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  • 1. Section-1IntroductionIt is estimated that in India the share of switchgear in market is about Rs.3252.8 Cr. Of the 105companies in Switchgear market SIEMENS LTD ranks 3rd with 9.52%. Continuous power supplyis a crucial requirement for industry. This makes switchgear and control gear indispensable notonly in transmission and distribution of power, but anywhere where there is a need to accessand control electricity. In India, the entire range of circuit breakers from bulk oil, minimum oil,air blast, vacuum to sulphur hexaflouride (SF6) are manufactured to standard specifications.Switchgear and control gear are necessary at every switching point in power systems. Theswitchgear and control gear industry in India is a fully developed industry, producing andsupplying a wide variety of switchgear and control gear items needed by the industrial andpower sectors. In India, the entire range of circuit breakers from bulk oil, minimum oil, airblast, vacuum to sulphur hexaflouride (SF6) are manufactured to standard specifications. Thisindustry sector in fact manufacturers the entire voltage range from 240 KV to 800 KV.Switchgears can be categorized into three groups:  Low voltage switchgear (up to 1100 V)  Medium voltage switchgear (up to 36 KV)  High voltage switchgear.The low voltage switchgear product range is classified into domestic, power distribution systemand industrial control system. In the case of low voltage switchgears, MCBs are fast replacingrewireable switch fuses. Low voltage switchgear is showing a high growth rate; partly due tohigh demand for MCBs in the housing sector and MCCBs in rural electrification. The mediumvoltage switchgear includes products below 33 kV such as various types of circuit breakers viz.ACB, OCB, MOCB, VCB etc. 1
  • 2. Replacing internal hard-wired connections by means of a high-speed digital bus is possible tobuild new intelligent, standardized MV switchgears with a more efficient life cycle. In addition,the digital bus moves “the intelligence” closer to the process, allowing the construction ofswitchgear systems with increased configuration and maintenance flexibility, additionaladvanced features such as self diagnostics, etc.A new generation of devices for MV switchgear provides even more primary and secondarytechnologies tight integration based on coming IEC61850 standard, assuring compatibility andinteroperability with third party devices.Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED) for data acquisition, protection, metering, and control havegained widespread acceptance and are recognized as essential to the efficient and cost-effective operation and management of substations. New system architectures need to bedevised for retrieving, storing, integrating, and “pre-processing” the ever-increasing amount ofinformation gathered by the various devices. The Distributed Intelligence concept allows theoptimal integration of different multifunctional IEDs in a hierarchical substation protection andcontrol system. 2
  • 3. Section 22.1 LITERATURE SURVEY[1] Enzo DE NORA, Luciano DI MAIO & Carlo GEMME “DIGITAL INFORMATION MAKES MV SWITCHGEAR MORE SMART”, ABB PT SpA – Italy, CIRED, 18th International Conference on Electricity Distribution, Turin, 6-9 June 2005:Modern automation technology is characterized by an increasing decentralization of dataprocessing and process interfacing and strong deployment of data communication systems.This process has been positively influenced by the cost-decreasing trend for electronic devices.Communication interoperability (defined as the capacity to communicate, execute programs ortransfer data amongst the various elements of a system or network without requiring extensiveknowledge of the equipment and processes involved) is the key to successful integration ofmicroprocessor-based relays in Substation Automation Systems. Replacing internal hard-wiredpoint-to-point connections of power distribution switchgears by means of a high-speed digitalbus is possible to build new highly standardized switchgears with a more efficient life cycle.[2] A. Apostolov, Senior Member IEEE and D. Tholomier “Impact of IEC 61850 on Power System Protection”. PSCE 2006, 1-4244-0178-X/06/$20.00 2006 IEEE.IEC 61850 is a new international standard for communication networks and systems insubstations that has a significant impact on the developments in power system protection. Itallows the implementation of high-speed peer-to peer communications based applications, aswell as distributed protection solutions using sampled analog values. The paper describes theprinciples of different IEC 61850 communications based protection functions and analyses thefactors that will affect their performance. All major substation protection and controlequipment manufacturers have products that implement different forms of IEC 61850communications to simplify integration in substation automation systems and improve thefunctionality of the system, while at the same time reduce the overall system cost. 3
  • 4. The paper describes the functional hierarchy of a substation protection and control systembased on the Substation and Process Bus definitions in the IEC 61850 standard. Distributedfunction definitions related to different protection functions and schemes are presentedtogether with some specific examples.[3] Don Gies, Senior Product Compliance Engineer, “Safety Considerations for Smart Grid Technology Equipment”, Alcatel-Lucent –Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey USA.Smart grid technology can be viewed as a merging of power systems, information technology,telecommunications, switchgear, and local power generation, along with other fields that wereonce electrical technologies of separated industries. As these technologies become merged,much of the safety considerations will have to be merged and reconciled as well, particularly atinterfaces. This paper explores the safety considerations that should be addressed in the designof smart grid technology equipment. A smart grid combines the existing electrical infrastructurewith digital technologies and advanced applications to provide a much more efficient, reliableand cost effective way to distribute energy. The main function of a smart grid is to managepower consumption in optimal ways, providing the network with more flexibility in case ofemergencies. Within the context of smart grids, there are different kinds of supportingtechnologies, such as smart meters that can help monitor energy consumption and promotemore effective distribution.[4] Lars Anderson, Christoph Brunner, Member, IEEE, and Fred Engler, “Substation Automation based on IEC 6 1850 with new process-close Technologies” Paper accepted for Presentation at 2003 IEEE Bologna PowerTech Conference, June 23-26, Bologna, Italy.New technologies in primary equipment like non- Conventional instrument transformersrequire new interfaces to the substation automation system. The future standsrd~IEC61850perfectly supports this requirement. With the introduction of the new technologies and the useof lEC61850, a more decentralized architecture of the substation automation system will bepossible. This provides several benefits hut a careful system design is required to maintain theoverall reliability of the system. The transmission and distribution substation of the future iscurrently influenced by two issues. The future standard IEC61850 will introduce commercialcommunication technologies in the substation automation system. 4
