Multimedia Technology
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    Multimedia Technology Multimedia Technology Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Multimedia
      • SMM 2005
      • Rabiah Abdul Kadir
      • Jabatan Multimedia, FSKTM, UPM
      • [email_address]
      • 03-89466537
      • http://www.fsktm.upm.edu.my/
    • Introduction to Multimedia
      • Chapter 2
        • Multimedia Technology
          • Hardware
          • Software
    • Introduction to Multimedia
        • Computer Hardware
        • Dimension TM  1100
        • Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor 2.8GHz with 1MB cache
        • Genuine Windows® XP Home Edition
        • 256MB DDR SDRAM 400 MHz
        • 17" Colour Monitor (15.9"v.i.s.)
        • 80GB (7200rpm) SATA Hard Drive
        • 48X CD-ROM Drive
      Part 1 A typical quotation of a computer system
    • 2.1 Computer Hardware
      • There are FIVE major factors for a computer to be powerful:
        • Speed
        • Reliability
        • Accuracy
        • Storage
        • Communication
    • What is a COMPUTER?
      • Is an electronic machine.
      • Operating under the control of instruction stored in its own memory that can:
        • accept data
        • manipulate the data
        • produce results
        • store the result.
    • COMPUTER
      • Operation
        • accept data
        • manipulate the data
        • produce results
        • store the result.
    • Information Processing Cycle
      • DATA – unprocessed items
      • INFORMATION – processed data
      INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT STORAGE Accepting data from user. Processing data into meaningful information. Displaying the information to the user. Storing the information for safe keeping or later use.
    • Computer Component
      • Major Component of a Computer:
        • Hardware
          • The electric, electronic and mechanical equipment that make up a computer.
        • Software
          • The series of instructions that tells the hardware how to perform tasks.
    • Part 1: Computer Hardware
      • Hardware components:
        • Input Devices
        • Output Devices
        • System Unit
        • Storage Devices
        • Communication Devices
    • 1. Input Devices
      • Allow user enter DATA and COMMANDS into memory.
      • Example: keyboard, mouse, camera, microphone and etc.
      • Four forms of input:
        • Data
        • Program
        • Commands
        • User responses
    • 2. Output Devices
      • Convey information to one or more people.
      • Four forms of output:
        • Text
        • Graphics
        • Audio
        • Video
    • 3. System Unit
      • Box like case that contains electronic components of the computer that is used to process data. [1]
      • Usually is part of or is connected to a circuit board called MOTHERBOARD. [2]
      • Electronic components attached to motherboard – cards, processors, memory chip. [3]
      [1] [2] [3]
    • 3. System Unit
      • Components of a motherboard:
        • Processors or Central Processing Unit (CPU)
        • Memory
    • 3. System Unit: CPU
      • The electronic component that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer.
      • Contain:
        • A control unit
        • Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
    • 3. System Unit: CPU
      • Machine Cycle - for every instructions, a processor repeats a set of four basic operation:
        • Fetching
        • Decoding
        • Executing
        • Storing
    • 3. System Unit: Memory
      • Memory stores THREE basic categories of items:
        • the operating system and others system software that control or maintain the computer and its devices;
        • application programs that carry out a specific task such as word processing;
        • the data being processed by the application programs and resulting information.
      MEMORY OS & Syst Software Application Programs Data & Information
    • 3. System Unit: Memory
      • Consist of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by those instructions.
      • There are data that are kept TEMPORARILY, and there are those that is PERMANENT.
    • 3. System Unit: Memory
      • The system unit contains TWO types of memory:
        • VOLATILE:
          • When the computer’s power is turned OFF , it loses its contents .
          • Temporary storage.
          • Example RAM
        • NON VOLATILE:
          • Does not lose its contents when power is removed from computer.
          • Permanent storage.
          • Example ROM, flash memory and CMOS
    • 3. System Unit: Memory
      • RAM
        • Main memory / primary storage
        • Consist of memory chips that can be read from and write to by processor and other devices.
        • Types of RAM:
          • DRAM
          • SRAM
    • 3. System Unit: Memory
      • DRAM
        • Dynamic Random Access Memory
        • More common compared to SRAM
        • DRAM needs to be refreshed thousands of times per second
        • The common types of DRAM used today is DDR SDRAM.
