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    Mandar mumbai suburban rail stations and precincts final Mandar mumbai suburban rail stations and precincts final Document Transcript

    • DissertationGuidelines for the Redevelopment of Suburban Railway stations and Precincts in Mumbai Mandar Mallappanavar Student ID Number 4097515A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the regulation for the degree of Masters in the University of Nottingham. Master of Architecture in Technology, 2010
    • AcknowledgementsHeartily thanks for my dissertation guides Philip Oldfield and David Nicolson to devout theirvaluable time and energy in guiding through my dissertation. Nonetheless, sincere thanks tomy friends and family for being always supportive and encouraging. 2
    • AbstractThe suburban train services in Mumbai are the life-line of the buzzing city. Majority of thepeople in Mumbai take public transport to reach work. The service is cheap, on time but notnecessarily the most convenient. There is no good alternative to it. It is severelyoverburdened and requires sensitive and subjective upgrading along its length and reach.This dissertation wishes to provide key insights to the present situation and help analyse thevarious solutions been thought over before concluding upon what could possibly provide abetter solution towards improvement of the station precincts in a more holistic manner.Case-studies presented in here will highlight the issues and the possible solutions thoughtover in Mumbai and abroad. A comprehensive situation will be put forth to state keyinsights which influence the planning of these key precincts to develop healthydensifications. The importance of framing flexible guidelines for development of stationsand their areas on ground can eventually be very encouraging in having people to continuedepend heavily on public transport rather than shifting onto more unsustainable modes ofprivate transport in Mumbai, a fast developing city guiding India on a high growth trajectory. 3
    • 4
    • Table of ContentsList of Figures ............................................................................................................................. 7List of Tables .............................................................................................................................. 91. Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 101.1 Mumbai - City of Dreams ................................................................................................... 10Figure 1-1 Mumbai Metropolitan Region Map Source: (MMRDA, About MMR, 2011) .......... 101.1. The Life-Line: Mumbai Local .......................................................................................... 131.1.1. History of rail network in Mumbai .............................................................................. 141.1.2. Statistics ...................................................................................................................... 161.1.3. Major Issues ................................................................................................................ 171.2. Aim of the Dissertation .................................................................................................. 201.3. Dissertation structure .................................................................................................... 212. Urban Transport in Mumbai ............................................................................................... 232.1 Transport Policy for Mumbai ............................................................................................. 232.2 Public Transport Usage and Future Trends ....................................................................... 272.3 Mumbai Case-studies......................................................................................................... 362.3.1 Thane Rail Station ........................................................................................................... 362.3.2 Kanjurmarg Railway Station ............................................................................................ 403. Urban Transport for World Cities ....................................................................................... 443.1. Urban Rail Infrastructure .................................................................................................. 44 5
    • 3.2 Case-studies ....................................................................................................................... 463.2.1 Stratford Station, London UK .......................................................................................... 463.2.2 Kyoto Rail Station, Japan................................................................................................. 543.2.3 Glazenberg Rail Station, Zurich, Switzerland .................................................................. 603.2.4 Bangkok Light Rail Stations ............................................................................................. 644. Conclusions- Design Guidelines for the Mumbai Rail Stations and Precincts ..................... 694.1 Rail Stations........................................................................................................................ 714.1.1 Internal Circulation ......................................................................................................... 714.1.2 Congregation of more functions ..................................................................................... 744.2 Station Precinct .................................................................................................................. 774.2.1 Station as a bridge .......................................................................................................... 794.2.2 Forecourts ....................................................................................................................... 804.3.3 External Spaces ............................................................................................................... 804.3 Sustainability ...................................................................................................................... 824.3.1 Densification ................................................................................................................... 824.3.2 Renewables ..................................................................................................................... 834.4 Summary ............................................................................................................................ 84Bibliography ............................................................................................................................. 86 6
    • List of FiguresFigure 1-1 Mumbai Metropolitan Region Map 9Figure 1-2 Crowded Mumbai Suburban Trains 11Figure 1-3 Informal Industry in Mumbai 11Figure 1-4 Mumbai Suburban Rail Network Map 12Figure 1-5 Old Churchgate Railway Station, Mumbai 14Figure 1-6 Dadar Railway Station Area and Kurla Railway Station Area, Mumbai 18Figure 2-1 Mumbai Metropolitan area and transport corridors 25Figure 2-2 Distribution of One way Commute Distances 30Figure 2-3 Upcoming Mumbai Metro lines 32Figure 2-4 Location of Thane alongside Mumbai 34Figure 2-5 Skywalk , City Bus Station and Rail Station , Thane 35Figure 2-6 Location of Kanjurmarg Rail Station, Mumbai 39Figure 2-7 Kanjurmarg Station Area 40Figure 2-8 Skywalk at Kanjurmarg Station 41Figure 3-1 London Rail Network 45Figure 3-2 Location: Stratford Station 47Figure 3-3 Master plan for Stratford 48Figure 3-4 Stations Profile and Exploded view,Stratford 50Figure 3-5 Interiors of Stratford Station 50Figure 3-6 Present Stratford Station Area 51Figure 3-7 Location of Kyoto 53 The Building’s South Facade, The Rail Platforms and the Atrium, KyotoFigure 3-8 Rail Station 54Figure 3-9 Observation Deck and the Skywalk, Kyoto rail Station 54 North Elevation, South Elevation, Section, Axonometric , Plan, KyotoFigure 3-10 rail Station 56Figure 3-11 Spatial Organisation, Kyoto Rail Station 57Figure 3-12 Public Transport Lines, Zurich 59Figure 3-13 Plan, Glazenberg Rail Station 60Figure 3-14 Section and Elevation, Glazenberg Rail Station 61Figure 3-15 Location: Bangkok 63Figure 3-16 Typical Station for the Bangkok Light Rail 64Figure 3-17 Artist impression: Bangkok Light Rail 64Figure 3-18 Section through the Central Station, Bangkok light Rail 66 Mumbai Stations: Office blocks above Vashi Station, Iconic Turbhe Station, Motorbike parking at Thane Station, Car parking on the roof ofFigure 4-1 Khargar Station and Elevated bus station outside Thane Station 68Figure 4-2 Various ticketing options, Mumbai Suburban rail 71Figure 4-3 Typical Circulation patterns for Mumbai Rail Stations 72Figure 4-4 Proposed Circulation pattern for Mumbai Suburban Rail Stations 75Figure 4-5 Vashi Rail Station, Mumbai and Kyoto Rail Station 74Figure 4-6 London Bridge Station and Canary Wharf Station 77 7
    • Figure 4-7 Croydon Station, London 78Figure 4-8 Planning of station forecourts 81Figure 4-9 PV imbedded canopy outside the Woking Rail Station, London 82 8
    • List of TablesTable 1-1 Spatial Distributions in Mumbai Metropolitan Region 10Table 1-2 Major Urban Rail Networks 15Table 2-1 Population in Mumbai Metropolitan Region 24Table 2-2 Household Characteristics by Income groups, Mumbai 29 Percentage distribution of Housing units across the zones, byTable 2-3 income levels, Mumbai 29 No.of commuters using the south bound services during morningTable 2-4 rush hours on Western (left) and Central Railways, Mumbai 30 Percentage Distribution of Workers across Job Locations by Zone ofTable 2-5 Residence, Mumbai 31 Mean one way commute distance by Zone and Income levels,Table 2-6 Mumbai 31Table 2-7 Commutes by different modes for different purposes, Mumbai 33Table 2-8 SWOT analysis, Thane Station and its Precinct. 38Table 2-9 SWOT Analysis, Kanjurmarg Station 42Table 3-1 Components of rail network, London 46Table 3-2 SWOT Analysis, Stratford Station 52Table 3-3 SWOT Analysis, Kyoto Railway Station 57Table 3-4 SWOT Analysis, Glazenberg Railway Station 62Table 3-5 Train transport in Bangkok 63Table 3-6 SWOT Analysis, Bangkok Light Rail Stations 67Table 4-1 Station Types in Mumbai 80 9
    • 1. Introduction1.1 Mumbai - City of Dreams Figure 1-1 Mumbai Metropolitan Region Map Source: (MMRDA, About MMR, 2011) 10
    • Mumbai is often considered as the financial capital of India. It is also the most progressive ofall Indian cities, housing approximately 18.9 (MMRDA, About MMR, 2003) million peopleacross its metropolitan area. The city gained increasing amount of importance due to itssea-port which led to the foundation of various industries, primarily textile mills. It soonbecame the biggest trading hub in the Indian sub-continent and in 1875; Asia’s first stockexchange was established in the city (BSE, 2011). Although the city may be considered therichest in India but 38% of its population lives in sub-standard informal housing because thedevelopable land has been always very scarce and has led to very dense conurbations.Mumbai’s Metropolitan Region covers an area of 4355 sq.km under 7 MunicipalCorporations having their own mayors. There are several villages and lesser towns in theregion too. (MMRDA, About MMR, 2003)Table 1-1. Spatial Distributions in Mumbai Metropolitan Region Source: (MMRDA, About MMR, 2011)The reasons which attract people from the rest of India to Mumbai are many. The mostnotable ones are: 1. Mumbai’s informal sector accounts for 68% of the total employment where the unskilled migrants earn bare minimum wages while continuing to live in Mumbai’s several slums (Srivastava, 2005). 11
    • Figure 1.2. Mumbai’s Informal Sector Source: www.flickr.com/photos/pukarmumbai/collections Figure 1-2 Crowded Mumbai Suburban Trains Source: Multiple 2. Public transport comprising of suburban rail and buses which serves 86% of its urban population as it is one of the cheapest way to commute within the city (Larkin, 2006). Figure 1-3. Informal Industry in Mumbai Source: multippleMumbai primarily is dependent on its public transport and its ambitious, under-privileged,restless populace know best to make a living by risking it while making the most of theavailable resources which the overwhelming city is believed to offer. May it be electricity,water, transport, employment and housing (MMRDA, About MMR, 2003)! 12
    • 1.1. The Life-Line: Mumbai LocalIn Mumbai, millions of aspirations are kept afloat and it is largely possible because of thepublic transport. Mumbai’s Suburban rail services are extensively used and the roadsleading to the rail stations bustle with much activities. The present land mass is built byreclaiming low lying lands and upon which is built a dense city which houses all classes ofthe society and offers them means of livelihood. Figure 1-4. Mumbai Suburban Rail Network Map Source: Author 13
