Monika Andergassen
David Moore
Andrea Gorra
Reinhold Behringer
m.andergassen5699@student.leedsmet.ac.uk
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process?
ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropoli...
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ECEL 2010 Porto: Students and Blogging

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  • Following this model, the terms 'formal', 'nonformal'
    and 'informal' describe external conditions in which a person learns, for instance
    the degree of educational arrangement. Furthermore, the concepts of explicit, implicit, and
    incidental learning focus on individual learning instead of the external conditions. This
    means that on the individual scale, incidental learning can take place under all three levels
    of formality, and both in an explicit and implicit way.
  • ECEL 2010 Porto: Students and Blogging

    1. 1. Monika Andergassen David Moore Andrea Gorra Reinhold Behringer m.andergassen5699@student.leedsmet.ac.uk
    2. 2. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University 2 Presentation Overview 1 Context of Study 2 Research Questions 3 Model of Learning 4 Empirical Study: Qualitative Interview Analysis 5 Results and Discussion
    3. 3. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University 3 (1) Context of Study Source: Andergassen (2009), adapted version Learning Davies‘ (2008) Model of Experiential Learning MotivationBlogs Empirical Study: Participation 1 Quantitative Survey Why do students (not) blog? Participation Motivation Learning How many Students blog? 2 Ethnographic Decision Tree Modelling How does blogging link to learning? 3 Qualitative Interviews Informsselection ofsamplesfor2and3 CaseStudy: Informal blogging of students at the blog service of the University of Technology Vienna (TU Vienna)
    4. 4. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University 4 (1) The Case Picture: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Knihovna_TU_Wien.jpg. By Dezidor University of Technology Vienna: • Around 23 000 students (2009) • Blogs for informal use since 2004 • Blog service „twoday“
    5. 5. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University 5 (1) The Case Picture: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Knihovna_TU_Wien.jpg. By Dezidor Vienna University of Technology: • Around 23 000 students (2009) • Blogs for informal use since 2004 • Blog service „twoday“ Motivations to Blog • To publish • To complement the communication channels • To receive information  other than learning Students and Blogs
    6. 6. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University 6 (2) Research Questions (1) Can the learning processes of the students be mapped to a model of learning? (2) What, if anything, do the students learn?
    7. 7. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University 7 (3) Model of Learning 1 Context of Study 2 Research Questions 3 Model of Learning 4 Empirical Study: Qualitative Interview Analysis 5 Results and Discussion
    8. 8. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (3) Can Learning be Measured? (1) Students might not blog with the intention to learn.
    9. 9. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (3) Informal and Incidental Learning Formal Learning Non-Formal Learning Informal Learning provided by training institution structured (in terms of learning objectives, time or support) leading to certification intentional from the learner's perspective not provided by a training institution structured (in terms of learning objectives, time or support) typically does not lead to certification intentional form the learner's perspective. resulting from daily life activities not structured (in terms of learning objectives, time or support) typically does not lead to certification. may be intentional but in most cases it is non- intentional European Commission (2001):
    10. 10. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (3) Informal and Incidental Learning individual external conditions learning formal educational arrangement certification approved public regulations non-formal educational arrangement certification informal no educational arrangement explicit incidental implicit explicit incidental implicit Source: Straka (2004,p.12): „Types of Learning combined with formality of external conditions“
    11. 11. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (3) Can Learning be Measured? (1) Students might not blog with the intention to learn. Informal and incidental learning
    12. 12. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (3) Can Learning be Measured? (1) Students might not blog with the intention to learn. (2) Learning might occur beyond the cognitive dimension. Informal and incidental learning
    13. 13. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (3) Can Learning be Measured? (1) Students might not blog with the intention to learn. (2) Learning might occur beyond the cognitive dimension. (3) Cause and effect in the learning process cannot be traced. Informal and incidental learning
    14. 14. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (3) Cause and Effect in Learning Reinmann (2005) 14 “Learning means a change of perceptional structures (with cognitive, motivational and emotional properties), which expresses itself in a changed behaviour, thinking, problem solving, perception or feeling.“
    15. 15. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (3) Cause and Effect in Learning Reinmann (2005) 15 “Learning means a change of perceptional structures (with cognitive, motivational and emotional properties), which expresses itself in a changed behaviour, thinking, problem solving, perception or feeling.“ • Implies a ‚before‘ and ‚after‘ which need to be compared • A comparison of ‚before‘ and ‚after‘ cannot be made with informally blogging students through observation • Students‘ reflections of possible learning effects can be elicited from them through interviews
    16. 16. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University 16 (3) Davies‘ Model of Experiential Learning Source: Davies (2008) Davies (2008): • We constantly learn from experience. • By learning “we convert experience into lessons, concepts, or generalised ways of behaving which we can use in the future”. • Elements refer to cognitive, emotional, social dimensions.
