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World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement
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World Usability Day - Measuring Engagement

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  • Students are using more and more technology to aid their education, but is that always the best way to go? Do users engage more utilizing new technology, such as Inkling Ipad Textbook than when using traditional technology, such as paper textbook
  • EDA = Electro dermal Activity
  • Reasons iPad was preferred over Paper TextbookEasier to search for contentEasier navigationAbility to access internet to do supplemental researchReasons Paper Textbook was preferred over iPadConcerns about getting tired looking at the iPad screen & getting tired of swiping to flip pagesPictures were clear & didn't require enlarging to seePreferred for reselling & cheaper to purchaseAllowed for more freedom and were more comfortableMore reliable, as not dependent on batteries
  • Reasons iPad was preferred over Paper TextbookEasier to search for contentEasier navigationAbility to access internet to do supplemental researchReasons Paper Textbook was preferred over iPadConcerns about getting tired looking at the iPad screen & getting tired of swiping to flip pagesPictures were clear & didn't require enlarging to seePreferred for reselling & cheaper to purchaseAllowed for more freedom and were more comfortableMore reliable, as not dependent on batteries
  • Reasons iPad was preferred over Paper TextbookEasier to search for contentEasier navigationAbility to access internet to do supplemental researchReasons Paper Textbook was preferred over iPadConcerns about getting tired looking at the iPad screen & getting tired of swiping to flip pagesPictures were clear & didn't require enlarging to seePreferred for reselling & cheaper to purchaseAllowed for more freedom and were more comfortableMore reliable, as not dependent on batteries
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    • 1. Agenda • What We are Researching • Technology and Methodology • Qualitative Findings • Quantitative Analysis • What Worked Well • Challenges / Recommendations© Copyright Diego Mendes Amanda Davis Vignesh Krubai
    • 2. Education and Tablet Technology What is happening now? • Pilot programs on using tablets in schools and higher education are underway – NYC, Chicago, Virginia, California, Boston and Internationally – Intended to be used at home and school in place of textbooks • Benefits include – Light-weight – Variety of applications – Interactive Learning • Not many studies done to verify if students learn more, faster or better with tablets© Copyright Diego Mendes Amanda Davis Vignesh Krubai
    • 3. What We Are Researching – Engagement is a key part of learning effectively • Is the increased use of technology affecting engagement? – Do new or traditional technology engage students differently? • Digital Textbook v. Paper Textbook – Measuring engagement is complex because it involves biological and cognitive processes – Requires an array of methods to be applied© Copyright Diego Mendes Amanda Davis Vignesh Krubai
    • 4. Technology and Research Methods
    • 5. Pearson Education E-book Pearson Education - One of the most innovative leaders in education Inkling Interactive Digital Textbook Technology - Same book in digital version and paper version - Allows for the same interaction (highlighting, post it notes etc…) Digital Book Paper Book© Copyright Diego Mendes Amanda Davis Vignesh Krubai
    • 6. Research Methods What methods did we choose to apply? Combination of different methods: - Affectiva’s Q Sensor - SMI Eye tracking - Product Reaction Cards© Copyright Diego Mendes Amanda Davis Vignesh Krubai
    • 7. Q Sensor: Measuring EDA Q Sensor Created by Affectiva, a company founded by MIT Media Lab faculty and students What is the Q-Sensor? A wireless biosensor that measures emotional arousal via skin conductance (Electro Dermal Activity). High arousal = High User Engagement Low arousal = Low User Engagement© Copyright Diego Mendes Amanda Davis Vignesh Krubai
    • 8. Q Sensor: Research TechniqueChallenges in using the Q SensorThe data in the Q Sensor tells you there is some sort of engagement, but notwhich type of engagement. High engagement could mean: Frustration Excitement Stress DelightThe Analysis:1. Calculate average EDA Value2. Calculate Peaks per minute© Copyright Diego Mendes Amanda Davis Vignesh Krubai
    • 9. SMI Eye Tracking: Background • Created by SMI (SensoMotoric Instruments) • Advantageous for use on mobile or tablet devices • Binocular tracking delivers eye tracking data over all distances© Copyright Diego Mendes Amanda Davis Vignesh Krubai