    • The system is fed mainly by Suburban rail and buses. These services are cheap and are mostpreferred by the middle income groups (Baker, Basu, Cropper, Lall, & Takeuchi, 2005). Theamount of activities which revolve around the nodes of public transport can be bestunderstood in this city.Suburban rail services are also called the ‘local trains’. They serve the entire length of theisland city and the metropolitan areas beyond. It plays a pivotal role in providing mass rapidtransport quite efficiently and all inclusively. These rail services are wide spread, extensivelyused, fairly punctual, and very economical and rightfully act as lifelines for the city ofMumbai. It also extends its services for transporting goods such as vegetables, fish andother commodities. The scope of railways in connecting the entire length of the city wasalways been prioritised and kept in mind while developing the satellite townships aroundthe Island. Dombivli, Kalyan, Ulhasnagar, Mira Road, Bhayander are such satellite towns andthey depend primarily on the local trains. Similarly, the new satellite township and theworld’s biggest planned city ‘Navi Mumbai’ was also well augmented within the current railnetwork.1.1.1. History of rail network in MumbaiIndian railways history dates back to the middle of 19th century. The first ever train,chugged into the World’s east and it ran the stretch between Mumbai and Thane. This 21miles stretch now is only a small part of the several other busiest train routes in India andfalls under the Central Railway’s zone, a public enterprise (TIFR, 1997).Trains as a mode of transport was primarily thought over for ease of transporting goodsduring the British Raj. The city of Mumbai was fast gaining importance due to its port. Theopening of Suez Canal added greater importance to the Mumbai port. The Bombay Baroda 14
    • and Central Indian Railway Company was founded in the year 1855 to undertake the laying of tracks along the west coast and reach to Surat, a city which had become important for its textile mills. It tookFigure 1-5. Old Churchgate Railway Station, Mumbai Source: Indian MemoryProject Blog another 12 years for thesame company to commence the first suburban train services between Virar, a far offsuburb and a station near to the Mumbai port. The first rail line between Mumbai andThane was further extended to Pune over the western mountain ranges by the year 1863.These two lines run in the north-south direction, one along the west coast and the otheralong the east coast of the Island city. The line serving the west coast of Mumbai wasextended till New Delhi and is currently called the Western Railway. Whereas the line whichwas built till Thane and later extended to Pune was consequently joined to serve the rest ofIndia. This line later became part of the biggest and busiest rail zone in India, i.e. the CentralRailway Zone. The early 20th century saw the growth of textile mills in Mumbai and soonerwas the harbour line laid in 1925. It connected the east of the city to the west while passingacross the several textile mills and warehouses and ultimately to the port in the east. Theelectrification of these three lines soon followed up. The two main lines, the central line andwestern line services were upgraded and extended much beyond the island city and theharbour line connecting east and west coast was further extended to feed the suburbs ofNew Mumbai (TIFR, 1997). 15
    • 1.1.2. StatisticsCurrently, the suburban network stretches far up to the north and east in the mainlandtowards other two major cities of Maharashtra, Pune and Nashik. Mumbai suburban railservices are managed by Mumbai Rail Vikas (Development) Corporation, established underIndian Railways. This unit only overlooks the rail operations and projects sanctioned by thecentral government and have no autonomy to raise funds for upgrading and building newlines on its own and it is only recently been mooted to give more autonomy to the suburbanrailway units in Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkatta (Aklekar, 2009).Following is a quick comparison of the MRT systems across the world’s major cities:Table 1-2. Major Urban Rail Networks Source: MultipleParameters Tokyo Mumbai New York Shanghai LondonPopulation in 35.20 21.25 20.61 18.40 8.58MillionsArea in sq.km 8677 4355 11264 2914 1623Density per 4100 4880 1800 6300 5100sq.kmRail Lines 13 3 24 11 21System 328.8 450 337 424.8 550LengthStations 282 120 468 273 427Ridership 8.7 6.95 5.09 7.09 3.5The above table indicates that although the population in London is least amongst all thecities, it has much system length which translates that the public transport system is veryequipped and at the same time the least number of stations in Mumbai hint that most its 16
    • population stays away from the stations and the city needs more rail corridors to weavethrough its metropolitan area.1.1.3. Major IssuesNetwork - Mumbai suburban rail services are crumbling under much commuter loads. Thishas made the train travel increasingly inconvenient and unsafe. The reason for suchovercrowding is primarily due to the way the network is laid. The two main lines which carrymost number of people runs along the north and south direction because the southern tip iswhere the CBD is located and the suburban area in north is where most people prefer tolive. The journeys during the peak hours are hence insanely crowded. The average capacityof a 9 car train is 1980 but it ends up carrying up to 4365 people during the rush hour, that ismore than twice the train’s capacity (Costa, 2011). There are many casualties recorded dueto people falling off the trains during the morning and evening rush hours. The causalitiesreported from 2008-10 stands at a staggering figure of 1974 (Natu, 2011).The network is heavily burdened because there are no alternative modes of public transportto cover such long distances. The rail network although runs into 450 km, it barely overlapsitself cause most of the interchange stations are located on the parallel running lines andnot the lines which would take the commuters onto the major rail lines. The Western andCentral Rail lines are the major ones and there are only two interchange stations on themi.e. Elphinstone Road and Dadar.There are several projects been announced to strengthen the existing rail lines i.e. addingmore pairs of tracks on busy routes, running more services and longer trains but theseprojects are taking too long to get commissioned and when they do get completed theireffect seems to be negligible (Costa, 2011). 17
    • Rail Station Areas - The suburban rail being the only mode of transport to offer mobility from the north to southern tip, the stations in the suburbs are experiencing some major circulation issues due overcrowding and assemblage of much informal activity within the station areas. The station buildings at major stations are finding it increasingly difficult to cope with increasing number of commuters. The rail bridges are narrow and few to help commuters enter and exit the platforms (Bhagat, 2011). More deaths are reported near the station areas as many commuters are run over by trains as they cross the tracks and not use these crowded foot-over bridges or subways to reach their platforms. Some 20,700 deaths were reported during 2003-2007 (Narayan, 2008). The station areas outside the station building are experiencing acute problems of congestion due to poor intermodal connections. Most these stations have no space for bus stations. Buses also have to fight the narrow roads with cabs and rickshaws. These station areas have no public sidewalks and in case they are there they are too narrow and usually occupied by hawkers. The areas also have mostly dilapidated built environments surrounding them and most being old, their ownership rights are sketchy and hence to bring them and rehabilitate people and businesses is a challenge.Figure 1-6. Dadar Railway Station Area (Left) and Kurla Railway Station Area (Right),Mumbai Source: Google Earth 18
    • In the figure 1-6, on the left hand side is the Dadar station. It is the only interchange on themajor Central and Western line and undoubtedly the busiest but it has no bus stand outsideits station building. Same is the case with the Kurla station (Right), another busy interchangestation. Both these stations have dense built environments around them and the trafficsituation is gruesome. The foot-over bridges are not wide enough and open into areasintruded by informal vendors, leaving little room for safe pedestrian movement. Thesituation is very similar at most other old station areas on the Mumbai suburban railnetwork and needs some major decongestion and effective management of traffic. 19
    • 1.2. Aim of the DissertationThis dissertation will try to highlight the major issues faced by the rail transport in Mumbaiand state reasons for it. It would then try to propose a frame work to set up a set ofguidelines for the design and management some key station areas in Mumbai Metropolitanarea by analysing them through series of photo-mapping and carrying out generalcommuter surveys. Various books, journals, manuals and online pdfs related to railnetworks, their station design and management have been referred to derive some keyguidelines, specific to the improvement of rail Stations and their precincts especially to suitthe situation prevalent in Mumbai.Following are some research questions the dissertation would try to answer:What are the major criticisms of the suburban rail services in Mumbai?What is the state of built environment in and around the rail stations in Mumbai?What can be done to overcome these architectural and planning issues?Can a set of guidelines be followed for achieving better built environments in and aroundthe suburban rail stations in Mumbai?In order to investigate that, case-studies of a few rail stations in Mumbai and one from thecities of London, Zurich and Kyoto are being undertaken to help draw some parallels topropose the guidelines. 20
    • 1.3. Dissertation structureTo be able to propose a set of guidelines for the effective management of the Suburban Railstations in Mumbai, herewith is the dissertation structure to give its brief idea:Chapter 1: Importance of Suburban rail Network in the city of Mumbai.This chapter primarily introduces the Suburban rail network and its becoming the backboneof Mumbai’s Public transport system. Its history of the services and its future up-gradationplans are discussed. The chapter then depicts the current situation and highlights thevarious criticisms for the rail network.Chapter 2: Urban Transport in MumbaiThe transport policy framed for city of Mumbai is discussed and is mentioned how it is beenimplemented so far. It lays it emphasis on whether the policy initiated for the service’s up-gradation has been able to live upto its expectations and is able to cater the demands of arising population and the growing urban sprawl. This has been put to explanation by havingto present case-studies of the stations on the old and newly built corridors.Chapter 3: Urban Transport for world CitiesThis chapter will put forward the context of some major and minor stations across the worldfor example London’s Stratford Station, the Kyoto Railway station, Bangkok’s Light railsystem designed by London based ‘BDP architects’ and a suburban station in Zurich. Thecontext of these stations would be duly drawn to solve some architectural and planningissues witnessed in Mumbai. 21
    • Chapter 4: Conclusions, Guidelines towards responsive planning and management of the railstations in Mumbai.The concluding chapter will propose a set of guidelines or a framework to facilitate bettermanagement of the station areas which will ultimately encourage greater dependency onthe suburban rail systems and at the same time promote sustainable development in thecity of Mumbai along its suburban rail corridors. The guidelines would also cater to thedevelopment of the upcoming as well as the existing rail station precincts in Mumbai. 22
