental damage, as such plants would be built in natural areas of great environmental value. 13.2 Population 13.2.1 Inhabitants The municipality of Tirano is the third municipality in the province of Sondrio for the number of its inhabitants; in January 2009 the number of residents amounted to 9.168 units. • stability of the resident population: over the last 20 years it increased by 200 units only, with long periods of total absence of significant increase except for a short period in the early 2000 and a new decrease over the last three years. • structure of the population by age groups: a quick ageing of the resident population over a relatively short period (2001-2006). • working rate of the resident population is around 50-51% (62-63% for the male segment, 39-40% for females); such activity rate refers to resident population over 15. • resident population in a condition of unemployment (always over 15) is slightly lower than 50%. The most relevant figure is that of retired persons which, in 2001, were 47,1% of non work force. Housewives are also in a high
  • 63. percentage, 29%, while the number of students (high school and university) is 13% of the non working force. 13.2.2 Economic activities Most of the population works in the wide sector of the tertiary and services: in particular in trade (15%) and hotel and catering sector (7%). A good share of the residents in the municipality of Tirano also works in the health and social sector, and this also for the presence of health facilities in the area and in the neighbourhood. A considerable group of residents work in the sector of education (8,3%) and of public administration (7,7%). Lower than 6% is occupation in other activities, with about 5% of the population working for example in banks and insurances. Employment in the field of agriculture and anima husbandry is marginal, 3,6% (a value that has most likely decreased to 3% over the last five years). Also the population that works in the manufacturing industry and handicraft is not very relevant (16% as a whole, 20% for men and 10% for women). Around 2% is the percentage of residents working in the field of the production and distribution of electric energy, while those working in the field of building constructions are around 8%. Companies in the area: 800 service and production units, 130 of which in the field of manufacturing industry and constructions; 2300 units in the tertiary and services, 700 of which devoted to trade and tourism. Commuters. 30% of the active resident population living within the municipality works outside of the territory of the municipality, thus generating an outflow of commuters. According to the census carried out in 2001, jobs in the municipality of Tirano are equal to 3200 units and active residents amount to 3700. This is therefore the situation: - working citizens residing in Tirano 3700; working in Tirano 2900; working outside Tirano 800 - jobs in Tirano 3200, held by residents in Tirano 2900 and held by residents outside Tirano 300. Outbound commuters rate 22% inbound commuters rate 9%. 13.2.3 Services and infrastructure In the municipality of Tirano there are 3 elementary schools, attended by about 500 children, only one junior high school with over 300 students, three high schools attended by an average of 850-900 students, many of which come from neighbouring municipalities. Students mainly commute by coach (80%) and by train (13%). Sports facilities on the municipal territory allow to practice various sports both indoors and outdoors. The municipal library, active for several years now, increased its cultural and lending activities.