    17. 17. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (3) Can Learning be Measured? (1) Students might not blog with the intention to learn. (2) Learning might occur beyond the cognitive dimension. (3) Cause and effect in the learning process cannot be traced. Informal and incidental learning Multidimensional model of learning
    18. 18. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (3) Can Learning be Measured? (1) Students might not blog with the intention to learn. (2) Learning might occur beyond the cognitive dimension. (3) Cause and effect in the learning process cannot be traced. Informal and incidental learning Measurement strategies focussing on students‘ perceptions Multidimensional model of learning
    19. 19. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University 19 Qualitative Interview Analysis (4) Empirical Study
    20. 20. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (4) Semi-Structured Interviews • Reflective questions to encourage the students to reflect on their blogging; • Starting with students’ concrete experiences, and reflection about how the various elements, such as emotions or expectations, influenced these experiences, and how new insights unfolded from there; • Questions based on Davies' (2008) Model of Experiential Learning. 20
    21. 21. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (4) Interviewees • 6 Students: – Active Bloggers – Blog at the blog service of the TU Vienna – Blog for at least 6 months Int 1 Int 2 Int 3 Int 4 Int 5 Int 6 Age of blog (days) 414 816/ 1039 1047 173/ 170 1483 1487 No of entries 256 34/ 20 131 63/ 43 118 183 No of comments 115 18/ 7 89 5/ 21 87 49
    22. 22. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University Experience 22 (4) Codebook The time devoted by the interviewee to consider an experience further Example „[W]hile I make an entry or re-structure a bit, I think about what was good or not“ Expectation Emotion Opportunity Learning Orientation Observation Knowledge /Abilities Reflection / Insight Credibility Check
    23. 23. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (4) Individual Interview Analysis Tom‘s Interview Well, I mean, if you are confronted with a [software] problem, of course you also search on the internet. Opportunity: Software problem And when you find the solution, Experience: Finding of a solution You are happy about it. Emotion: happiness And perhaps it helps somebody else, when they find the solution on my blog. Credibility check: Is the solution helpful for others When you see that a few people read along, you see this in the page views, or in the link statistics, where you see how people came to the page, and then, Observation: Some people find the solution helpful this builds you up, I think. Then as I said, you are happy, and you don't want to lose this happiness any more. Emotion: happiness Therefore it [the blog entry] might have been quite useful. Reflection/insight: positive credibility check: blog entry was useful
    24. 24. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (4) Generalised Analysis: Commonalities and Differences among Interviews Bob Marc Jeff Beginning of Blogging (items assigned to credibility check) I have started [the blog] to try out how it fits to me. I think, at that time I searched for a simpler way to inform other people through a homepage. I started by copying a bit how other people blog, to post some news which they might be interested in Shortly after starting to blog (items assigned to observation) [The first few days, I've communicated that I have this blog] now, and then, some people have visited the blog. A lot of people started with [blogging], and there were a few friends who also wrote different kinds of blogs. Well, as I said, I got just very little feedback, just very few people. Development over time (items assigned to reflection/insight) It has definitely changed, because now I don't do [blogging] spontaneous any more, but in some way structured. I'd say, I have then provided the information which the others wanted. And not what I originally wanted to transport through my blog. Now the content is just what interests me, and what is my own direct output. Now I don't adapt myself [to the readership] any more at all.