    • 2. Urban Transport in Mumbai2.1 Transport Policy for MumbaiThe Greater Mumbai region is spread across 468 sq. Km and is home to 11.9 million people(MMRDA, About MMR, 2003). It indicates of a very high population density. The density ismuch higher due to the location of a 104sq.km protected wildlife park which actually acts asnatural boundary between the western and central suburbs. In addition to this much of theeastern coast of Mumbai is land locked due to the location of the Mumbai port. An area ofprime value, measuring 7.25sq.km is under the port trust. In addition to this during the1980s, the textile mills which were the major employers for people in Mumbai were shutand were sitting on 2.5sq.km of land (SGNP, 2007) (Sonawane, 2007) (BBC , 2006). Thisleaves the island city of Mumbai with mere 359.25 sq.km of land which results on anaverage density of 33125 people/ sq. Km. It is the most crowded city in the world (CityMayors, 2007).It is the location and topography of the land which has made it difficult for the city to growphysically as the Arabian Sea surrounds it on three sides and a creek which separates theland mass from the mainland in the north.The city was developed into 6 zones and later into numerous wards for administrativepurposes as follows (Baker, Basu, Cropper, Lall, & Takeuchi, 2005) (See figure 2.1 and Table2.1):Zone 1- It is the old business district and is located at the southern tip and consists mainly ofoffices. 23
    • Zone 2 – It was the manufacturing hub during the most of 20 th century with its numeroustextile mills and also had much of the small housing units to accommodate the textile millworkers.Zone 3 – It was later developed to serve as commercial and employment centre by settingup various industrial estates and belts. The zone has a major residential housing stockprovided by the public government bodies and private property developers.Zone 4-6 – They were later added to accommodate rising population of Mumbai and someheavy engineering but largely non-polluting industries were set up alongside residentialareas.The linear networks of Public owned Central Railway and Western Railway connect all thesezones are extend much further beyond the satellite townships of Mira Road, Bhayander(Western), Thane, Kalyan, Dombivli and Ulhasnagar (Central Line) and New Mumbai(Harbour line, a part of Central Railway). The harbour line is the only line which offerslimited east to west connectivity but mostly runs along the linear north-south directionbefore turning east to cross over wider creek onto the main land. Apart from the rail linesthere are 4 arterial roads, again running linear which connects the greater Mumbai region.The east-west connections are yet to be widened.From the above table it can be seen that the change in population between the years, 1991and 2001 for the dense island of Mumbai was not more than 14.38%. Whereas thepopulation in the other major urban areas of the Mumbai’s Metropolitan areas grew byalmost 90% with New Mumbai recording highest rise in population. 24
    • Table 2-1 Population in Mumbai Metropolitan Region Source: MultipleZone Area Land Populati Density Populati Densit Change Populati Density Change Ward (sq.km on (1981) (/sq.km) on (1991) y(/sq.k (%) on (2001) (/sq.km) (%) ) m)1 A Colaba 12.8 168288 13148 194844 15226 15.8 210847 16472 8.21 B Sandhurst 2.5 147313 58925 117722 47089 -20.1 140633 56253 19.5 Road1 C Marine Lines 1.8 270706 15039 197288 109604 -27.1 202922 112734 2.91 D Grant Road 6.6 445391 67484 401548 60841 -9.8 382841 58006 -4.71 E Byculla 7.4 455711 61583 410824 55517 -9.9 440355 59507 7.22 F Parel & 27 814706 30174 847823 31401 4.1 920515 34093 8.6 Matunga2 G Dadar & 19.1 982988 51465 959800 50251 -2.4 1039938 54447 8.4 Elphinston3 H Santacruz & 25.1 706837 28161 798722 31822 13 918226 36583 15 Bandra3 K Andheri 48.2 925685 19205 1242683 25906 34.9 1510682 31342 214 P Goregaon & 36.9 663742 17988 928693 25168 39.9 1234624 33459 32.9 Malad4 R Kandivli & 68 561919 8264 977881 14381 74 876884 12895 -10.3 Borivli5 L Kurla 15.9 433913 27290 616592 38780 42.1 778218 48945 26.25 M Chembur 52 565760 10880 822916 15825 45.5 1088890 20940 32.36 N Ghatkopar 26 599436 23055 507329 19513 -15.4 619556 23829 22.16 S Bhandup 64 297108 4642 568028 8875 91.2 691227 10800 21.76 T Mulund 45.4 203899 4491 288158 6347 41.3 330195 7273 14.6 Average 14.38% Thane 128.23 474366 3699 803389 6265 69.4 1261517 9838 57 Kalyan & 137.15 578353 4217 820089 5980 41.8 1193266 8700 45.5 Dombivli Mira Road & 88.75 0 0 175605 3588 0 520301 7931 121.1 Bhayander New Mumbai 163 0 0 318447 1077 0 703947 3192 196.3 Ulhasnagar 27.54 273668 13401 369077 13401 34.9 472343 17172 28.2 Average 89.62 25
    • Figure 2-1 Mumbai Metropolitan area and transport corridors Source: Multiple 26
    • Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) has majorly been a residential area and mostindustries and offices have established themselves in the Island cities and only lately theyare setting up in the fringes of the island and closer to the mainland metropolitan areas.MMR is constituted of 7Major Municipal Corporations which are as follows: 1. Greater Mumbai 2. Thane 3. Kalyan-Dombivli 4. New Mumbai 5. Ulhasnagar 6. Mira-Bhayander 7. Bhivandi- NizampurThese Municipal areas are primarily connected by the suburban rail network exceptBhiwandi – Nizampur area. New Mumbai is the latest satellite township which currently hasthe least population density because of the various developmental restrictions. The area isundergoing major developments and the dynamics is all set to change by the construction ofa New International Airport and various commercial and work clusters alongside residentialcomplexes.2.2 Public Transport Usage and Future TrendsAlthough in a booming city of Mumbai it is not to be forgotten that its caters largely to thepeople who have migrated to it for availing best of opportunities the city delivers to enablethem to secure a better livelihood. It hence becomes important to analyse the migrationpatterns to a city like Mumbai so as to accommodate the influx of people and more 27
    • importantly provide them with means to livelihood. The transport facilities can likely enablethe less privileged ones to avail affordable living conditions in areas beyond the city fringesand the case of Mumbai is befitting this scenario. It is also certain that this leads to longercommutes and ultimately incurs higher costs to provide transport systems and avail them(UNHABITAT, 2003). However, the public transport can be subsidised to target the lowerincome groups and to ascertain that it becomes increasingly important to map the dynamicpatterns of transport modes for their usage availed by different classes of people in aparticular society. Unfortunately such patterns are yet to be established (Godard & Olvera,2000). There is little to be doubted upon the less privileged ones would want to spend theleast on travelling and would prefer to walk most distances for availing his/her needs ofhousing and livelihood.Following are some key evidences for the spatial distribution found around the transportnodes in Mumbai (Baker, Basu, Cropper, Lall, & Takeuchi, 2005):  In most areas it is found that the lower income groups live in close proximity to areas habited by middle class and rich people but it is also found that more lower income groups live in eastern suburbs although the area has limited access to modes of public transport and employment opportunities.  The lower income groups commute shorter distances and prefer to live closer to their place of work as the fares account for a larger portion of their marginal incomes.  The areas farther away from the train stations are preferred by lower income groups to avail for their housing needs because of the higher land prices near the train stations. 28
    •  The lower income groups increasingly prefer walking or cycling to commute for their work and other needs. The poor accounted for sixty six percentages of journeys made by walking and cycling whereas only a quarter of percent journeys were made using these two modes by the middle and higher income groups in Mumbai.  The poor accounted for 17% of all train journeys and 19% of all bus journeys made in Mumbai.In order to formulate a comprehensive transport policy various feasibility reports weremade and it was felt that a thorough survey be carried out of the public transport users inthe city of Mumbai to be specific as it was the densest area in the whole metropolitan.World Bank presented in one of its report how a particular class of society in Mumbai makesuse of the public transport. The outcome of this report must have helped framing of atransport policy for the city. The report has categorised the population depending upontheir income levels. The findings of the report are discussed under with the help varioustables. The table no. 2-2 indicates the majority of people live Squatter settlements orChawls where the unit sizes are very small and has led to some very dense settlements.Such dense areas cause major hurdles for their redevelopment because to accommodatesuch high densities and ensure better living standards for them is only possible in high-risebuildings which can quite expensive to build and maintain. 29
    • . Table 2-2 Household Characteristics by Income groups, Mumbai Source: (Baker, Basu, Cropper, Lall, & Takeuchi, 2005)Following is the table which highlights the number of households in various zones ofMumbai depending upon their income levels and it can be seen that the zone three housespeople belonging to all income levels quite equally.Table 2-3 - Percentage distribution of Housing units across the zones, by income levels, Mumbai Source: (Baker, Basu,Cropper, Lall, & Takeuchi, 2005).In the later figure 2-2, is a chart showing most earning members of a family are commutingonly between 1-2kms in one direction and on an average most earning members travel only5.3kms in one way which can be considered quite healthy for any city but this chart maysimply contradict the amount of load the train services cater when they carry 6.7 millionpeople every day on linear routes panning across several kilometres (MRVC, 2010). It can 30
    • only be judged that most people living in the satellite townships are depending on suburban trains for their commute to work. The table 2-4 simply confirms that most people using the trains stay in places beyond the greater Mumbai district. In the table the black line indicates the Figure 2-2 Distribution of One way Commute Distances. Source (Baker, Basu, Cropper, Lall, & Takeuchi, 2005) places above the line are out of GreaterMumbai District. Table 2-4 No.of commuters using the south bound services during morning rush hours on Western (left) and Central Railways. Source: (Baker, Basu, Cropper, Lall, & Takeuchi, 2005) 31
    • In table 2-5, it can be seen that there are very few places of work in zone 4 and 6, zoneswhich are at the district’s fringes and hence it can be justified that more people living inthese zones are required to commute to places far away from their homes.Table 2-5 Percentage Distribution of Workers across Job Locations by Zone of Residence Source: (Baker, Basu,Cropper, Lall, & Takeuchi, 2005)Consecutively it can be seen in the table 2-6 that the higher income groups are found to betaking longer commutes for the reason that they avail themselves better housing stockswhich are much bigger and can only be afforded in the areas away from the traditionalbusiness districts.Table 2-6 Mean one way commute distance by Zone and Income levels Source:(Baker, Basu, Cropper, Lall, & Takeuchi, 2005)This trend highlights that the higher income groups who are required to spend longer timesfor their commutes to work prefer the express trains which takes very few stops at only key 32
    • stations. Important lessons can be learnt from these figures is that if more faster expresstrains are made to run during peak hours then it may result in much less overcrowding oftrains and it also hints that in such a scenario a metro train, BRTS, trams may prove helpfulonly if they run along the width of the city unlike the present rail corridors. Fortunately, thenew metro corridors are being planned to provide such west to east connectivity.Figure 2-3 Upcoming Mumbai Metro lines Source: MMRDAIn addition to this another pair of tracks are being built parallel to the existing two pairs ofsuburban rail tracks to be able to dedicate two pair of tracks solely for suburban traffic(MRVC, 2010). However the biggest challenge for the laying of parallel tracks in zone 2 andlater into zone 1 is that there is hardly any space. 33
    • However, it is also to be noted that there are various other reasons which requires peopleto travel apart from work and the following table highlights that. It can be seen that trainscommutes are frequent for carrying out other activities such as reaching for schools/colleges, meeting friends, relatives or colleagues working and staying elsewhere.Table 2-7 Commutes by different modes for different purposes, Mumbai Source: (Baker, Basu, Cropper, Lall, & Takeuchi,2005)In order to fulfil other activities, the station areas can play an important role in deliveringsome of the functions stated in the above table. Unfortunately, major shopping areas are inlocations away from the main station areas. For e.g the Inorbit Mall, Phoenix Mall, ThakurMall, Nirmal Lifestyle Mall, R Mall who with their big car-parks cater the high income groupswho prefer to take their own vehicles, taxis or rickshaws to reach them. The stationbuildings in Mumbai are run by Indian Railways, a national company and not by a localtransport authority similar to ‘Transport of London’. This makes it difficult to carry outstation redevelopment projects in a comprehensive way. The built environment around thestation building too remains old and with sketchy ownerships, coupled with height-restrictions and limited use of FARs (as low as 1.33) available in the suburbs, the commercialexploitation of the station precincts is very limited (Phatak, 2000) (Bertaud & Brueckner, 34