    • 10. SMI Eye Tracking: Data Analysis • Combined with Q Sensor data, SMI gives us the ability to try to pin point engagement • Ability to analyze areas of interest across participants© Copyright Diego Mendes Amanda Davis Vignesh Krubai
    • 11. Product Reaction Cards: Background – Developed by Joey Benedek and Trish Miner (Microsoft) – A set of 118 words • 60% positive • 40% negative/neutral – Easy to administer and easy to analyze – Does not rely on a questionnaire or rating scales – Users don’t need to generate words themselves© Copyright Diego Mendes Amanda Davis Vignesh Krubai
    • 12. Product Reaction Cards: Technique Used Process: – Users were asked to circle 10 words from the list of 118 words – This process was repeated after each object of study: • Paper Textbook • Digital Textbook – We used the response cards to understand and categorize Affectiva’s Q Sensor EDA/skin conductance data Challenges: – Real time reactions not available – Participant misinterpretation of word meaning© Copyright Diego Mendes Amanda Davis Vignesh Krubai
    • 13. What we found:Qualitative Results
    • 14. Qualitative Findings Participants • 10 undergraduate students who owned iPads and used the internet for at least 10 hours per week Common iPad Activities • Most common: accessing the web, checking email, gaming and social networking • Additional: eBooks, music, course maintenance, movies and looking at powerpoints during class© Copyright Diego Mendes Amanda Davis Vignesh Krubai
    • 15. Which do you prefer and why? Digital Paper Versus 50% of students preferred each© Copyright Diego Mendes Amanda Davis Vignesh Krubai
    • 16. What Do You Like About The Paper vs. The Digital Textbook? Preferences on Paper Textbook • Concerns about getting tired looking at the iPad screen & getting tired of swiping to flip pages • Pictures were clear & didnt require enlarging to see • Preferred for financial reasons: reselling & cheaper to purchase • Allowed for more freedom and were more comfortable • More reliable, as not dependent on batteries© Copyright Diego Mendes Amanda Davis Vignesh Krubai
    • 17. What Do You Like About The Digital vs. the Paper Textbook? Prefer Digital Textbook • Easier to search for content • Easier navigation • Ability to access internet to do supplemental research© Copyright Diego Mendes Amanda Davis Vignesh Krubai
    • 18. Quantitative Analysis
    • 19. Quantitative FindingsWe plan to use the following information to help us in understandinguser engagement:- Electro-Dermal Activity Information - Magnitude = a measure of peak height - Area Under the Curve = represents peak volume - Peaks per Minute = is a measure of peak frequency- Heatmaps of user engagement throughout session© Copyright Diego Mendes Amanda Davis Vignesh Krubai
    • 20. Quantitative FindingsWith the addition of SMI eye tracking, we can:- Pin point engagement areas and moments effectively- Get the number of fixations on screen and paper textbooks across participants- Create heat maps to determine points of engagement© Copyright Diego Mendes Amanda Davis Vignesh Krubai
    • 21. What Worked Well
    • 22. What Worked Well • Ability to observe: – top-down (Cognitive Perception – post moment) - “I felt…” – bottom-up (Q Sensor Spikes – at the moment) - emotional reactions • Affectiva - Easy to set up - Extremely detailed data about skin temperature changes, skin conductance • Use of SMI Glasses - Easy to set up - Eye tracking – precise view of how things worked - Data analysis capabilities are an advantage - Intuitive© Copyright Diego Mendes Amanda Davis Vignesh Krubai
    • 23. Challenges
    • 24. Challenges - Coordinating the technology during the tests - Synching issues - Video loses small frames (due to editing) - Combining the data - 4 cameras (videos) - Affectiva data - SMI Data© Copyright Diego Mendes Amanda Davis Vignesh Krubai
    • 25. Recommendations
    • 26. Other Methodology Applications • Areas of Application: - User Experience, Usability, Product Design, Market Research, Education Research, Psychology Research, Visual Perception Research • Product Design - Use it to find what emotionally engages people • Usability - Use it to find out what frustrates people • Prioritization of design features - Find what is more frustrating/exciting for the user Caution: Labor intensive process to combine three methods (but doable)© Copyright Diego Mendes Amanda Davis Vignesh Krubai
    • 27. Questions? Thank you to our sponsors who are here and excited to meet you! The Design and Usability Center Contact: Diego Mendes – mendes.diego1@gmail.com Amanda Davis –adavis.bentley@gmail.com© Copyright Diego Mendes Amanda Davis Vignesh Krubai Vignesh Krubai – krubai_vign@bentley.edu

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