  • 64. The municipality of Tirano hosts about 70 associations active in various fields: social, cultural, civil, sports and leisure. Connections between Tirano and other municipalities are ensured by over 50 bus trips leaving from and reaching the municipality. Over 30 trains depart and arrive at Tirano, on the Tirano-Sondrio-Lecco-Milano line. More trains depart and arrive at Tirano from Switzerland. 13.3 Energy 13.3.1 Local energy policy The municipal policy on energy mainly concerns: the participation in the collective heating company decrease of consumption for public lighting replacing bulbs with high energy efficiency items (led) implementation of the energetic audit on buildings owned use of the falls of drinking water for the production of hydroelectric energy installation of photovoltaic panels on municipal buildings creation of a building regulation that encourages the implementation of high energy efficiency building by awarding volumetric bonuses. 13.3.2 Energy costs collective heating (dataTCVVV, 2007- 0,08918 €/kWh Heating energy 2008) gas oil (data CCIAA Sondrio, 0,1485 €/kWh 31.12.2007) Electric energy (data AEMT, October 2009) Type of use €/ kWh Domestic use (for residents) up to 3kW From 0,1129 to 0,2959 Domestic use (for residents) over 3kW From 0,1449 to 0,2742 Domestic use (for non residents) From 0,1449 to 0,2742 Other uses (crafts, industry,..) up to 1,5 kW 0,1307 Other uses (crafts, industry,..) over 1,5 kW 0,1329
  • 65. 13.3.3 Production and consumption of energy Consumption In Tirano, the energy consumption for 2008 has been evaluated: Electric energy (data AEMT) Domestic use 10.000.000 kWh Public 1.000.000 kWh Other uses (crafts, industrial,..) 23.000.000 kWh Total 34.000.000 kWh Energy for heating (data Collective heating (ca. 70% total) 36.500.000 kWh TCVVV) Other heat sources (estimated) 13.500.000 kWh Total (estimated) 50.000.000 kWh TOTAL CONSUMPTION 84.000.000 kWh The pro capita consumption is of 9.179 kWh per inhabitant. Energy consumed for private transport Based on the population (9.151 inhabitants), on the latest data about cars circulating in Italy (592 cars every 1000 inhabitants), on the data of the Swiss federal bureau for territorial development, indicating that every car covers about 13.500km per year; based on an estimated consumption of 8 litres fuel per 100km, the consumption estimated has been of 5.850.360 litres of fuel per year, that is (at 9 kWh per litre) 52.653.240 kWh of energy. Production The producers of energy from renewable resources are: Electric energy: Biomass Collective Heating Plant, with a co-generation system (in 2008 it produced 7.500.000 kWh) Private photovoltaic panels (unavailable data) Photovoltaic panels that are public or owned by companies that have a public share: AEMT plant, built less than one year ago, it produced kWh (since activation). installation on the Collective Heating Plant (73.000 kWh in 2008) Heating energy: Biomass Collective Heating Plant: in 2008 it produced the 36.500.000 kWh indicated as a consumption, net of energy losses for production and transportation, that may be assessed as about 15% of energy invoiced (5.475.000 kWh).
  • 66. Data concerning the production of solar collectors for self-heating or hot water production are unavailable, and equally unknown are data concerning the consumption of gas for cooking, yet they are considered as negligible. 13.3.4 Raising awareness in the population In order to raise awareness among the young people (and indirectly their families) about the theme of energy, and to promote virtuous behaviours that concern its use, didactic programmes and workshops have been organised in primary, junior high and high schools. Public meetings have also been organised in the evenings, aiming at raising awareness among the population on the themes of sustainable development and energy saving. Various materials and information leaflets have been issued to the same end, concerning in particular chances offered for tax relief, by means of which the Italian Government encouraged refurbishment of buildings fostering energy saving (improvement of energy efficiency with the use of insulating material etc.). 13.4 Legislation and public policies 13.4.1 Public initiatives Regional level The Energetic Regional Programme (Programma Energetico Regionale, PER, approved on the 21st of March 2003 by D.G.R. n. 12467) sets the framework for the situation of energy in the Lombardy Region and describes the expected evolution over the next ten years, highlighting the guidelines of the policy to be implemented by the Regional Government in relation with the objective of increasing renewable sources and diffusing Collective Heating projects and cogeneration plants, describing implementation tools chosen (i.e. the Action Plan for Energy – Piano d’Azione per l’Energia, PAE). The PER is a flexible tool and is updated every year, supporting the local government body in directing its action in the following fields: - the definition of new norms and regulations supporting the world of energy and its actors and users; - the destination and use of available financial resources; - the contents of information aimed at economic actors and households; - the promotion of innovative initiatives supporting new technologies and management models; - the support to scientific research. The Lombardy Region is the first in Italy to have approved the Action Plan for Energy (PAE), thus complying with the indications of the European Union. It is an implementation tool of PER and includes the guidelines of a regional energy policy, defining strategic objectives, fields of action (regulations, stimulation and support to innovation) and actions to be implemented on the short/medium run. It includes measures that aim at decreasing the cost of energy produced and its effects on the