    • 2004) (Bertaud, 2004). From the above tables it can also be noted that the present publictransport system is failing to attract the poorer sections of the society and is insteadbecoming a cause for urban sprawl because the existing rail corridors are being extendedmuch in the metropolitan areas. For. e.g. the rising demand for suburban services on thewestern line from the satellite townships in the far north (Deshmane, 2010).Hence in order to achieve equity amongst masses of the people, integration of the availabletransport systems is needed. Investing in more feasible modes of transport such as light rail,trams, and buses and largely by augmenting the available modes of mass rapid transportsuch as the Mumbai’s suburban rail network, should be preferred. The suburban rail systemneeds a good alternative and systems such as elevated and underground metro, monorailscan come to much rescue. Their loops within the Greater Mumbai District can ensure muchincrease in the value of overall land area and open-up new avenues for the development ofareas which were served inadequately by transport linkages and also push the way forgentrification of some old and derelict areas of the city. The increase in land values and theirsubsequent usage for creating better built environments can ensure the cycle of growth toseek much momentum and result in achieving more sustainable growth targets. Followingare case-studies of two rail stations on the Mumbai Suburban Train network which arewitnessing much redevelopment. 35
    • 2.3 Mumbai Case-studies2.3.1 Thane Rail Station Thane is the most populous satellite city just of Mumbai. The city has an area of 147 sq.kms and its population is 1.26 million (Census 2001) and is part of Borivli the Mumbai Metropolitan Region. The city is under the jurisdiction of Thane Municipal Corporation and Greater Mumbai has its own Mayor. The city lies just north to the edge of Greater Mumbai. It has witnessed major urban sprawl in the last 20 years as major roads were builtFigure 2-4 Location of Thane alongside in areas away from the station. The Ghodbunder roadMumbai Source: Google Earth is one such road (white line in the above figure) which connects the city to Borivli, the western suburb of greater Mumbai Island and major residential complexes have been built on either sides of this road. These areas are quite far away from any suburban railway stations in the MumbaiFigure 2-5 Thane Station and it precinct Source: Google Earth Metropolitan Region. 36
    • The station is an interchange for the Main Central line and the Harbour line. The station alsocaters to the inter-city train services and is considered to be one of the most importantstations in the metropolitan area. The station contains 10 platforms. There are two footover bridges to connect these platforms. Figure 2-6 Skywalk (Left), City Bus Station (Middle) and Rail Station (Right), Thane Source: AuthorThe station also offers 2 intra-city bus stations and one inter-city bus terminus. These busstations are easily accessed from the rail station. Recently, the area on the north of thestation was redeveloped to link the intra-city bus station at an elevated level next to thestation building. The commuters exiting out of the stations from the foot over bridges candirectly access this bus station. This required major ramps to be built to guide the bustraffic. The ramps built are only for the city buses.The streets leading to the station are also been provided with skywalks which helpcommuters to access the station with ease while avoiding the chaotic situations on theground level.Within the station building, the 10 platforms are currently served by mere 2 foot bridgeswhich were constructed decades ago and are not sufficient to handle the crowds. Many 37
    • people have met fatal accidents while crossing the railway tracks. The trains are becominglonger and are carrying more passengers but the number of foot bridges has remainedsame. The prospects of providing an underpass at the same points where these bridgesoriginate and terminate can solve the overcrowding at these entry and exit points.Outside the station building, the elevated deck built to make space for the bus station is notcovered and can cause much inconvenience during the monsoons. The island bays for thebuses are difficult to access and can cause accidents. The whole idea of an elevated busstation could have been avoided by better regulation of traffic on the ground level. Also,once it was decided to build the elevated bus station, the air rights could have been used tobuild a multi level shopping complex adding more vitality to the station. Although the trafficsituation has improved considerably but the time it took to construct this elevated deck didgreatly inconvenience the commuters. The built environment around the station area is oldand makes the already congested station area unpleasant.The long skywalks provide very few access points from the ground level and hence arefound to be used by very few people even during the peak hours because provision of thecity bus station right outside the train station doesn’t require the commuters to use theskywalk.The station area has very few residential buildings apart from the railway-employeesapartments which further west to the platforms on the north side. Most of the buildingshouse small shops, restaurants and businesses. The vegetable market is also not within thewalkable distance from the station. There is a cinema hall in the vicinity of the station but isold and doesn’t screen popular or critically acclaimed movies. The lake as you can see in the 38
    • in the station area is also not used for any recreational purposes. In all there are no majoramenities within the Station area apart from bus stations.The station is a starting point for many suburban train services on both the lines and catersto huge crowds throughout the day. The city with a million plus population depends heavilyon just one station. Provision of convenient access points to the station building with widerfoot bridges, underpasses for pedestrian movements is very important. Creating morefacilities such as shopping malls, open air markets, theatres and open spaces at the ends ofthe skywalks can lead to major regeneration of the area. Also most buildings in the area aremid rises and are smaller floor-plates. They can all be integrated together creating moreopen spaces around the station. The scope of a building similar to the Kyoto railway station(discussed in the next chapter) can add much value to the station and make the area moreattractive.Table 2-8 SWOT analysis of the Thane Station and its Precinct Source: AuthorStrenghts  The elevated deck for the bus station has greatly reduced traffic congestion.Weaknesses  The foot-over-bridges are too narrow to be able to cater 10 platforms.  The station precinct is surrounded by low-rise buildings of smaller floor plates and adds congestion to the area.Opportunities  The interchange station can make use of the air-space and accommodate more functions there and pave the way for decongestion of the station area.Threats  The Population is bound to increase alot and in that case the station would buckle under rising passenger loads. 39
    • 2.3.2 Kanjurmarg Railway StationKanjurmarg is a small suburb on the eastern shore of Greater Mumbai. It is served by a verysmall railway station served by the Major Central Line. The station area is witnessing majordevelopment because of the strengthening of a road-link between eastern and westernSuburbs. Figure 2-7 Location of Kanjurmarg Rail Station, Mumbai Source: MultipleThe station has one Island platform and caters the slow trains on either side of it. The accessto this station is quite inconvenient and has foot-over-bridges on the south and north endsof the 300m long platform. 40
    • The station area is witnessing a very mixed-use development on a scale which the station isnot equipped to handle. The access points to the station from these new developments arenot well defined and often require the people to take winding pedestrian routes or todangerously cross the tracks at various locations along the length of the platform. In the figure to the left it can be seen that the area is predominantly residential (blue). The ones closer to the station (white dotted) are social housing and are very recent constructions. They are being built to rehabilitate the informal housing units (Blue dotted) and make way for the new commercial developments (Yellow). These new commercial buildings are high-rise and many of these are being built near the stationFigure 2-8 Kanjurmarg Station Area Source: Google Earthareas across all the central line stations in greater Mumbai. The most worrying factor aboutthese commercial developments is that they are provided with mega car-parking bays andtheir accesses for pedestrians from the station buildings are not being well defined. Thesenew office blocks seem that their locations in the suburban areas would let the staff usemore private transport to drive down to them from many new residential developmentstaking place in the vicinity. There seems to be little logic for these office blocks to provide 41
    • multiple levels of car-park. It is believed that these new constructions are taking place dueto the much widening and strengthening of the east-west link roads (orange dotted in theprevious figure) providing rare east-west connectivity across the width of the city in a linearMumbai city where most roads happen to run in the north-south direction. The green areashighlighted areas in the previous figure are the locations of retail buildings. The one closerto the station is a shopping mall and the one near the east-west link bridge is a 5-star hotel(See figure below). Although the shopping mall which also houses a Cineplex, adds value tothe station area but the location of the new high-end hotel building at a busy traffic junctionseems to be out of place. There seems to be no co-ordinated development of this stationarea and unfortunately this situation is being seen replicated in many other station precinctsof Mumbai where previously stood the big industrial units (dotted red in the previous figure)surrounded by informal housing units.The station access roads (shaded white in fig. 2-8) are too narrow and although there is asmall bus station at the access road in the north, it is barely wide enough to cater the recentdevelopments coming up alongside them. The situation is very similar to many otherstations in Mumbai, where buses, taxis, rickshaws all have to fight for space and the pedestrians have to find their way amongst them because most pavements are taken over the hawkers. The developments of pedestrian access routes to the station area are beingFigure 2-9 Skywalk at Kanjurmarg Station. Source: Multiple recently chalked out but due to their 42
    • inconvenient alignments, very few people are using them. Several skywalks are being builtall over the city without mapping the pedestrian routes or physically linking them withfunctions, such as markets, public buildings or private office buildings (Schlaikjer, 2010).Table 2-9 SWOT Analysis of Kanjurmarg Station Source: AuthorStrengths  The station is located at a very strategic road junction.  A very mixed-use development is taking place around it.Weaknesses  The station access points are poorly planned.  The station seems to be not integrated within scope of developments taking place around it.Opportunities  There is still more land available and it just requires strengthening the access points to make the station area.  The station building if revamped can become the focal point to the new developments taking place around it.Threats  The concept of building skywalks can rob the street culture. 43
