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  • 1. Patterns of Reproduction in Plants
  • 2. Purely Organic In The News
  • 3. Alternate Generations of Plants
    • Plant life cycle
      • Two multicellular generations that alternate
      • One phase includes sexual reproduction
  • 4. Plant Life Cycles
    • Diploid
      • Usual complement of chromosome pairs
      • Includes zygote & sporophyte
    • Haploid
      • One set of chromosomes only
      • Includes spores, gametophyte, egg, & sperm
  • 5. Gametophytes
    • Haploid
    • Haploid spores form gametophyte
    • Form gametes by mitosis
  • 6. Gamete Formation
    • Eggs formed in archegonia
    • Sperm produced in antheridium
    • Fuse to form zygote
  • 7. Sporophyte
    • Zygote undergoes mitosis
    • Multicellular sporophyte undergoes meiosis
    • Spores often in cases called sporangia
  • 8. One Generation Dominates
    • Gametophyte in nonvascular plants
      • Mosses
      • Liverworts & hornwort
    • Sporophyte in vascular plants
      • Ferns
      • Conifers
      • Flowering plants
  • 9. Nonvascular Plants
    • Three phyla
      • Bryophyta – mosses
      • Hepatophyta – liverworts
      • Anthocerophyta – hornwort
    • Gametophyte nutritionally independent
    • Sporophyte grows out of gametophyte
  • 10. Vascular Plants
    • Seedless vascular plants
      • Whisk ferns
      • Club mosses
      • Horsetails
      • Ferns
    • Plants with naked seeds
      • Conifers
      • Cycads
      • Ginkos
    • Protected seeds
      • Angiosperms
  • 11. Seedless Vascular Plants
    • Seeds contain sporophyte embryos & food
    • Seedless plants compensate for no seed by being tied to favorable habitat
    • Sporophyte is dominant stage
  • 12. Moss Life cycle
  • 13. Gymnosperms
    • Exposed (naked) seeds
    • Sporophyte generation dominates
    • Includes conifers, cycads & ginkos
  • 14. Pine Life Cycle
  • 15. Angiosperms
    • Protected seeds
    • Flowering plants
    • Largest number of plants
  • 16.  
  • 17. Flowers
    • Organ for sexual reproduction
    • Sepals = outer modified leaves
    • Petals attract pollinators
    • Male stamen
    • Female pistil
  • 18. Angiosperm Life Cycle
  • 19. Pollination
    • Method to combine egg & sperm
    • Wind pollination
      • Gymnosperms
      • Some angiosperms like grasses
  • 20. Pollination
    • Insect & animal pollination
      • Pollen carried from one flower to another
      • Common in many angiosperms
    • Some are self pollinated
  • 21. Seed Development
    • Zygote is plant embryo
    • Endosperm
      • From other sperm nuclei
      • Feeds embryo
    • Embryo develops cotyledons (seed leaves)
      • Monocot = single cotyledon
      • Dicot = double cotyledon
  • 22. Fruit
    • Mature ovary
      • Seeds, tissues, and coverings
    • Fruits may allow for animal dispersal
  • 23. Seed Dispersal Methods
    • Animals, wind, & water
  • 24. Germination
    • Begins when seed takes up water
    • Initially uses stored food of seed
    • Begins to sprout
  • 25. Monocots Vs. Dicots
    • Differ in recognizable features
    • Dicots – food stored in cotyledons
    • Monocots – food stored in endosperm
  • 26. Seedling Development
    • Radicle
      • First portion to emerge
      • Anchors seedling
    • Epicotyl
      • Portion of shoot above cotyledon
  • 27. Seedling Development
    • Coleoptile
      • Sheath protecting new leaves
    • Hypocotyl
      • Shoot below cotyledens
  • 28. Vegetative Propogation
    • Asexual reproduction
    • New plant develops from portion of parent
      • Rhizomes = underground stems
      • Stolons = above ground stems
  • 29. Vegetative Propogation
    • Leaves can produce new plants
  • 30. Cell Culture of Plants
    • Plant production from a single cell
    • Produces genetic clones
  • 31.