  • 67. environment, at enhancing the competitive growth of enterprises in the area and at consumers protection. The strategic objectives of the regional action are the following: - reducing energy costs for companies and families; - reducing polluting and climate-altering emissions; - promoting the competitive development of industries in the field of new energy technologies; - increasing employment at local level, as a direct consequence of energy policies; - protect weak and vulnerable consumers. Action guidelines: - reducing the energetic dependence of the Region, increasing the production of electric energy and heating by building new high efficiency plants; - restructuring existing plants to enhance efficiency to match new standards offered by better technologies; - improving and diversifying the interconnections with national and international energy networks, in order to ensure supply; - promoting the increase of energy production at regional level, taking into account the health of citizens; - re-organising the energy system of the Region Lombardy in compliance with its environmental and territorial features and in the framework of an overall programming structure; - reducing specific energy consumption by improving energy efficiency and promoting action for a rational use of energy; - promoting the use and capillary diffusion on the territory of renewable energy sources, at the same time enhancing the industry which is linked to renewable resources; - promoting the development of the Lombardy energetic system, in compliance with town planning tools. The Region Lombardy, through the coordination of decisions taken at various administrative levels, regulates relations with local authorities. The PAE is therefore also a point of reference for all public and private actors who decide to start an initiative in the filed of energy in their territory. The Decision of the regional Council n. 674 dated 3rd December 2003, stating the guidelines to draw the energy programme, highlights in the chapter “Criteria and modes for the promotion of the use of alternative renewable sources” how water resources are nearly totally exploited and a further use must be “tuned to the need of protecting the natural environment of water courses”. Building sector The Region Lombardy issued two Regional Laws aiming at energy saving and the reduction of emissions: - Regional Law 26/2003 “Norms in the field of management of waste, energy, use of the subsoil and water resources”, stating that the Region must regulate the modes and criteria to certify the energy efficiency of buildings
  • 68. - Regional Law 39/2004 “Norms for energy saving in buildings and for the reduction of polluting and climate-altering emissions”, stating the need to improve the performances of buildings in terms of heat dispersion. The law is currently being revised to make it comply with the D.lgs. 192/05. Provincial level At the level of the Province of Sondrio, the PAE highlights a critical situation as to the degree of exploitation of surface water resources. It therefore indicates as a perspective of development the rationalisation and optimisation of uses already implemented, envisaging more sustainable actions that mainly concern two fields of action: - the promotion of small plants, defined as mini-hydroelectric (< 3 MW), exploiting small falls linked to irrigation canals and municipal aqueducts; - maintaining the efficiency of present production capacity, mostly offered by ancient plants in need of relevant maintenance, together with a more general rationalisation of the system of plants with an uptake from each river and watershed that is in tune with the objectives of the Water Protection Plan, a new tool for the integrated planning of water resources. • Territorial Plan of Provincial Coordination (PTCP) The Territorial Plan of Provincial Coordination of the Province of Sondrio is the tool by which the Provincial Government states the guidelines to manage the landscape and territory of the province. It aims at favouring sustainable development of the territory by guidelines and prescriptions as to the socio-economic development process of local population, according to environmental sustainability criteria and protection and enhancement of the historic and cultural features of the population of Valtellina and Valchiavenna valleys. Macro-actions aiming at these objectives and that are connected to energy issues include: - the innovation of networks through the development of communication techniques and the rationalisation if energy transportation networks. Art. 54 “Infrastructure for energy transportation”, paragraph 1, states <The PTCP aims at rationalising electric energy transportation network within the provincial territory, minimising the environmental and sanitary impact of the network and improving its effectiveness in terms of yield (energy saving). This is the framework of the Agreement “Rationalisation of the national transmission network of north-eastern Lombardy and localisation of the 380 kV line S. Fiorano – Robbia connecting to Switzerland” mentioned by the following. • Provincial Energy Plan (PEP) The elaboration of a Provincial Energy Plan is envisaged in the Territorial Plan for Provincial Coordination (PTCP) as a sector plan. The setting up of the Energy Plan of the province of Sondrio, which is presently under way, aims at identifying and programming the use of energy resources, with special reference to renewable resources, taking also into consideration the local sustainability in the use of each