    • 3. Urban Transport for World Cities3.1. Urban Rail InfrastructureIn Europe, most major cities are taking up redevelopment of their transport nodes, housingstock to remain competitive and the city authorities have been working on it by seekingmore powers to finance and execute these redevelopment schemes on their own (Kreukels& Spit, 1990) (Parkinson, Bianchini, Dawson, & Harding, 1991). These initiatives can bejustified due to combination of factors where policies want to lay an emphasis on moreenvironment friendly transport services and achieve efficient management of the landresource for regeneration of local economies. The importance of infrastructure investmentshas gathered much prominence. The property market can well be advantaged from effectivemanagement of the transport corridors and its nodes but in Mumbai, the old transportnodes are not been given its due importance. The development occurring around them isvery sporadic and often not planned in a comprehensive way. The example of Kanjurmargstation explained in the previous chapter confirms that.It is not to be forgotten that surface transport can assist its users in many ways. It not onlycarries them from one place to another but helps to orient them to the urban fabric of thewhole city. The availability of credible and a very sustainable mode of mass transport is veryessential for any dense megacities of the world. Some 40% rail passengers, who arrive inLondon, also use the underground (Bayliss, 2008). In Netherlands, 52% of all traincommuters cycle to their stations and 22% come walking (VROM, 1992). Urban rail systemscan set a new dimension to the city functions. Its availability can be of great advantage to itsusers and the city in general. It hence becomes imperative that such a system must remainin good shape and continue to offer better standards of mobility. The trains, the tracks they 44
    • run on and the stations they halt at are all required to act in symphony and re-equipthemselves to suit their users. The numerous stations have the ability to renew theirsurrounding areas by augmenting various functions and assure a more sustainabledevelopment. The design of these stations needs to deliver a wider social and economicrole. Its location and layout needs to adapt and assimilate into the urban layout for theadjoining areas to be able to reap economic benefits. The stations are essentially publicbuildings and a comprehensive observational research of its users can give the designers avalid perspective. Following are case-studies of some stations in various parts of the world,where their designs have evolved much to integrate with the areas they serve to forgesustainable development and usher more public transport usage. 45
    • 3.2 Case-studies3.2.1 Stratford Station, London UKFigure 3-1 London Rail Network Source: Transport for London websiteLondon, the capital city of England is known world over for its well developed urban railnetwork comprised of underground ‘tube’ trains, the over-ground trains, light rail andtrams, and to augment these services well, the city also has a large fleet of buses, watertaxis and car taxis.London has a dedicated local government body called the ‘Transport for London’ whichmanages these services and implements the various projects for delivering an effectivemode of transport to Londoners. 46
    • Table 3-3 Components of rail network, London Source: Transport for London websiteType Users/annual Lines Length StationsUnderground 1065 million 11 402 270‘Tube’Over ground 11 million 5 86kms 78Light Rail ‘DLR’ 64 million 4 34kms 40Tram 27 million 1 28kms 39(Tramlink)Total 1167 Million 21 550 427 3.5 million/dayLondon rail network has been continuously developing itself to suit the needs of millions ofpassengers. Londoner gets to switch various modes of transport at the hundreds of Londontransports’ network nodes. It can be assumed that most Londoners live at a walkingdistance from a rail station or a bus stand and hence it can be substantiated that the publictransport in London is quite robust.Architecturally, most stations follow definite design elements and set a uniform order. Thestations are equipped with escalators, lifts and many are being upgraded to be accessed bydisabled persons. The network lines run in all directions of the city and cover the suburbanarea quite extensively. There are numerous interchanges on each rail line and they haveaugmented the network quite effectively. 47
    • Stratford is a suburb of London and is located to the north east of London’s centre. Thestation location is very strategic as the Olympic Village is coming just north to the stationarea and the station is expected to cater large number of sports enthusiasts during thegames. The suburban area which this station serves is also experiencing major regenerationand the station building was improved as a part of it. The East London is undergoing urbanrenewal as the old docks are being developed to accommodate various new functions. Theend of 20th century saw this major change beginning to happen with London bagging theopportunity to host the Olympics 2012. The Jubilee line of the London underground railnetwork was extended from Green Park till Stratford. Some eleven stations were developed Stratford London Figure 3-2 Location: Stratford Station Source: Multiplein along this extension. The stations were to highlight new contemporary Britisharchitectural trends. Stratford, a part of the Newham Council’s master- plan is going toaccommodate some 20,000 homes (See figure below) and to make it all sustainable, 46,000jobs are going to get created along with addition and upgrading of civic amenities. Newschools, shops and other recreational facilities are going to be developed and going by therecommendations of the biggest ever master-plan in Europe evolved for this east Londonarea of Stratford, it hints that these developments are going to get spun around the various 48
    • transport linkages which the area has been developing since some time now. It is believedthat currently the area is supported by the best transport linkages available in the whole ofUK (London Borough of Newham, 2011).Figure 3-3 Master plan for Stratford Source: (London Borough of Newham, 2011) 49
    • It is certain that the Stratford station designed by Wilkinson Eyres Architects, commissionedin the year 1994 is going to see its importance grow manifolds. The area is poised to servethe eastern gateway for London city. The design studio was established in 1983 and hasbuilt other projects like the South Quay foot bridge and the Floral Street Bridge (See figure4) and was found to be suitable to design the layout for the station which would handle theintra-city and inter-regional train services. The station was initially a part of Jubilee lineextension project and its now being brought under the scheme for the much biggerregeneration of the area.The brand new terminus building, serving the extended Jubilee line is built by replacing anold underground station (Powell, 2000). The station is a complex interchange serving fourlines, the Underground Central line and the over ground North London Line, the Jubilee lineand the DLR (Docklands Light Rail). The project was envisaged to engage the area with anew planning layout. The North London Line runs cutting across the station building and itwere a major challenge to assimilate the line into the building design.The quarter elliptical building form resting on four inconspicuous pillars opens on the southand is enclosed by a tapering glass curtain-wall which guarantees ample daylightpenetration. The curved profile tapering onto the north casts negligible shadows. Thestation befits its comparison with a ‘shining jewel’ (Powell, 2001) 50
    • The interiors of the curving profile have been well highlighted by wide strips of lights running along the top of the entrance canopy which stretches throughout the station frontage. Outside the station area (see figure 3) is ample public space which gets linked to the bus station where the white Teflon awnings forms its roof. The scale of the bus station seems adequate and serves to be a major inter-modal connectivity for the station. The pedestrian route at the south-east of the station is guided through a high street retail complex on whose roof is a multi level car-park. This allows the station building to maintain its individuality and at the same time achieves a very orderly management of functions. It can beFigure 3-4 Stations Profile (1) and assumed that the station building is not laden with too manyExploded view (2) Stratford Source:(Powell, 2000), (Powell, 2001) functions apart from serving the commuters taking the trains on four separate lines is that the station is later going to cater the huge crowds who will be coming to the Olympic Sports complex, currently under construction and post Olympics may continue to attract crowds into a major shopping complex also currently under construction. Along with creation of retail spaces, numerous housing units, schools, a university and other amenities are planned in theFigure 3-5 Interiors of StratfordStation Source: (Powell, The Jubilee area, earlier was a brown-field site belonging to the railLine Extension, 2000) companies (London Borough of Newham, 2011). 51
    • Figure 3-6 Present Stratford Station Area Source: Google EarthOverall the station seems to befittingly suit the role it is going to serve in coming years andsets a great example of spatial distribution and ordered circulation management with itssimple bare minimum interiors. 52
    • The lessons learnt from planning the Stratford station can be applied at some stations whichare being developed in the New Mumbai area. The parts of New Mumbai lack multitude oflinkages with the older and much denser Mumbai and hence the planning authorities arebound to find it challenging to attract more people to shift to these new area. It is essentialfor a place to be more accessible in order to become attractive for the property developersand people to move in.Table 3-2 SWOT Analysis, Stratford Station Source: AuthorStrengths  The station is the focal point for the new development proposed in the area.  The stations simple and transparent look makes it an attractive gatewayWeaknesses  The station could have incorporated more functions with more levels above the tracks.  The vehicular road between the shopping complex and Station needs to be subdued.Opportunities  The use of glass can enhance the visibility for the station building  Gentrification of Station areas can greatly be influenced on harbour line stations along the Mumbai port land by taking lessons from this station.Threats  53
    • 3.2.2 Kyoto Rail Station, Japan Japan has spearheaded great innovations in the field of high-speed trains and in the post- second war era was able to develop itself into a major economy. Railways in Japan are laid across the countries remotest corners and have brought its people closer. Railways led to rapid urbanisation of the country and made its citiesFigure 3-7 Location of Kyoto Source Multiple bigger to serve millions of people. Very denseconurbations are seen in Japan and to provide its citizens with modes of mobility, railwayswere given more prominence.Kyoto is one such city and the railway station building designed by Hiroshi Hara and Atelier5, a design group studio has great story to tell. The station was built in 1997 and servesmore than being a railway station. The station building, however is the fourth building beingbuilt at the same site. The first one was built in 1877, the second in 1914 and the third in1952. The present one is a multi-level building laden with many more functions to serve itsusers and city in general. The station is served by 10 rail lines at various points at the baseand under the building (Mi Marketing Pty Ltd, 2010).The population of Kyoto is whopping 26.5 million and most of its urban fabric is inaccordance with layout which can date back to several millennia ago. The city and itsoutlying suburbs have evolved in sync with the historic patterns while embracing somemodern contemporary elements. This primarily served an inspiration to the designers of this 54
    • contemporary station building (Hara, 1997). They added numerous functions to this buildingand also treated the spaces and appearance of the building quite sensitively. The big atriumenclosed by glass held by steel framework represents the intricacy of street patternsobserved in Kyoto and according to the architect serves as the matrix for the building (JapanGuide, 2009). Figure 3-8 The Building’s South Facade (Left), The Rail Platforms (Middle) and the Atrium (Right), Kyoto Rail Station Source: Multiple. The building is set over a four hectare site and its longer side measures a good 470 meters. The 70 m long station building of such a long length has 238,000 sq.m of floor- space and as block divides the city across the east- west direction. The north of the building houses new developments and is very busyFigure 3-9 Observation Deck and the Skywalk, Kyoto rail because that is where the traditionalStationSource: Multiple downtown area is located while thesouth seems to be a quaint neighbourhood. The gigantic building is built parallel to the rail 55
