2. Learning Outcomes
1–1 Analyze the relationships
among political culture, public
opinion, and public policy in Texas.
1–2 Distinguish among
moralistic, traditionalistic, and
individualistic political subcultures.
1–3 Discuss the distinctive
social, economic, and political
characteristics of major Texas regions.
3. Learning Outcomes, Cont.
1–4 Trace the struggle for equal
rights in Texas by women, African
Americans, Latinos, and gay men and
1–5 Evaluate the social and cultural
changes that are likely to define Texas‟s
4. What is Political Culture?
Political Culture is a patterned set of
ideas, values, and ways of thinking
about government and politics.
Political culture can influence what types
of powers people feel government
should have and what services it should
5. Texas Ideology
Conservatism: A set of beliefs that includes a
limited role for government in helping individuals
and in economic affairs, and support for
traditional values and lifestyles.
Conservatism that values an active role for
government in promoting business activity. For
example, government investments in highways
and bridges for use by private companies, OR tax
breaks meant to encourage the growth of small
businesses or corporations.
6. Texas Ideology, Cont.
Social Conservatism: Conservatism that
supports government activity to encourage and
enforce traditional moral behavior and cultural
values. For example, these individuals would
encourage prayer in schools, laws banning or
limiting abortion and even laws making divorce
more difficult to obtain.
Liberalism: The minority viewpoint in Texas.
Liberals tend to believe that government can be
used as a positive tool to benefit the population
as a whole. Liberals tend to be more focused on
policies encouraging the provision of „public
7. Daniel Elazar‟s Political Subcultures
Felt that the United States is best
characterized by three distinct political
1) Moralistic Political Subculture
2) Individualistic Political Subculture
3) Traditionalistic Political Subculture
8. The Influence of Ideology on
In Texas, conservative ideology leads to
limited government through low tax rates and
limited public services.
This means that Texas is a „Low Tax, Low
Texans may complain about poorly funded
schools or badly maintained roads, but very
few are willing to accept the higher tax rates
that would be required to remedy these
9. Moralistic Political Subculture
A political subculture that believes
government can be a positive force—one that
values the individual but functions to benefit
the general public.
This subculture is most closely associated
with New England and the Puritan heritage of
the original American settlers.
States with this type of political subculture
tend to have higher taxes, but also stronger
social programs and more well-funded
10. Individualistic Political Subculture A political subculture that views government
as a practical institution that should further
private enterprise but intervene minimally in
This subculture is most closely associated
with Central Midwest and Western states like
Colorado or California.
Areas with this type of political culture value
personal autonomy and greater individual
political action so they may advocate for the
decriminalization of marijuana or the use of
ballot initiatives to pass new legislation.
11. Traditionalistic Political
A political subculture that views government as
an institution to maintain the dominant social and
This subculture is closely associated with former-
Confederate states in the South.
Areas with this type of political culture view
politics as the realm of elites, and tend to
discourage political participation by the mass
public while encouraging greater personal
autonomy as long as it fits within traditional
conceptions of gender roles and religious values.
12. So What is Our Political Culture?
Texas is seen as a combination of the
traditionalistic political culture brought by
slave-owning settlers, and individualistic
political culture brought by settlers who came
to Texas in search of material wealth.
The exact mixture between these subcultures
varies within the state, but overall, Texas
politics is characterized by low levels of
political participation and policy outcomes
focused on the needs of business.
13. Provincialism and Business
Texas is often thought of by outsiders as
provincial, or associated with rural values
and limited government with an intolerance for
diversity and an unwillingness to accept social
Modern Texas politics is more accurately
thought of dominated by business interests—
Texas has weak labor unions, lower wages
and benefits for workers, and increased tax
breaks for businesses in order to encourage
them to locate in Texas.
14. Texas Cultural Regions
According to the textbook, there are 9
main cultural and political regions in
Texas, each characterized by its own
unique history and economic
15. East Texas
Seen as a social and cultural extension
of the „Old South.‟
Characterized by rural values and
established families with old money.
Includes places like Tyler and Longview.
Major industries include
cotton, cattle, and timber.
16. The Gulf Coast Includes former economic colonial areas like
Houston and Beaumont.
Associated with the oil industry boom and
international immigration from Southeast
Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
Due to lax standards for environmental
protection in Texas, the air and water quality
along the Gulf Coast is less than
ideal, which, according to some research, has
resulted in higher than average levels of
asthma and certain types of cancer among
residents of this region.
17. West Texas and the Panhandle
Associated with rural values seen in the
Midwestern United States.
The main industries in this region
include cotton, grain, and livestock
The most pressing political issues in this
region deal with the allocation of water
from the Ogallala Aquifer, which is
critical to the maintenance of agriculture
in these areas.
18. North Texas
Includes the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex, and
is seen as a financial and commercial center
of national importance.
DFW developed as a rail center in the
1870s, but experienced its most rapid growth
after World War II.
Dallas-Fort Worth political leaders have
proven adept at encouraging business growth
by offering tax „holidays‟ to multi-national
corporations for them to locate their
headquarters in DFW.
19. Central Texas
Often called the „Central Triangle‟ because it
includes the areas between Dallas-Fort
Worth, Houston, and Austin.
Known as the high-tech “Silicon Valley” of
Texas and includes the headquarters of
computer company Dell.
Includes Austin, which is often thought of as
the most liberal city in the state, although in
recent elections, both Dallas and Houston
have also grown more liberal.