  • 69. resource. This is a chance to create a synergy between the drafting of territorial development policies and a new approach to energy planning. In particular, it envisages the development of various activities, branching out in a few key-issues: - a provincial energy balance - the analysis of the state of the art in the use of renewable energy sources (FER) and rational energy sue systems (URE) - the evaluation of the potential use of FER and URE with a cost-benefits analysis; - the setting up of an action plan. The province of Sondrio, being a relevant producer of hydroelectric energy and being located in an international border area, is crossed by a significant number of power transmission lines implemented, in time, by various operators. This caused two main problems: a loss of power and the multiplication of impacts on the territory, both due to an excessive fragmentation of the network. • Agreement “Rationalisation of the national transmission network of north-eastern Lombardy and localisation of the 380 kV line S. Fiorano – Robbia connecting to Switzerland” The agreement concerns the rationalisation of the electric energy transportation network of Valtellina and Valchiavenna valleys, aiming at minimising the environmental impact of electrodes at the same time increasing its effectiveness in terms of energy saving. Such agreements indicates the three steps of the construction of a new 380 kV line and subsequent progressive dismantling of many existing lines. The PEP will define the elements that are necessary to the full implementation of such Agreement. • Agreement Territorial Development Framework “Environment, Energy, Water and Wastes” (in compliance with L.R. 14th March 2003, n.2) The AQST is a negotiated programming tool that is considered adequate, by the Provincial Government of Sondrio, to implement socio-economic and cultural development actions with particular reference to environment, energy, water and wastes. The Region Lombardy attributes to the Province of Sondrio, as a transitional solution and awaiting a specific law to be issued, the function of Water Property Manager, including the management of its earnings (with particular reference to yearly earnings deriving from the collection of fees). The present AQST moreover aims at achieving objectives that are coherent with the indications contained in the regional programming documents which need an integrated approach. The six strategic objectives identified concern: - strengthening the energy system; - producing energy from renewable sources; - reducing emissions in the atmosphere of climate-altering substances; - managing water; - giving a new drive to the productive system; - strengthening the tourist-sports system.
  • 70. They can all be summarised in two main action guidelines: the energy and productive system and the tourist sector, with particular reference to weaker areas. The two themes and projects related have a common ground in the environment, marking the only province of Lombardy having a totally mountain landscape. Energy system. Action proposed aim at developing a unitary framework of the energy system, in synergy with other projects and agreements under way, through the diversification of offer (methanisation), the promotion of plants using renewable resources (mini hydroelectric, biogas), the study of the use of renewable resources and energy saving, the analysis of themes that concern water exploitation, the definition of an action programme involving the re-naturalisation and control of solid transport, the implementation of pilot cogeneration plants applied to public structures. 13.4.2 Legislative and procedural obligations The Regional Energetic Programme (PER) and the Action Plan for Energy (PAE) are orientating tools and for the time being they do not include implementation measures. Building sector In compliance with directive 2002/91/CE concerning energy efficiency in building construction the D.lgs. 311/2006 states that: - starting from July 1st 2007 existing buildings larger than 1000 square metres that are going to enter the real estate market must have an energy certification; - starting from July 1st 2008 the obligation is extended also to buildings below 1000 square metres, in case the whole building is traded; - starting from July 1st 2009 the energy efficiency certificate is mandatory, also to trade single flats. 13.4.3 Aids and incentives The Region Lombardy granted aids in various sectors: implementation of thermal solar plants (servicing public buildings and private companies), buying ecological vehicles, restructuring according to energy saving and efficiency parameters.