        • Dimension TM  1100
        • Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor 2.8GHz with 1MB cache
        • Genuine Windows® XP Home Edition
        • 256MB DDR SDRAM 400 MHz
        • 17" Colour Monitor (15.9"v.i.s.)
        • 80GB (7200rpm) SATA Hard Drive
        • 48X CD-ROM Drive
    • 3. System Unit: Memory
      • SRAM
        • Static Random Access Memory
        • More faster compared to DRAM because it does not need to be refreshed
        • Not commonly used because it is so much more expensive
        • SRAM is commonly used in memory cache and some are built into the architecture of the cpu.
        • Dimension TM  1100
        • Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor 2.8GHz with 1MB cache
        • Genuine Windows® XP Home Edition
        • 256MB DDR SDRAM 400 MHz
        • 17" Colour Monitor (15.9"v.i.s.)
        • 80GB (7200rpm) SATA Hard Drive
        • 48X CD-ROM Drive
    • 3. System Unit: Memory
      • CACHE
        • Function to speed up processing time because its stores frequently used instructions and data.
        • Two types of cache:
          • Memory Cache
            • Help to speed the process of the computer because stores frequently used instructions and data.
            • Have L1 cache and L2 cache (SRAM).
            • Server have L3 cache
          • Disk Cache
            • Built into disk to speed up data access from the disk to be used by the processor
    • 3. System Unit: Memory
      • ROM
        • Refers to memory chips storing permanent data and instructions. The data cannot be modified.
        • The ROM chips, called firmware, contain permanently written data, instructions, or information.
        • Most personal computers contain a small amount of ROM that stores critical programs such as the program that boots the computer .
    • 3. System Unit: Memory
      • CMOS
        • Some RAMs chip, flash memory chips and others type of memory chips use CMOS technology.
        • Its provided high speeds and consumes little power (small battery).
        • Usage of CMOS
          • BIOS , in computing, stands for basic input/output system . BIOS refers to the software code run by a computer when first powered on.
            • The primary function of BIOS is to prepare the machine so other software programs stored on various media (such as hard drives, floppies, and CDs) can load, execute, and assume control of the computer.
          • Other example date, time, Calendar even when the computer is turned off.
    • 3. System Unit: Memory
      • Flash Memory
        • A memory that can be erased electronically and reprogrammed. More in mobile device unit e.g PDA, handphone, printers and etc.
    • 3. System Unit: Buses
      • A computer processes and stores data as a series of electronic bits.
      • These bits transfer internally within the circuit of the computer along electrical channel.
      • Each channel called a BUS, allows the various devices both inside and attached to system unit to communicate with each other.
      • Two types of bus:
        • ADDRESS BUS
        • DATA BUS
    • 3. System Unit: Basic Type of Buses
      • System Bus
        • Connects the processor to main board.
      • Expansion Bus
        • Allow the processors to communicate with other peripherals.
        • Types of expansion bus:
          • ISA Bus
          • PCI Bus
          • AGP Bus
          • ASB and FireWire Bus
    • 3. System Unit: Ports and Connectors
      • A port is:
        • the point at which a peripheral attaches to a system unit so it can send data or received information from computer.
      • Ports have different types of connectors.
      • A connector joins a cable to a peripheral.
      • Most connector are available in one of two gender : MALE and FEMALE.
    • 3. System Unit: Ports and Connectors
      • Male
      • Female
    • Types of Ports
      • Serial Ports
        • transmitting data 1 bit at a time. Example; mouse, keyboard ports. Using normally 25-pin and 9-pin male connector.
        • Although many of the newer systems have done away with the serial port completely in favor of USB connections,
          • most modems still use the serial port, as do some printers, PDAs and digital cameras.
    • 3. System Unit: Types of Ports
      • Parallel Ports
        • transmitting more than 1 bit at time.
        • Example: Printer Port.
    • 3. System Unit: Types of Ports
      • USB Ports
        • Universal Serial Bus Port. Can connect to 127 different peripherals together with single connector type.
        • Supports Plug-and-Play.
    • 3. System Unit: Types of Ports
      • Special Purpose Ports:
        • Firewire
        • MIDI Ports
        • SCSI Ports
        • IrDA Ports
        • Bluetooth Ports
    • 3. System Unit: Bays
      • A bay is an opening inside the system unit which you can install additional equipment.
