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  1. 2. General Purpose <ul><li>Collect and analyze data to explain, predict, or control phenomena of interest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe current conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigate relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study causes and effects </li></ul></ul>
  2. 3. Characteristics <ul><li>Numerical data </li></ul><ul><li>Use of formally stated hypotheses and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Use of controls to minimize the effects of factors that could interfere with the outcome of the research </li></ul><ul><li>Large numbers of participating subjects </li></ul><ul><li>An objective </li></ul><ul><li>Use of pencil and paper tests, questionnaires </li></ul>
  3. 4. DESCRIPTIVE <ul><li>PURPOSE - to describe the current status of a variable of interest to the researcher </li></ul><ul><li>Is undertaken too describe answers to questions of who, what, where, when and how </li></ul><ul><li>Is a desirable when we wish to project a study’s findings to a larger population, if the study’s sample is representative. </li></ul><ul><li>Two basic classifications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-sectional studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longitudinal studies </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Examples <ul><li>To describe and measure phenomena at a point in time </li></ul><ul><li>How many students drop out of university? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the attitudes of consumers concerning an increase in inflation rate? </li></ul>
  5. 6. CORRELATIONAL <ul><li>PURPOSE- to ascertain the extent to which two or more variables are statistically related </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>What is the relationship between CGPA and class attendance? </li></ul><ul><li>This design does NOT imply causation </li></ul>
  6. 7. CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE <ul><li>PURPOSE - to explore relationships among variables that cannot be actively manipulated or controlled by the researcher </li></ul><ul><li>Causal studies are conducted through the use of experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the effect of part-time employment on the achievement of studies? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What characteristics differentiate consumer who buy imported product from those who do not? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. EXPERIMENTAL <ul><li>An experiment is defined as manipulating an independent variable, while also controlling the effects of additional extraneous variables. </li></ul><ul><li>PURPOSE - to establish cause and effect relationships between variables </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the effect of X on Y? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The important characteristics are that the researcher manipulates the independent variable and controls extraneous variables </li></ul>
  8. 9. Qualitative
  9. 10. To probe deeply into the research setting to obtain in-depth understandings about the way things are, why they are like that, and how participants perceive them
  10. 11. Characteristics <ul><li>- no hypotheses guiding the researcher </li></ul><ul><li>- phenomena are examined as they exist in a natural context, and they are viewed from the participants’ perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>- they are few participants involved in the study </li></ul><ul><li>- the researcher interacts extensively with the participants </li></ul>
  11. 12. Ethnography <ul><li>PURPOSE - to obtain an understanding of the shared </li></ul><ul><li>beliefs and practices of a particular group or culture </li></ul><ul><li>- Examples : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the nature of the problems consumer encounter when they begin using a new products? </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Exploratory <ul><li>Is unstructured, informal research </li></ul><ul><li>- unstructured (no formal set of objectives, sample plan, or questionnaire) </li></ul><ul><li>Is undertaken to gain background information about the general nature of the research problem </li></ul><ul><li>Initial research conducted to clarify and define the nature of problem, hypotheses and key variables </li></ul><ul><li>For establishing priorities for further research </li></ul><ul><li>Method used – pilot study, surveys, secondary data, focus groups, case study </li></ul>
  13. 14. Focus group <ul><li>Unstructured - Free flowing - Group interview - Start with broad topic and focus in on specific issues - 6 to 10 people - Relatively homogeneous - Similar lifestyles and experiences </li></ul>