20. South and Southwest Texas-The
Characterized by a binational subculture in
which the people and economies of Texas and
Mexico interact continously.
Well-known for citrus agriculture and assisted
economically by the North American Free Trade
Agreement (NAFTA), although it is still one of the
poorest areas in the nation.
The Texas border region is a subject of
international political discussion for two main
reasons: The trade of illegal drugs, and the flow
of unauthorized immigration to the United States.
21. The Struggle for Equal Rights in
As the demographics of the Texas population
have shifted from majority Anglo to majority-
minority, previously disadvantaged groups have
begun to seek a greater role in Texas society and
We will now take a look at several instances in
which these disadvantaged groups gained access
to the political process, and if their actions have
had a consistent long-term positive effect.
22. Women‟s Rights in Texas
Due to the legacy of both Spanish law and the
individualistic nature of Texas political
culture, Texas women had some rights not
enjoyed by women in other states.
Women could own property and had a limited
right to ask for a divorce.
23. Women‟s Rights in Texas
Led by Minnie Fisher Cunningham, Texas
suffragists were able to win the right to vote in
the Texas primary in 1918, two years before
the passage of the 19th Amendment, which
granted women the right to vote in national
However, it was not until 1972, with the
adoption of the Marital Property Act that
women were granted the equal rights as men
in child custody, insurance, and property
24. The Rights of Racial Minorities in
Many African-Americans were brought to
Texas as slaves and served in that capacity
until the end of the Civil War in 1865.
Although the federal government promised
social and political equality after the adoption
of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, in
Texas, like much of the South, the rights of
minorities continued to be denied through the
actions of government officials and citizen
groups like the Ku Klux Klan.
25. The Rights of Racial Minorities in
Beginning in the 1920s, two major civil rights
organizations began effectively lobbying for
civil rights protections for minority groups.
The National Association for the Advancement
of Colored People (NAACP) and the League
of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC)
launched legal campaigns to challenge the
legal standard that separate facilities for
different races were, in fact, equal.
26. The Rights of Racial Minorities in
Two major cases decided by the Supreme Court
which helped establish equal rights for racial
Smith vs. Allwright (1944) which held that all
methods used to establish a white primary for
elections were unconstitutional, and
Sweatt vs. Painter (1950) a case out of the
University of Texas law school which held that
even if Texas established a separate law school
for African-American students, it would still be
unequal to the prestige and resources available
to the white students at U.T.
27. The Rights of Racial Minorities in
The desegregation of Texas schools
was ordered along with those in the rest
of the country under the Brown vs.
Board of Education decision in 1954.
However, many schools in Texas fought
integration, with many school districts
shutting down instead of allowing
minority students to enroll.
28. The Rights of Racial Minorities in
Due to the growth of suburbs
surrounding major Texas metropolitan
areas, there are still many schools in
Texas which are racially segregated as a
result of housing patterns.
This de facto segregation has been
upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court
because it is not a result of any direct
action taken by the government.
29. Latinos in Texas
LULAC and the American G.I. Forum fought for
the equal treatment of Texans of Latino origin.
Despite the fact that under Texas law Latinos
were to be considered white, there was still
widespread discrimination in education and
The Supreme Court decision in Hernandez vs.
Texas (1954) held that Latinos were a members
of a „class‟ who deserved special protection by
the government against racial discrimination.
30. Gays and Lesbians in Texas
Due to our traditionalistic political culture, LGBTQ
Texans have, and continue to face discrimination
in employment, housing, and family law.
However, a Supreme Court case from
Texas, decided in 2005, held that intimate sexual
conduct between adult consenting individuals
was protected behavior under the 14th
Amendment and could not be banned under
The issues of gay marriage and gay adoption are
still matters decided by individual states, and both
remain illegal in Texas.
31. Diversity and Culture in Modern
According to new demographic data, Texas is
now a majority-minority state.
Despite growth and diversity; deep economic
inequalities persist between ethnic and racial
Compared with the rest of the nation, the median
income in Texas is much lower and a larger
proportion of Texans live below the poverty
line, including more children
32. Diversity and Culture in Modern
Within the State, disparities in wealth
between different areas are huge.
For example, per capita income outside
Brownsville in the Texas border region is
$4,103 per year, compared with
$184,991per year in the Memorial Park
neighborhood of Houston.
33. Diversity and Culture in Modern
Texas‟s business-friendly laws have encouraged
many high-tech companies locate in Texas but if
Texas public schools continue to be poorly-
funded it can lead to an ‘Education Gap.’
Education Gap is the term used to refer to the
gap between the types of skills Texas students
are able to learn in school, and those skills
needed by high-paying employers.
If businesses cannot find people to hire in
Texas, our state will not benefit from the jobs
made available by these companies.
34. Rick Perry and the „Texas
The current Texas governor, Rick Perry, often
discusses how Texas came through the 2008
Financial Collapse with fewer overall issues
than many other states due to our political
deference to business interests.
However, what political scientists have
determined is that most of the jobs created in
Texas since 2008 have been in the lowly-paid
service sector, not in sectors which offer high
pay and good benefits.
35. The Future of Texas Politics
Given the shifting demographics of the
Texas population, it will be interesting to
see if Texas politics continue to reflect
the historically traditional and individual
political cultures, or if Texas may one
day become a more liberal state.
36. Ch. 1 Quiz Password
The password for the Chapter 1 Quiz from the
Maxwell Texas politics book is