    • tracks and boasts of a hotel, a retail space, conference centre, a museum and multi-levelcar-park.The insides of this building can be characterised by its very unique atrium which convergesdown in the centre of the building onto a piazza also serving as a concourse to access therail station. The atrium steps down gradually towards the centre in a stepped manner. Thebase of this humongous atrium connects welcomingly with the outside piazza whereseparate bays for taxis and buses await the commuters to provide inter-modal facilities.Various other facilities are provided here. The base of this epic atrium also leads its users toa large shopping mall and the atrium allows the shoppers to orient themselves in contextwith the rest of this huge railway station. Beyond the mall is the multi-level car park wing tothe west of the building and a hotel lies on the other side with its rooms aligned along theremaining length of the building (Futagawa, 1996).The station also provides the tourists and the people of Kyoto to experience some greatviews of the city from an observation deck located on the top of the building. Anotherskywalk which runs 45 m above the central piazza also offers the views of the city andwitness the activity within the station building. Both these spaces are open to public and theaccess is free (Japan Guide, 2009).A huge central void separates the hotel block from the shopping mall and ensures that thebuilding doesn’t appear as a huge long monolith. The location of this void coincides with animportant city street. The exteriors of the building are played along using extrusions,inclines and a void. The building hits the ground with a stepped extrusion over which variousbuilding services are installed. Many reproductions of the art work by Roy Lichtenstein,Robert Longo, Kokyo Hatanaka, Thomas Shanow and Joseoh Kosuth adorns the inside walls. 56
    • The use of glass on the inclined and straight facades interestingly reflects the changing skiesabove create unique canvases (Futagawa, 1996). 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 3-10 North Elevation (1), South Elevation (2), Section (3), Axonometric (4), Plan (5), Kyoto rail Station Source: (Hara, 1997) 57
    • Figure 3-11 Spatial Organisation, Kyoto Rail Station Source: (Hara, 1997)In the above figure, one can clearly see how the building’s neatly managed functionsgimmicks a city in itself and at the same time places the rail station in the centrality of theurban built space. The station building design set a new trend for development of variousstations in Japan (Pollock, 1998) and such influences can also be seen in the planning ofVashi and Belapur railway stations on the relatively newer section of Suburban rail networkin Mumbai, where the air space above the tracks is been used to create only deep officefloor plates. Similar exploitation of air space over some important suburban train stationssuch as Kurla. Thane and Panvel can provide much vitality to the station building whilesimultaneously helping railways to earn more revenues. The concentration of such variedfunctions can provide much convenience to all and also to the people working and living inthe vicinity of the station. The building type can also trigger higher densification of areaswithin the walk able distances and serve major deterrent to urban sprawl.Table 4-3 SWOT Analysis, Kyoto Railway Station Source: AuthorStrengths  The station serves as a vital link between the two distinct sides of the city  The station laden with numerous functions serves as a city in itselfWeaknesses  The assemblage of too many functions can cause security concerns in case of emergency. 58
    •  The station seems to be standing in isolation from all the sides.Opportunities  Multi-level stations with mixed use functions can help decongestion of station areas.  The revenues earned from letting these spaces can help earn railways more.Threats  The long building form can be very daunting to the city scape. 59
    • 3.2.3 Glazenberg Rail Station, Zurich, SwitzerlandZurich the largest city in Switzerland is home 1.2 million people and they majorly depend on city’s public transport. The city buses, trams and light rail (S.Bahn) together deliver public transport. The city offers some of the best living standards for majority of its people (Mercer LLC, 2011). The rail network got operational in 1990 to connect the suburban areas of the city with its city centre (Ferrarini, Ueli Zbinden, 2005). Glanzenberg is one such suburban rail station offering good frequency railFigure 3-12 Public Transport Lines, Zurich Source: Invalidsource specified. connectivity to go to the city centre inZurich. The station building is minimalistic and designed by Ueli Zbinden using simpleprefabricated structural elements.The station was to be located in an area dominated by roadways. The structure here seemsto be modestly catering the bare basic functions required for a rail station. The station sitsright under an overpass and has used much of the unused space under it for the station’sforecourt which provides the facility for park and ride.The architect wanted the users to feel safe at the station and a structure which would helpmuch to orient themselves in accordance with their surroundings. The design is very distinctand the legible structure ensures best use of space. The rail interface is basic and providedwith a 35 m long cubed pavilion of glass, held by a frame of prefabricated steel members, 60
    • following a 7 m grid plan. Such simplicity and use of prefabrication allowed speedyconstruction work even when the rail line was in operation (Ferrarini, Ueli Zbinden, 2005).The station also houses a waiting room, bit of retail, washrooms and covered area for cycles.Steel rectangular sections and folded wood lamina were joined together using semi-rigidjoints to form the roof. The sections of the structural components have been designeddistinctly to suit the loads they will be experiencing for just use of materials but an amazinguniformity has been achieved with regards to the appearance of the structure. The profile ofthe pavilion roof is designed sensitively. The side facing the forecourt has been providedwith overhangs from the same roof level but it is lowered on the side where the platformsare to be covered. The structural profile made of hollow steel sections also carries thewiring for the electrical and light fittings. The platforms are serviced by underpasses and areFigure 3-13 Plan, Glazenberg Rail Station Source: Invalid source specified. 61
    • tiled with refreshingly yellow tiles. The glass panels which enclose the pavilion are held in analuminium frame and the frame joins with the profile with a very detailed and aestheticway. Figure 4-14 Section and Elevation, Glazenberg Rail Station Source: Invalid source specified.The simplicity adopted in the structural elements speaks of a much matured designsensibility which also achieves optimal use of the material and resources used for itsconstruction. The transparency provided by glass panels and the least obtrusive andotherwise bold expression of structural elements can go a long way in creating orderlyspaces within such complex transport buildings of much public importance and they canalso influence the sense of order in congested suburban areas which are examples of morechaotic and unorganised urban environments.Glazenberg station design can be well adopted to suit the redesigning for the existingsuburban stations in Mumbai. The use of prefabricated structural components can ensure 62
    • speedy upgrading of the station buildings. The Glazenberg station design is uncluttered andmakes efficient use of spaces. It eliminates the disproportionate use of resources anddelivers a clean and a very functional space for the users. The use of glass ensures bettervisibility and guarantees better orientation which is otherwise found lacking in moreelaborate and confined railway station buildings. The prospect of such a building design forstations in less crowded suburban areas of Mumbai is surely promising.Table 3.4 SWOT Analysis, Glazenberg Railway Station Source: AuthorStrengths  The use of glass for the small station ensures better visibility and guarantees security  The station’s location under the viaduct makes efficient use of space.Weaknesses  The station’s forecourt has a car park and has no activities spun around it  The station seems to be standing in isolation from all the sides.Opportunities  Prefabrication of structural components can save great deal of money and time.  The minimalist and contemporary design can add order to the area.Threats 63
    • 3.2.4 Bangkok Light Rail StationsBangkok, also called by the name Krung Thepis the capital city of Thailand, a country in thetropical South-East Asia. The capital city is alsothe seat of many cultural and economicalactivities. The population of BangkokMetropolitan area is 12.39 million and isdistributed across 7762 sq.km area whichindicates of a very moderate populationdensity of 1542 ppl/sq.km (Brinkhoff, 2010). Figure 3-15 Location: Bangkok Source: (Brinkhoff, 2010)The urban sprawl is mostly because the risingpopularity of private transport fuelled by rising income levels and extensive availability ofcredit (Tanaboriboon, 1993). The older and traditional business districts contain within thema very dense built environment with many high-rises. The traffic conditions in the city arequite acute but lately the development of public transport is providing much respite.Table 3-5. Train transport in Bangkok Source: Multiple Metro Sky-train TotalLines 1 2 3Stations 18 25 43Length 20 kms 55 kms 75 kmsRidership/day 200,000 460,000 660,000The city has developed light rail transport system by building viaducts on most of the city’skey and busy roads. The government’s initiative for building rail transport for the city has 64
    • met several setbacks and it is only recently that the city has been able to depend on railtransit system (Glaister, Allport, Brown, & Travers, 2010). Figure 3-16 Typical Station for the Bangkok Light Rail Source: (Building Design Partnership, 1995)The traffic situation in Bangkok was so bad that it was estimated that the mass transit planwhich was to be built during the period of 15 years costing $15billion, could have only increased the speed of traffic bymerely a kilometre per hour (Moreau, 1991). Bangkok had todo something to solve its traffic problems and hence was tobuild a mass transit rail network.A proposal for building the sky-train by the UK based BuildingDesign Partnership seems to be very location sensitive rail Figure 3-17 Artist impression: Bangkok Light Rail Source:transport system but the one which got built is slightly (Building Design Partnership, 1995)different from the initial proposal.The proposal was to build a 15 km long elevated rail line with 25 stations at an interval of600m. The rail line was to be supported by viaducts made of single concrete pillars been 65
    • built at the centre of the major streets. The stations were to be built in steel over two levels.The top level was to hold the train line and the platforms with canopies and the lower levelwas to cater the ticketing windows and toilets. The levels were to be accessed from thestreet sidewalks by stairs and lifts.Precast concrete pillars were to be used and double sided steel cantilevers to form thedecks. Steel was preferred because of its light weight and it offers much flexibility to befabricated off site. The line was to be built within 42 months.The design of all the stations except the central station was kept elegant with sleek canopiesand the design was kept consistent to keep the costs lower as it would involve massproduction of the similar structural components and help achieve the project deadline. Thetwo steel decks supported over the precast concrete column were 28m wide. The sleekcanopies over the platforms on the top most deck were asymmetrical and were to providean interesting architectural element to the busy streets if viewed from top. The physicalelements of the roof were maintained even for the central stations where two loops were tocross at the same station. The station here was to hold 90,000 commuters per hour duringthe rush hours. For orderly movement of commuters escalators were provided between twoupper platform decks and another third deck was provided under the arch of the concreteportal here. The tracks were provided on the edge of the upper two decks which allowedeven more visibility of the station area for the commuters. 66
