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Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment
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Maxwell ch1 texasgovernment

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GOVT 2306 Ch. 1 Texas Culture and Diversity

GOVT 2306 Ch. 1 Texas Culture and Diversity

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  • 1. Texas Culture and Diversity Chapter 1
  • 2. Learning Outcomes  1–1 Analyze the relationships among political culture, public opinion, and public policy in Texas.  1–2 Distinguish among moralistic, traditionalistic, and individualistic political subcultures.  1–3 Discuss the distinctive social, economic, and political characteristics of major Texas regions.
  • 3. Learning Outcomes, Cont.  1–4 Trace the struggle for equal rights in Texas by women, African Americans, Latinos, and gay men and lesbians.  1–5 Evaluate the social and cultural changes that are likely to define Texas‟s political future.
  • 4. What is Political Culture?  Political Culture is a patterned set of ideas, values, and ways of thinking about government and politics.  Political culture can influence what types of powers people feel government should have and what services it should provide.
  • 5. Texas Ideology  Conservatism: A set of beliefs that includes a limited role for government in helping individuals and in economic affairs, and support for traditional values and lifestyles.  Business-Oriented Conservatism: Conservatism that values an active role for government in promoting business activity. For example, government investments in highways and bridges for use by private companies, OR tax breaks meant to encourage the growth of small businesses or corporations.
  • 6. Texas Ideology, Cont.  Social Conservatism: Conservatism that supports government activity to encourage and enforce traditional moral behavior and cultural values. For example, these individuals would encourage prayer in schools, laws banning or limiting abortion and even laws making divorce more difficult to obtain.  Liberalism: The minority viewpoint in Texas. Liberals tend to believe that government can be used as a positive tool to benefit the population as a whole. Liberals tend to be more focused on policies encouraging the provision of „public goods.‟
  • 7. Daniel Elazar‟s Political Subcultures  Felt that the United States is best characterized by three distinct political subcultures.  1) Moralistic Political Subculture  2) Individualistic Political Subculture  3) Traditionalistic Political Subculture
  • 8. The Influence of Ideology on Policy  In Texas, conservative ideology leads to limited government through low tax rates and limited public services.  This means that Texas is a „Low Tax, Low Service‟ state.  Texans may complain about poorly funded schools or badly maintained roads, but very few are willing to accept the higher tax rates that would be required to remedy these situations.
  • 9. Moralistic Political Subculture  A political subculture that believes government can be a positive force—one that values the individual but functions to benefit the general public.  This subculture is most closely associated with New England and the Puritan heritage of the original American settlers.  States with this type of political subculture tend to have higher taxes, but also stronger social programs and more well-funded schools.
  • 10. Individualistic Political Subculture A political subculture that views government as a practical institution that should further private enterprise but intervene minimally in people‟s lives.  This subculture is most closely associated with Central Midwest and Western states like Colorado or California.  Areas with this type of political culture value personal autonomy and greater individual political action so they may advocate for the decriminalization of marijuana or the use of ballot initiatives to pass new legislation.
  • 11. Traditionalistic Political Subculture  A political subculture that views government as an institution to maintain the dominant social and religious values.  This subculture is closely associated with former- Confederate states in the South.  Areas with this type of political culture view politics as the realm of elites, and tend to discourage political participation by the mass public while encouraging greater personal autonomy as long as it fits within traditional conceptions of gender roles and religious values.
  • 12. So What is Our Political Culture?  Texas is seen as a combination of the traditionalistic political culture brought by slave-owning settlers, and individualistic political culture brought by settlers who came to Texas in search of material wealth.  The exact mixture between these subcultures varies within the state, but overall, Texas politics is characterized by low levels of political participation and policy outcomes focused on the needs of business.
  • 13. Provincialism and Business Dominance  Texas is often thought of by outsiders as provincial, or associated with rural values and limited government with an intolerance for diversity and an unwillingness to accept social change.  Modern Texas politics is more accurately thought of dominated by business interests— Texas has weak labor unions, lower wages and benefits for workers, and increased tax breaks for businesses in order to encourage them to locate in Texas.
  • 14. Texas Cultural Regions  According to the textbook, there are 9 main cultural and political regions in Texas, each characterized by its own unique history and economic specialization.
  • 15. East Texas  Seen as a social and cultural extension of the „Old South.‟  Characterized by rural values and established families with old money.  Includes places like Tyler and Longview.  Major industries include cotton, cattle, and timber.
  • 16. The Gulf Coast Includes former economic colonial areas like Houston and Beaumont.  Associated with the oil industry boom and international immigration from Southeast Asia, Africa, and Latin America.  Due to lax standards for environmental protection in Texas, the air and water quality along the Gulf Coast is less than ideal, which, according to some research, has resulted in higher than average levels of asthma and certain types of cancer among residents of this region.
  • 17. West Texas and the Panhandle  Associated with rural values seen in the Midwestern United States.  The main industries in this region include cotton, grain, and livestock cultivation.  The most pressing political issues in this region deal with the allocation of water from the Ogallala Aquifer, which is critical to the maintenance of agriculture in these areas.
  • 18. North Texas  Includes the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex, and is seen as a financial and commercial center of national importance.  DFW developed as a rail center in the 1870s, but experienced its most rapid growth after World War II.  Dallas-Fort Worth political leaders have proven adept at encouraging business growth by offering tax „holidays‟ to multi-national corporations for them to locate their headquarters in DFW.