      • Two type of drive bays exist
        • external
        • internal
    • 4. Storage Devices
      • Storage holds
        • DATA
        • INSTRUCTIONS
        • INFORMATION.
      • The difference between STORAGE and MEMORY
        • STORAGE holds these items PERMANENTLY and store it before and after being used.
        • MEMORY holds these items TEMPORARILY while they are being processed by CPU.
    • 4. Storage Devices: Storage Media
      • Is the physical material on which data, instruction and information are STORED.
      • Example of STORAGE DEVICES with their STORAGE MEDIA
      Hard Disk Hard Drive Memory Card PDAs / Handheld Zip Disk Zip Drive DVD-ROMs, DVDR, DVDRW DVD Drive CD-ROMs, CDR, CDRW CD Drive Floppy Disks Floppy Drive Media Device
    • Relationship between CPU, Bus, Memory, Storage
      • Each time a process needs to be done,the CPU will take it from the storage media and bring it into the RAM. [1]
      • The process is done in the RAM [2]
      2 1
      • When the SAVE button is pressed, the processed information will be sent into the storage media [3] for permanent storage.
      3
      • CPU assigns each data a unique address.
      • Each time a data needed to be accessed, its address is called so that the data can be fetched.
      • Every data is sent through the bus. [4]
      4
    • 5. Communication Devices
      • A communications devices is a hardware component that enables a computer to send (transmit) and retrieve data, instructions and information to and from one or more computers.
      • Main device is MODEM .
    • Introduction to Multimedia
        • Computer Software
      Part 2
    • Computer Software
      • Software, also called a program, is a series of instructions that tells the computer what to do and how to do it.
      • Users interact with the program through its GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI) which contains an object called ICON (can be as text, graphics or visual images).
      ICONs
    • Computer Software
      • Two categories of software:
        • System Software
        • Application Software
    • Computer Software
      • 1. System Software
        • Consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations of the computers and its devices.
        • Two types of system software
          • Operating System
            • Windows XP
          • Utility Programs
            • Disk defragmenter, Anti virus, Scan Disk
    • Computer Software
        • 2. Application Software
          • Consists of programs that perform specific task for user. Application software is used for a variety of reasons:
            • As business tool
            • To assist with graphics and multimedia projects
            • To support home, personal and educational activities
            • To facilitate communications
    • Other Software
      • Business Software
        • Accounting
        • Stock
      • Graphic and Multimedia Software
        • Photo Editing
        • Authoring tools
        • Movie Players
      • Home, Personal and Education Software
        • Courseware
      • Communication Software
        • Yahoo Messenger MSN Messenger, ICQ, MIRC
      • Web Application
        • Maybank2u, Web based E-mail
    • Categories of Computers
      • Industries experts typically classify computers in FIVE categories:
        • Personal Computers
        • Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
        • Midrange Servers
        • Mainframes
        • Supercomputers
    • 1. Personal Computers
      • A computer that can perform all its input , processing , output and storage activities by itself.
      • Although technically this refers to all such computers, including Macs, the term PC is nearly synonymous with only the IBM-compatible microcomputers.
      • Two popular type are the PC (IBM) and Apple.
    • 1. Personal Computers
      • Two type of personal computer.
        • Desktop Computer
          • tall and narrow tower. If the spec is higher and for professional used, normally known as workstation.
        • Notebook / Laptop Computer
          • Foldable and compact. Easy to carry around.
    • 2. Mobile Computers & Mobile Devices
      • Is a personal computer that you can carry from place to place.
      • A notebook ( laptop); tablet PC; Handheld computer; PDA (personal digital assistant); smart phone
    • 3. Midrange Server
      • Is more powerful and larger than a workstation computer.
      • Typically support several hundred and a few thousand connected computers at the same time.
      • Its store data and programs.
      A BLOCK B BLOCK FSKTM LAN
    • 4. Mainframes
      • Is a large, expensive, very powerful computer that can handle more than thousands of connected user simultaneously.
      • Also can act as servers on a large network environment. (Server for servers)
      FSKTM FSAS UPM B
    • 5. Supercomputers
      • Is the fastest, most powerful computer.
      • Capable of processing more than 100 trillion instructions per second.
      • Used for simulations.