    • Figure 3-18 Section through the Central Station, Bangkok light Rail, Source: (Building Design Partnership, 1995)The advantages of an elevated rail link helps the commuters orient themselves well to theareas they go through and also offers much visibility to the development taking placearound the stations and hence prove more attractive for the property development. It isalso possible for physically connecting such developments at the elevated levels (BuildingDesign Partnership, 1995).Elevated rail links can offer much respite to decongesting the areas as they can be built withleast disturbances during their construction compared to building an underground systemand it is also feasible to build them in areas where the ground conditions are not suitable tobuild underground tunnels. In case of Bangkok, if the system was built underground it wouldhave required building 60m deep piles and the city’s location in a high seismic zone wouldhave required more precautions, adding to the costs of construction (McGuirk, 1995). Thegovernment though did go ahead and built the 20km underground section in 2004. 67
    • Table 3-5 SWOT Analysis, Bangkok Light Rail Stations Source: AuthorStrengths  The elevated stations save a lot of ground space.  The use of same and elegant station design helps create a better image for the city.Weaknesses  The entry and exit points from the sidewalks can be tricky in congested areas of the city  The stations do not form direct physical linkages with the surrounding built form.Opportunities  The scope of an elevated rail line over the busy roads can greatly decongest traffic and encourage more public transport usage.  The surrounding areas near the stations can greatly benefit by the provision of better and clean mode of transport.Threats  Insensitive Street level Integration 68
    • 4. Conclusions- Design Guidelines for the Mumbai Rail Stations and PrecinctsThe first two chapters have duly highlighted how important are the rail services for Mumbaiand the present status of it is proving very inadequate to cater the needs of a risingpopulation. The case-studies in chapter two clearly mention that although the developmentauthorities are trying innovative ways to tackle the congestion at these stations, theiroutcomes have barely been appreciated. This is partly because these improvements havenot been carried out by keeping in perspective the needs of the users and the builtenvironment which surrounds these stations. Building of skywalks and elevated roads, deckscan deteriorate the quality of life on the street levels and can result their redundancy if theyfail to attract users due to the poor and inadequate planning. These are public spaces andno amount of aesthetics can welcome people to use it unless they are practical andconvenient to use. In case of many new iconic stations coming up in New Mumbai, bigforecourts are being provided for effective integration with other modes of transport suchFigure 4-1 Mumbai Stations (Clockwise) Office blocks above Vashi Station, Iconic Turbhe Station, Motorbike parking atThane Station, Car parking on the roof of Khargar Station and Elevated bus station outside Thane Station. Source:Multiple 69
    • as buses, taxis and auto rickshaws; multiple levels over the tracks are provided for officespace use and at few stations ample car and motorbike parking has been provided (seefigure 4-1).The provision of these facilities is not consistent across all stations and also where providedare not serving their purpose. These station areas need an effective integration with variousaspects of urban life. They can be shopping centres, places offering leisure andentertainment facilities, an effective inter-modal transport facility apart from being arailway station.Mumbai suburban stations need an amalgamated kind of architecture which supports allpossible kind of functions and activities within and around them as discussed in the chapterthree. The station areas need to be served by a mixed use of land resources as in the case ofStratford, and also accommodate many allied functions within itself, very similar to Kyotorailway station and be just as elegant and functional by the use of prefabricated structuralelements order, scale and aesthetics which the Glazenberg station stands for. Equal careshould be taken while building elevated walks, rail lines and stations by keeping theirstructures elegant and versatile as in the case of Bangkok’s light rail stations. Suchcomparisons may set the direction for possible intervention of station architecture inMumbai.Rail stations need to be designed in context with their users and the scope of designingthem should go beyond the perimeters of the station building and extend into theirprecincts. The nature of built environment surrounding the station buildings can have bothgood and bad effect on the functioning of these key public buildings. The aim of this chapter 70
    • is to suggest guidelines for the effective designing of station buildings and later for designand managements of their precincts.4.1 Rail StationsThe design and planning of rail stations are more or less dictated by the circulation patternswhich allow its user to enter and exit these station buildings to board and disembark off thetrains which halt at these stations. This experience between the stretches of this activity canlargely influence the usage of rail services. The station design has to provide comfort andsafety.4.1.1 Internal CirculationThe insides of a typical rail station are of regular ticket counters and then concoursesleading to the various long platforms. The ticketing area is the first point of interface for apassenger with the station. The designing of this interface has to be distinctly visible andelegant. Bold and aesthetically designed station canopies can provide that much neededvisibility and shelter from the harsh sun and rains in the open. The access within the stationhas to be friendly for all types of users such as elderly and disabled people. Once inside thestation building, the ticketing counters can be located well within a few steps andconsidering the amounts of people using the train services in Mumbai as of now ample areaare required to be provided for queuing . However there is a limitation to the amount ofspace which can be provided in the ticketing area at Mumbai rail stations because manylong queues are a regular sight at most stations and hence faster dispensation of ticketsthrough various credible methods should be considered. In Mumbai, ticket vendingmachines, coupon validating machines and even touch-card machines (See figure 4-2) havebeen provided on the lines of London’s Oyster card but these systems are badly managed. 71
    • They are simply not designed to cater the huge number of users. Most fail to work within months of their installation or in the case of touch-card system, the machines are rarely being located at key access points to the stations and also go faulty as they get exposed to the harsh Figure 4-2, Various ticketing options, Mumbai Suburban rail, hot and humid climate and the torrential Source: Multiple rains, Mumbai witnesses during themonsoon season. The ticketing system needs to be remodelled on the lines of London tube,where every passenger entering the core area of the station has to pass through the cardvalidators and owing to these stations catering huge crowds during morning hours, the areaassigned to accommodate these validators should be wide enough. The use of thesevalidators can also act as barrier controls to regulate the number of the passengers enteringthe core areas of the rail stations. For an effective regulation of crowds, it is howeverrequired that these barriers cum validators are manned as it is in the case of Londonstations. Also the other modes of tickets availed should allow passengers to enter thestation core areas by validating their tickets at these barriers. This may work well in Londonwhere there are far few people using the rail services along different lines and many morestations as against in Mumbai, where only three rail lines cater almost 7 million daily usersat just 120 Stations (see table 1-2 of the Chapter 1). The system designed for Mumbai needsto be more effective to cater almost double the numbers compared to London. This onlyhints at designing wide enough access points to the stations core areas. The use of such asystem won’t require many ticket counters but wider access points which if located along 72
    • the concourses can result into better regulation of passenger flows and avoiding of bottlenecks. In case of Mumbai’s Rail stations, the train services are 12-car long and they carry 5000 people at a time during peak hours when they are allowed to carry just half that number (Bhagat, 2011). This has resulted in platforms as long as 270m. A detailed study can be carried out to ascertain the number of passengers enter and exit a particular station during the rush hours and then the internal spaces be designed accordingly. Factors such as user density, ticketing, rush hour times and disabled persons accessibility should be considered while designing circulation areas. Barrier control systems, speedy ticketing methods and ensuring of unobstructed spaces can help better circulation of people (Edwards, 1997). These spaces should be calculated for a minimum of 1 sq.m/passenger (Godward, 1992). Apart from providing zones for ticketing, the stations are also to provide platforms and to access these have to design effective means of vertical and horizontal movement of passengers through stairs and concourses. The figure 4-3, indicates the typical section for most suburban rail stations in Mumbai. The foot-over bridges are usually provided for movement of passengersFigure 4-3 Typical Circulation patterns for Mumbai Rail Stations Source:Author between platforms and sides of the station but with adding of new lines for a separate freight and express train corridor 73
    • (earlier shared with suburban services) has led to shifting of the ticket counters on the level of the foot-over bridges and these bridges are being extended deep onto either sides of the station in the form of skywalks but Mumbai rail stations are not simply meant to cater passengers. Their surroundings are full of various activities which are now protesting against these skywalks as it would render their shops on the ground level pointless. It is in the interest of saving the fabric of the outside station areas and having not to construct structures up the air, an underground pass through can be constructed just across the station width. This can ensure open to sky streets and streets full of activities. Shifting of just passenger movement away from the ground floor can prove detrimental to the businesses around the station. These underpasses can work in tandem with the station Foot-over bridges. Such alternate of providing additional means of passenger movement can greatly enhance their mobility and the scope of providing easy access to disabled people can be achieved by providing lifts (See figure 4-4). 4.1.2 Congregation of more functionsFigure 4-4 Proposed Circulation pattern for Mumbai Suburban Rail Stations Source: Author 74
    • The changing face of the stations has been executed by making them deliver more functionswhile creating new avenues for social, economical and cultural interactions. Alongside, thestructures to accommodate these new functions have undergone major physical changes.The congregation of several functions is proving convenient for its users who can now shopat numerous retail units, eat variety of world cuisines at the cafes and restaurants, usebanks, ATMS, and interact with other people while being at the station itself. These stationbuildings have become more attractive for all kinds of users and no more just the travellers.The built environment accommodating so many functions is bound to get complex andwould require an evolution in the aspects of transport architecture. The stations arebecoming part of the world of leisure, are serving as resort for the urban tourist, the Figure 4-5 Vashi Rail Station, Mumbai (left) and Kyoto Rail Station Source: Multipleshopper and the unemployed (Edwards, 1997). These new rail stations are providing greaterinteractions with their environments which were earlier restricted to a few who would buytickets for wanting to commute by trains. In the contrary now the new breed of stationshave become more attractive and are earning much revenue from these new provision offunctions. Many developers are finding it attractive to build office and retail spaces byexploiting the air space above the tracks and their precincts. For e.g the offices above theVashi Station in New Mumbai or the Kyoto Railway station in Japan which accommodates 75