  • 71. 13.5 SWOT – Analysis SWOT Analysis Municipality of Tirano - Italy INTERNAL Strengths Weaknesses 1. RES potential: biomass, solar radiation 1. Absence of a local Energy Plan 2. No incentives at a local level 2. Existance of energy market 3. Few RES/ES/RUE applications in the area 3. Research & Development in RES issues 4. Absence of TOR for the construction of the building (eg. no 4. High value of natural heritage, favoring the bioclimatic criteria) development of clean energies 5. Low public awareness 5. Existence of Energy management Agency 6. Low sensitiveness to energy saving 7. Lack of RES resources 8. Insufficient infrastructure for RES use (eg. Injection of Biomethane into the natural gas grid) 9. No feed-in-law for thermal applications 10. Energy efficiency in buildings in not an obligation yet NEGATIVE POSITIVE Opportunities Threats 1. Existence of areas suitable of taking measures 2. Suitable climate for bioclimatic applications 1. Lack of capacity and resources at regional and 3. Private investors local level 4. Country commitments 2. Bureaucracy 5. Secured tariff for RES electricity 3. Reactions and suspicious to RES applications 6. Liberalization of electricity market 4. Unwillingness to changes 7. Subsidies – incentives 5. Excessive dependency on fossil fuels (eg. Lignite, 8. Funds to invest in clean technologies coal) EXTERNAL
  • 72. 14 Wesendorf 14.1 Geographical position It is a rural joint community placed in the region of Braunschweig, located in the south of Lüneburg Heath. It consists of six villages: Wesendorf, Gr. Oesingen, Schönewörde, Ummern, Wagenhoff und Wahrenholz. Wesendorf Upon an area of about 209km² are living at present close to 15.000 inhabitants. The altitude varies within the joint community between 56m and 68 above sea level. The joint community is only 30 years old, but some of their villages have historical essentials since the 13th century. 14.2 Natural environment Wesendorf is located into the continental climatic zone at the border to a sea climatic zone. Temperatures vary from -10° in winter up to +30° during summer. During winter the C C temperatures are mostly slightly above freezing point, the average temperature throughout the year is about 9°C. Wesendorf is the starting point for several attractive routes in the heath. In the surrounding area with the ”Great Moor” you can find rare and protected species of plants and animals. Wide forests, meadows and swamps, or other places of interest like the Wahrenholzer watermill can be explored by bike, on foot or even by horse. Characteristically are the large inviting heather landscapes. As far back as Hermann Löns people appreciated this region. In the heater country “Heiliger Hain” is placed an memorial rock, reminding of the famous heather poet, who got inspired by the landscape. 14.3 Economy The traditional occupations of the inhabitants are in agriculture, animal breeding, forestry and wood industry. More than half of the joint community’s total area are in agricultural cultivation, meaning a land use of 112,5 km. Up to the 60s was an oil production in the southern heath.
  • 73. Military used barracks have been closed in 2006. The municipal administration is pushing for the change of the former military complex “Hammerstein – Kaserne” into an area zoned for economic activities. With the aim of settling new commercials and companies onto this properties the “Hammerstein Park” emerges. The natural environment leads toward a high recreation value, thus a tourism industry is slightly expanding throughout the years. 14.4 Energetic situation As like in most communities in Germany, fossil fuels carry out the main part of the energy supply for the joint community of Wesendorf. To reduce this dependency and to take active steps to protect the environment, the community put a biogas plant into operation in 2007. To use the waste heat, a local heat grid has been build. Some of the public buildings, a medical center and a new development area are getting their heat out of the biogas plant by now. Actual there are two employees of the administration partly involved into energy and environmental issues. The administration is willing in general to take further steps towards RES and RUE, but there are no direct plans right now. A useful spadework could be collecting data about the real energy demand of the joint community. Those are only known for public buildings, but not about businesses, industry and private households. According to estimations of the administration are residential and agriculture the most energy intensive sectors within the joint community, followed by public buildings and the less intensive sectors of industrial and transport. During the last board meeting in the town hall it has been decided to use money out of the government’s economic stimulus package for the renewal of the heating system in the elementary school of Wahrenholz.
  • 74. 14.5 SWOT – Analysis