  • 19. Central Texas  Often called the „Central Triangle‟ because it includes the areas between Dallas-Fort Worth, Houston, and Austin.  Known as the high-tech “Silicon Valley” of Texas and includes the headquarters of computer company Dell.  Includes Austin, which is often thought of as the most liberal city in the state, although in recent elections, both Dallas and Houston have also grown more liberal.
  • 20. South and Southwest Texas-The Border Region  Characterized by a binational subculture in which the people and economies of Texas and Mexico interact continously.  Well-known for citrus agriculture and assisted economically by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), although it is still one of the poorest areas in the nation.  The Texas border region is a subject of international political discussion for two main reasons: The trade of illegal drugs, and the flow of unauthorized immigration to the United States.
  • 21. The Struggle for Equal Rights in Texas  As the demographics of the Texas population have shifted from majority Anglo to majority- minority, previously disadvantaged groups have begun to seek a greater role in Texas society and politics.  We will now take a look at several instances in which these disadvantaged groups gained access to the political process, and if their actions have had a consistent long-term positive effect.
  • 22. Women‟s Rights in Texas  Due to the legacy of both Spanish law and the individualistic nature of Texas political culture, Texas women had some rights not enjoyed by women in other states.  Women could own property and had a limited right to ask for a divorce.
  • 23. Women‟s Rights in Texas  Led by Minnie Fisher Cunningham, Texas suffragists were able to win the right to vote in the Texas primary in 1918, two years before the passage of the 19th Amendment, which granted women the right to vote in national elections.  However, it was not until 1972, with the adoption of the Marital Property Act that women were granted the equal rights as men in child custody, insurance, and property disputes.
  • 24. The Rights of Racial Minorities in Texas  Many African-Americans were brought to Texas as slaves and served in that capacity until the end of the Civil War in 1865.  Although the federal government promised social and political equality after the adoption of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, in Texas, like much of the South, the rights of minorities continued to be denied through the actions of government officials and citizen groups like the Ku Klux Klan.
  • 25. The Rights of Racial Minorities in Texas  Beginning in the 1920s, two major civil rights organizations began effectively lobbying for civil rights protections for minority groups.  The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) launched legal campaigns to challenge the legal standard that separate facilities for different races were, in fact, equal.
  • 26. The Rights of Racial Minorities in Texas  Two major cases decided by the Supreme Court which helped establish equal rights for racial minorities were  Smith vs. Allwright (1944) which held that all methods used to establish a white primary for elections were unconstitutional, and  Sweatt vs. Painter (1950) a case out of the University of Texas law school which held that even if Texas established a separate law school for African-American students, it would still be unequal to the prestige and resources available to the white students at U.T.
  • 27. The Rights of Racial Minorities in Texas  The desegregation of Texas schools was ordered along with those in the rest of the country under the Brown vs. Board of Education decision in 1954.  However, many schools in Texas fought integration, with many school districts shutting down instead of allowing minority students to enroll.
  • 28. The Rights of Racial Minorities in Texas  Due to the growth of suburbs surrounding major Texas metropolitan areas, there are still many schools in Texas which are racially segregated as a result of housing patterns.  This de facto segregation has been upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court because it is not a result of any direct action taken by the government.
  • 29. Latinos in Texas  LULAC and the American G.I. Forum fought for the equal treatment of Texans of Latino origin.  Despite the fact that under Texas law Latinos were to be considered white, there was still widespread discrimination in education and employment.  The Supreme Court decision in Hernandez vs. Texas (1954) held that Latinos were a members of a „class‟ who deserved special protection by the government against racial discrimination.
  • 30. Gays and Lesbians in Texas  Due to our traditionalistic political culture, LGBTQ Texans have, and continue to face discrimination in employment, housing, and family law.  However, a Supreme Court case from Texas, decided in 2005, held that intimate sexual conduct between adult consenting individuals was protected behavior under the 14th Amendment and could not be banned under American law.  The issues of gay marriage and gay adoption are still matters decided by individual states, and both remain illegal in Texas.
  • 31. Diversity and Culture in Modern Texas  According to new demographic data, Texas is now a majority-minority state.  Despite growth and diversity; deep economic inequalities persist between ethnic and racial groups.  Compared with the rest of the nation, the median income in Texas is much lower and a larger proportion of Texans live below the poverty line, including more children
  • 32. Diversity and Culture in Modern Texas  Within the State, disparities in wealth between different areas are huge.  For example, per capita income outside Brownsville in the Texas border region is $4,103 per year, compared with $184,991per year in the Memorial Park neighborhood of Houston.
  • 33. Diversity and Culture in Modern Texas  Texas‟s business-friendly laws have encouraged many high-tech companies locate in Texas but if Texas public schools continue to be poorly- funded it can lead to an ‘Education Gap.’  Education Gap is the term used to refer to the gap between the types of skills Texas students are able to learn in school, and those skills needed by high-paying employers.  If businesses cannot find people to hire in Texas, our state will not benefit from the jobs made available by these companies.
  • 34. Rick Perry and the „Texas Miracle‟  The current Texas governor, Rick Perry, often discusses how Texas came through the 2008 Financial Collapse with fewer overall issues than many other states due to our political deference to business interests.  However, what political scientists have determined is that most of the jobs created in Texas since 2008 have been in the lowly-paid service sector, not in sectors which offer high pay and good benefits.
  • 35. The Future of Texas Politics  Given the shifting demographics of the Texas population, it will be interesting to see if Texas politics continue to reflect the historically traditional and individual political cultures, or if Texas may one day become a more liberal state.
  • 36. Ch. 1 Quiz Password  The password for the Chapter 1 Quiz from the Maxwell Texas politics book is Perry

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