    • number of shops, a hotel, a car park and art galleries. . A comprehensive and all inclusivedesign can serve differently to various types of users. All of this can be achieved by havingthe local people, the developers to collaborate with the rail companies to evolve locationspecific functions and build them by sharing resources.In Mumbai, owing to the busy nature of most stations, provision of shopping malls, officesat major stations can be avoided by accommodating them outside the station building in thestation precinct area. Such facilities can also be provided in the nearest station on the sameline.The circulation areas can be designed by demarcating zones for ticketing, areas forfood/book stalls, waiting areas, toilets and information display boards and then linking themsequentially. These circulation areas should not allow passengers to get disoriented for.e.gin the case of Kyoto railway station discussed in the chapter 3, the main piazza remains inthe centrality of all the other functions distributed in the building.Care should be taken while integrating the circulation between the various levels in thestation building, i.e. the stairs, ramps, lifts should be strategically located. Effective design ofstructural elements and distinct use of lighting, surface finishes can help passengers orientthemselves at busy junctions in the station building (Edwards, 1997).The provision of limited retail spaces at some key circulation concourses especially near theticket counters can help rail authority earn much revenue. British rail earned £153.7 millionin revenues by leasing the spaces for various non-rail purposes (British Rail, 1994). For theeffective exploitation of retail spaces in the station building and their smooth integrationwith the station precincts, the ticketing areas can be located just before the passenger is 76
    • about to enter the core area of the station which serves the trains. Major Stations offeringinter-city express train services also house allied services such as post and parcel services.The stations also witness arrival of vegetables and fish in the early morning hours. It is oftenseen on Mumbai’s suburban stations that these goods are transported using the samecirculation routes shared by fellow passengers. Although suburban trains have specialcoaches for their transport but stations don’t have any provisions for their movement fromthe platforms to the sides of a station. These services need to given a dedicated zone and acirculation path to minimise conflicts with the passenger movement. A space should bededicated for their storage and then a path be provided to transport these items to theirmarkets. It could be worth if these markets are allowed to function in the close vicinity ofthe stations or are simply stacked over the station platforms or rail lines to be accessed fromthe sides.Care should also be taken to allow healthy levels of light in all these circulation areas andconsidering the hot and humid climate of Mumbai, forced ventilation along with indirectlighting can put the users at much ease. The top surfaces of the platforms and stationbuilding should be provided with light and heat reflecting surfaces, for example whitealuminium sheets in addition with intermediate translucent poly-carbonate sheets.Provision of heavy duty fans at regular intervals can be more comforting.4.2 Station PrecinctIn Mumbai, most suburbs served by rail stations have developed dense built environmentsaround them. Owing to the rising population in the city, these areas have buckled under andare often considered unattractive. Many people living in the suburbs are shunning away 77
    • from living close to these stations and are buying properties away from them. Thedevelopers too have realised this and are building suitable housing units for the middleclasses in areas away from the stations. This has resulted in urban sprawls and the trendneeds to be regulated. Most station area in Mumbai although congested but are not theplaces to find high-rises. The ratio for allowable developable area over a given plot (floorspace index, FSI) is too less. In Mumbai, this ratio is just 1.33 for the city and 1 in thesuburbs (Bertaud, Mumbai FSI/FAR Conundrum, 2004). To begin with, the archaic landregulations can be relaxed to make way for high-rise construction of mixed-use buildingtypes in the station precincts on the lines of London Bridge Station and Canary Wharf inLondon. Figure 4-6 London Bridge Station (Top two) and Canary Wharf Station (Bottom two) Source Multiple 78
    • 4.2.1 Station as a bridgeProvision of developing commercial spaces in and around the stations is proving beneficialfor the users as well as the developers. This can also help in arresting urban sprawl and helpgentrify the inner town centres. There is no doubt that the rail-lines halve the areas fromwhere they pass through and many over and underpasses are required to connect thesesides. Rail stations can satisfyingly offer to provide a linkage and if this linkage is toaccommodate various functions then it invariably brings much vitality to the location of thestation and its surrounding area. The elements of the station such as its roof can become anelevated deck to park vehicles, cycles or sport a market, a park or a recreational space.An iconic bridge can also impart a unique identity to that place for e.g the Croydon railstation. The rail station is aligned to a vehicular bridge with a very unique steel structurewhich holds the station building next to it. The vehicular bridge has been strengthened tooffer a tram line, which offers feeder services to the station. This can be applied to serveFigure 4.7 Croydon Station, London Source: Multiple 79
    • many key rail stations in Mumbai and help develop either sides of the station area as againstjust one side. The example of Thane railway station as discussed in the chapter 2, highlightsstrange contrasts with the level of activities happening on either sides of the tracks. AtThane only one side of the station has been developed by providing an elevated deck toaccommodate city bus station but if the elevated deck was to be built over the tracks itwould have served much better and opened up more area outside the congested railstation.4.2.2 Forecourts4.3.3 External SpacesExternally, the forecourts are spaces which are meant to allow access to the stationconcourses which later lead to the various platforms. The alignment of feeder bus/ tramroutes should be set close to these forecourts and at the same time this alignment shouldbe in sync with the pedestrian routes leading to the station. Cycling routes can also be madeto converge at these forecourts. However, car or two wheeler-parking should be avoided inorder to give right of way for buses, trams, cycles and pedestrians. Care should also be takenthat during the times of emergencies the fire brigade and ambulances can access all theaccess points to the station.In case of Mumbai, most suburban stations are through stations and as explained in the caseof Thane and Kanjurmarg stations in chapter two, there are mainly three types of stations. 80
    • Table 4-1 Station Types in Mumbai Source: Author 1. Major through Stations offering slow and fast suburban and also express inter-city services. for e.g. Thane as explained in the chapter 2 2. Major through Stations offering slow and fast suburban only. 3. Through stations offering only slow suburban services. for e.g. Kanjurmarg as explained in the chapter 2In the case of these stations, it is not often that the road on either sides of the station mayrun along the length of the platforms. In the case of Thane it does but not in the case ofKanjurmarg. It is however very important that the stations not only are served by parallelrunning roads but also have a parallel running forecourts on either sides of the station.These forecourts can provide the stations with some breathing space. In order tocompensate the usage of this huge forecourt area, the air-rights above the forecourt can beexploited and the buildings built over the forecourts can be accessed from the islands inforecourt.Interventions on such a huge scale are difficult but this has been partially accomplished inthe case of Thane station, where the entire huge forecourt area is elevated to make way fora bus station and long elevated roads were built. 81
    • Figure 4-8 Planning of station forecourts Source: AuthorThe user convenience can be greatly achieved by only such big interventions around thestation areas in Mumbai because the surrounding built environment is very dense and hasgrown haphazardly. In Mumbai’s tropical climate, shade from the sun is important but also agood quality of light is desirable. Architectural elements such as canopies and shaded walk-ways can be provided. The use of paving and shading trees can be more desirable in theforecourts as against asphalted roads and shrubs. In the night, these same forecourts ifprovided with aesthetic lighting can make station areas look more attractive and the samespace used by open-air markets in the day time can convert into open spaces with foodstalls and places to meet and unwind. This multi-use of the same area can go a long way inalso supporting low-income households, who can run businesses in these open areas.4.3 Sustainability4.3.1 DensificationThere is no doubt that train travel is the most sustainable mode of mass transport known tohumans, the stations and train operations do utilise lot of energy and it makes more sensethat the neighbourhoods benefit the most from these stations by saving resources which 82
    • one would have to spend for their commutes with regards to reach the station building orsimply drive down to work via other less-fuel efficient modes of transport. Much energyefficiency can be achieved if the last legs of door-to-door journey are done by simplywalking. This is only possible with high-rise constructions in walkable distances from thestation. A core of a kilometre distance from the station can be demarcated for high-density,high-rise construction of mixed use type. A detailed mapping of such a kilometre radiusaround stations can be carried out and construction beyond this zone be strictly regulated.Construction of high-rises in an already dense city, lacking of open spaces is very desirable.Such efficient use of station areas can open up new avenues for commercial, residential andallied purposes and can easily curb urban sprawl. Such urban renewal should however bemade to be cohesive and all-inclusive so that the overall quality of life improves and thebenefits don’t remain limited to only a few. Public housing for the poor can be encouragedin areas close to the stations and help them bring closer to the changing social andeconomic trends.4.3.2 RenewablesTrain travel is undoubtedly the most sustainablemode of mass transport available and thedesign of rail stations can also be in sync withthe values of improving sustainability. Theexample of Woking station, a suburban over-ground rail station in London is quite Figure 4-9 PV imbedded canopy outside the Woking Rail Station, London Source: (Harman, 2010)remarkable where a 34m x 22.5 m glass canopyto shelter taxis and city buses outside the station has been built by imbedding it with photo- 83
    • voltaic panels. The canopy produces 51,000 to 58,000 KWh/ year (Council, 2007). The costsfor the construction was committed by the local council which is installing more suchinstallations and combined heat plants across its council area to depend less on the nationalelectricity grid. The prospects of on-site energy generation for suburban rail stations areenormous owing to the fact that platform roofs are metres long. The large roof areas canalso be used to collect rain water in Mumbai where it rains only during monsoons.4.4 SummaryThe design for the rail stations across the world is witnessing a great revival as the leadingarchitects are increasingly taking up the tasks for design engineering of railway stations.Improved new designs are serving as catalysts for regeneration of old city centres. They aresustainable virtues of train travel with effective design and engineering techniques and atthe same time are conceiving greater bondages with the economical and social aspects ofurban life (Edwards, 1997).Mumbai, may be the densest and the most populated city in the world but it is not to beforgotten that it the commercial capital of a country, whose market economy is 4th biggestin the world (PTI, 2003) and is poised to become much bigger. India can’t afford toderegulate archaic land-use laws. The station areas in Mumbai have to pave the way forachieving greater economic goals with increased activities around them and the stationarchitecture has to stand as testimonials for the economic might.The dissertation has highlighted the issues facing the Mumbai suburban rail services to itspossible extent using case-studies of some key stations, reports and news articles and hasbeen able to set guidelines for the design and development of the suburban rail stations andtheir precincts by putting forth some important examples of station design and 84
    • management of the stations across the world. It is imperative that improvement of thestation architecture and their built environment in Mumbai can guarantee that city’s growthis sustained for times to come and assure its citizens better and clean standard of living. 85
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