  • 5. This will be the basis for new applications supporting not only the operation but also themaintenance of the substation. New technologies used in primary equipment will require newinterfacesOutcome of Literature Survey:In view of literature survey,  The new process close technology and the new standard IEC61850 offer several benefits for the design of a substation.  Intelligent Switchgears designed to share information by means of digital bus do not require customization depending on the plant and/or the particular customer for differences in functionalities of protection and control devices.  IEC 61850 is the new communications standard that allows the development of a new range of protection and control applications that result in significant benefits compared to conventional hard wired solutions.  It supports interoperability between protective relays from different manufacturers in the substation which is required to improve the efficiency of microprocessor based relays applications and implement new distributed functions.  The integrated circuit breaker has been designed to meet the new requirements of the smart grid distribution philosophy. 2.2 Organization of Report: In section-1 Introduction of the project phase-1 is enumerated.section-2 contains brief description of literature survey. Section-3 includes project objectives containing tentative functional block diagram to be implemented work done in project phase-1. 5
  • 6. Section-33.1. Project Objectives: To find a more flexible protocol than IEC 61850. To find its adaptability with different types of medium voltage switchgear. To study and collect energy consumption data of an Utility.3.2 Work done:A) What is SMART GRID?The concept of “smart Grid” is used in a number of contexts within the power industry andutility world in a great number of variations, including country specific aspects.In an extended view of the smart grid concept, defining it by its capabilities and operationalcharacteristics, it includes technologies at both the transmission and distribution level andextends to both IT hardware and software, such as monitoring and control systems, as well asprimary equipment like circuit breakers, transformers and relays.Deployment of smart grid technologies will occur over a long period of time, adding successivelayers of functionality and capability onto existing equipment and systems.In order to better control the network the distribution equipments have to be installedminutely so that each load can be monitored and controlled. This leads to new challenges dueto the space constraints where the distribution equipments have be to installed.So smart grid requirements will be:  Adaptive, with less reliance on operators, particularly in responding rapidly to changing conditions.  Predictive, in terms of applying operational data to equipment maintenance practices and even identifying potential outages before they occur.  Integrated, in terms of real-time communications and control functions.  Minutely deployed to finely control the loads and the power flow. 6
  • 7.  Optimized to maximize reliability, availability, efficiency and economic performance.  Secure from attack and naturally occurring disruptions. B) What is an ICB?The so called integrated circuit breaker (iCB) series has been specifically developed to enableeasy, flexible and reliable medium voltage switchgear engineering and operation. Thanks to thesensors and the Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) integrated on board; the iCB combinesmeasurement, protection and control capability with the primary power disconnection,switching and interruption technology. The IED has been designed to unleash the full potentialof the IEC61850 standard for communication and interoperability. The entire switchgear lifecycle is optimized by the adoption of the iCB. Starting from the easier specification andordering, to the drastically reduced complexity of the switchgear in terms of engineering, wiringand testing, commissioning and maintenance of the panel. The MV iCB simplifies theconnection of the private networks to smart grids with higher reliability, safety and at lowercost for the whole installation. Taking all of these elements into consideration, it becomesapparent that the grid we are used to is insufficient to serve us with the level of reliability andperformances we are accustomed to in the near future.C) IEC 61850IEC 61850 is a new approved international standard for substation communications that alreadyhas a significant impact on the development of different devices or systems used in thesubstation. All major substation protection and control equipment manufacturers haveproducts that implement different forms of IEC 61850 communications to simplify integrationin substation automation systems and improve the functionality of the system, while at thesame time reduce the overall system cost. New protection solutions are being developed inorder to take full advantage of the functionality supported in the standard.The object models of typical protection and other functions in a substation automation systemare another important element of IEC 61850 that supports self description. A function in an IEC61850 based integrated protection and control system can be local to a specific primary device 7
  • 8. (distribution feeder, transformer, etc.) or distributed and based on communications betweentwo or more IEDs over the substation local area network. IEC 61850 defines several ways fordata exchange between IEDs that can be used for different forms of distributed protectionapplications. They introduce a new concept that requires a different approach and technologyin order to define the individual components of the system, as well as the overall distributedapplications. 8
  • 9. ConclusionDetailed literature survey in connection with Smart switchgear, iCB, Smart Grid, IEC 61850 is tobe done. Finally it is proposed to take up project titled “Smart switchgears for smart grid” toimplement in the next semester. 9
  • 10. REFERENCES: 1] Enzo DE NORA, Luciano DI MAIO & Carlo GEMME “DIGITAL INFORMATION MAKES MV SWITCHGEAR MORE SMART”, ABB PT SpA – Italy, CIRED, 18th International Conference on Electricity Distribution, Turin, 6-9 June 2005. 2] A. Apostolov, Senior Member IEEE and D. Tholomier “Impact of IEC 61850 on Power System Protection”. PSCE 2006, 1-4244-0178-X/06/$20.00 2006 IEEE. 3] Don Gies, Senior Product Compliance Engineer, “Safety Considerations for Smart Grid Technology Equipment”, Alcatel-Lucent –Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey USA. 4] Lars Anderson, Christoph Brunner, Member, IEEE, and Fred Engler, “Substation Automation based on IEC 6 1850 with new process-close Technologies” Paper accepted for Presentation at 2003 IEEE Bologna PowerTech Conference, June 23-26, Bologna, Italy. 10