    25. 25. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University 25 (5) Results and Discussion
    26. 26. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University 26 Can the learning processes of the students be mapped to a model of learning? Research Question (1): Learning processes can be mapped to Davies‘ Model of Experiential Learning: - Applicable to informal and incidental learning - Multi-dimensional - Interview Analysis based on elements of model
    27. 27. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (5) Tom‘s Learning Processes
    28. 28. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (5) Tom‘s Learning Processes
    29. 29. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (5) Tom‘s Learning Processes
    30. 30. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (5) Blogging in 5 Stages Over Time 1. The stage before blogging 2. The starting stage of blogging 3. The stage of expansion of activities 4. The stage of consolidation 5. The stage of shifting away
    31. 31. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University 31 What, if anything, do the students learn? Research Question (2): Development of one‘s own blogging through observation of the audience
    32. 32. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (5) What, if Anything, do the Students Learn? 32 Blogging as ‚credibility check‘ Careful ‚observation‘ of the audience ‚Reflection and insight‘: adaptation of content to the audience ‚Reflection and insight‘: development of writing style
    33. 33. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (5) What, if Anything, do the Students Learn? 33 Blogging as ‚credibility check‘ Careful ‚observation‘ of the audience ‚Reflection and insight‘: adaptation of content to the audience ‚Reflection and insight‘: development of writing style I write something to the blog, and of course I pre-estimate what impact this might have on the people who read it. (Andrew)
    34. 34. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (5) What, if Anything, do the Students Learn? 34 Blogging as ‚credibility check‘ Careful ‚observation‘ of the audience ‚Reflection and insight‘: adaptation of content to the audience ‚Reflection and insight‘: development of writing style [T]hen others write as a comment 'wow, this has helped us', and then you are happy. On the other hand, if you get hardly any reactions in your blog, in the sense that almost nobody writes something, then it is a little bit frustrating. (Tom)
    35. 35. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (5) What, if Anything, do the Students Learn? 35 Blogging as ‚credibility check‘ Careful ‚observation‘ of the audience ‚Reflection and insight‘: adaptation of content to the audience ‚Reflection and insight‘: development of writing style I then provided the information which the others wanted to have (...) And not what I wanted to transport through the blog originally. (Marc) I have started with, I almost a little bit copied how other people blog (...) But I have migrated to just blog about things (...) which I have done myself, my ideas, and less to be a news relay, well this has changed a bit. (Jeff)
    36. 36. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (5) What, if Anything, do the Students Learn? 36 Blogging as ‚credibility check‘ Careful ‚observation‘ of the audience ‚Reflection and insight‘: adaptation of content to the audience ‚Reflection and insight‘: development of writing style I try to design it [weblog entry] appealing for other people, so that I make a short paragraph, then a picture, then a short paragraph again, then again a picture (Bob) I have approached this in a very structured and logical way, I built it [the entry] like they wanted to have it. An opener, a few pictures, a picture description, a joke, finished. (Marc)
    37. 37. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University 37 (5) Discussion + Blogging in informal contexts triggers various learning processes; + Davies’ model supports the research of informal learning processes by breaking them down into elements. Limitations: - Conducting semi-structured interviews might lead students; - The number of informants was small; are they typical representatives? - Some terms in Davies‘ model have been experienced as ‚unsharp‘.
    38. 38. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University (5) Revision of Davies‘ Model
    39. 39. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University 39 Thank You ! Monika Andergassen David Moore Andrea Gorra Reinhold Behringer m.andergassen5699@student.leedsmet.ac.uk
    40. 40. Students and Blogging: How to Map the Informal Learning Process? ICEL 2010 04-05 November, Porto, Portugal Leeds Metropolitan University 40 Literature References Andergassen, M. (2009) How can Aspects of Informal Learning Through Blogging be Measured? Presentation at Mini-Conference 2009 at Leeds Metropolitan University. Davies, L. (2008) Informal Learning: A New Model for Making Sense of Experience. Gower Publishing Ltd. European Commission (2001) Communication from the Commission. Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality, European Commission. Available at: http://www.bologna-berlin2003.de/pdf/MitteilungEng.pdf [Accessed February 4, 2009]. Reinmann, G. (2005) Blended Learning in der Lehrerbildung. 1st ed. Dustri. Straka, G.A. (2004) Informal learning: genealogy, concepts, antagonism and questions, Bremen: Unstitut Technik und Bildung, Universität Bremen. Available at: http://www.itb.uni-bremen.de/downloads/Publikationen/ Forschungsberichte/fb_15_04.pdf [Accessed March 7, 2009].

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