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# Quantitative

## by mandalina landy, admin at home on Dec 02, 2009

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## QuantitativePresentation Transcript

•
• General Purpose
• Collect and analyze data to explain, predict, or control phenomena of interest
• Describe current conditions
• Investigate relationships
• Study causes and effects
• Characteristics
• Numerical data
• Use of formally stated hypotheses and procedures
• Use of controls to minimize the effects of factors that could interfere with the outcome of the research
• Large numbers of participating subjects
• An objective
• Use of pencil and paper tests, questionnaires
• DESCRIPTIVE
• PURPOSE - to describe the current status of a variable of interest to the researcher
• Is undertaken too describe answers to questions of who, what, where, when and how
• Is a desirable when we wish to project a study’s findings to a larger population, if the study’s sample is representative.
• Two basic classifications:
• Cross-sectional studies
• Longitudinal studies
• Examples
• To describe and measure phenomena at a point in time
• How many students drop out of university?
• What are the attitudes of consumers concerning an increase in inflation rate?
• CORRELATIONAL
• PURPOSE- to ascertain the extent to which two or more variables are statistically related
• Examples
• What is the relationship between CGPA and class attendance?
• This design does NOT imply causation
• CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE
• PURPOSE - to explore relationships among variables that cannot be actively manipulated or controlled by the researcher
• Causal studies are conducted through the use of experiments
• Examples
• What is the effect of part-time employment on the achievement of studies?
• What characteristics differentiate consumer who buy imported product from those who do not?
• EXPERIMENTAL
• An experiment is defined as manipulating an independent variable, while also controlling the effects of additional extraneous variables.
• PURPOSE - to establish cause and effect relationships between variables
• Examples
• What is the effect of X on Y?
• The important characteristics are that the researcher manipulates the independent variable and controls extraneous variables
• Qualitative
• To probe deeply into the research setting to obtain in-depth understandings about the way things are, why they are like that, and how participants perceive them
• Characteristics
• - no hypotheses guiding the researcher
• - phenomena are examined as they exist in a natural context, and they are viewed from the participants’ perspectives
• - they are few participants involved in the study
• - the researcher interacts extensively with the participants
• Ethnography
• PURPOSE - to obtain an understanding of the shared
• beliefs and practices of a particular group or culture
• - Examples :
• What is the nature of the problems consumer encounter when they begin using a new products?
• Exploratory
• Is unstructured, informal research
• - unstructured (no formal set of objectives, sample plan, or questionnaire)
• Is undertaken to gain background information about the general nature of the research problem
• Initial research conducted to clarify and define the nature of problem, hypotheses and key variables
• For establishing priorities for further research
• Method used – pilot study, surveys, secondary data, focus groups, case study
• Focus group
• Unstructured - Free flowing - Group interview - Start with broad topic and focus in on specific issues - 6 to 10 people - Relatively homogeneous - Similar lifestyles and experiences