Meeting the Challenge of Diversity

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Meeting the Challenge of Diversity

  1. 1. Meeting the Challenge of Diversity CHAPTER 13 0
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Explain the dimensions of employee diversity and why ethnorelativism is the appropriate attitude for today’s organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the changing workplace and how to effectively manage a culturally diverse workforce. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the challenges minority employees face daily. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain affirmative action and why factors such as the glass ceiling have kept it from being more successful. </li></ul>0
  3. 3. Learning Objectives (contd.) <ul><li>Describe how to change corporate culture, structure, and policies and how to use diversity training to foster an inclusive work environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the importance of addressing sexual harassment in the workplace. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the importance of multicultural teams and employee network groups for today’s globally diverse organizations. </li></ul>0
  4. 4. Meeting the Challenge of Diversity <ul><li>Diversity in the population, the workforce, and the marketplace is a fact of life no manager can afford to ignore </li></ul><ul><li>Managing diversity today – recruiting, training, valuing, maximizing potential of people </li></ul>Smart managers value diversity & enforce the value in decisions 0 Religion Ethnicity Disability Economic level Age Education Race Sexual orientation Gender
  5. 5. Valuing Diversity <ul><li>Top managers value diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To give organization access to broader range of opinions and viewpoints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To spur greater creativity and innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To reflect an increasingly diverse customer base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To obtain the best talent in a competitive environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To more effectively compete in the global marketplace </li></ul></ul>0
  6. 6. Valuing Diversity (contd.) <ul><li>Job seekers value diversity </li></ul><ul><li>91% of job seekers think diversity programs make a company a better place to work </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Survey commissioned by The New York Times </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>0
  7. 7. Corporate Diversity in the U.S. <ul><li>Many managers are ill-prepared to handle diversity issues </li></ul><ul><li>Many Americans grew up in racially unmixed neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>Had little exposure to people substantially different from themselves </li></ul>0
  8. 8. Workforce Diversity <ul><li>A workforce made up of people with different human qualities or who belong to various cultural groups </li></ul>0
  9. 9. Dimensions of Diversity Person Race Physical Ability Sexual Orientation Ethnicity Gender Age Primary Dimensions Secondary Dimensions Education Marital Status Parental Status Work Background Income Geographic Location Military Experience Religious Beliefs Primary Dimensions Inborn difference - Have an impact throughout one’s life Secondary Dimensions Acquired or changed throughout one’s lifetime Have less impact – still impact self definition 0
  10. 10. Monoculture & Diversity <ul><li>A culture that accepts only one way to do things </li></ul><ul><li>There is only one set of values and beliefs </li></ul>0
  11. 11. Attitudes Toward Diversity <ul><li>Ethnocentrism = belief that one’s own group or subculture is inherently superior to other groups or cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Enthnorelativism = belief that groups and subcultures are inherently equal </li></ul><ul><li>Pluralism = an organization accommodates several subcultures </li></ul>Goal for organizations seeking cultural diversity is pluralism 0
  12. 12. The Changing Workplace Dramatic Changes in the Customer Base Changing Composition of Workforce There are more women, people of color, and immigrants seeking opportunities Globalization Competition is intense 0
  13. 13. Challenges Minorities Face <ul><li>Lack of choice assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Disregard by a subordinate of a minority manager’s direction </li></ul><ul><li>Ignoring of comments made by women and minorities at meetings </li></ul><ul><li>A need to become “Bicultural” </li></ul>0
  14. 14. Biculturalism <ul><li>Socio-cultural skills and attitudes used by racial minorities as they move back and forth between the dominant culture and their own ethnic or racial culture </li></ul>Means minorities use to deal with bias in the workplace 0
  15. 15. Challenges For Management CHALLENGES OF CULTURAL DIVERSITY Source: Taylor H. Cox and Stacy Blake,”Managing Cultural Diversity: Implications For Organizational Competitiveness,” Academy of Management Executive 5, no 3 (1991), 45-56 Exhibit 13.3 0 Organization Culture  Valuing differences  Prevailing value system  Cultural inclusion HR Management Systems (Bias Free?)  Recruitment  Training and development  Performance appraisal  Compensation and benefits  Promotion Higher Career Involvement of Women  Dual-career couples  Sexism and sexual harassment  Work-family conflict Heterogeneity in Race/Ethnicity/Nationality  Effect on cohesiveness, communication, conflict, morale  Effects of group identity on interaction (e.g., stereotyping)  Prejudice (racism, ethnocentrism)  Promoting knowledge and acceptance Education Programs  Educate management on valuing differences  Taking advantage of the opportunities that diversify provides Mind-Sets about Diversity  Problem or opportunity?  Level of majority-culture buy-in (resistance or support)  Challenge met or barely addressed?
  16. 16. Affirmative Action Current Debate <ul><li>Affirmative action was developed in response to conditions 40 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Today more then half the U.S. workforce consists of women and minorities. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not the same as diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Research shows that full integration of women and racial minorities into organizations is still at least a decade away. </li></ul>0
  17. 17. Glass Ceiling <ul><li>An invisible barrier separates women and minorities from top management positions </li></ul><ul><li>Fortune 500 Women Corporate Officers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2004 = 15.7% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2000 = 12.5% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1995 = 8.7% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only eight Fortune 500 companies have female CEOs in 2006 </li></ul></ul>0
  18. 18. Inclusive Practices in the Workplace <ul><li>Building a corporate culture that values diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Changing structures, policies, and systems to support diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Career advancement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Providing diversity awareness training </li></ul>Current Responses to Diversity 0
  19. 19. Diversity Initiatives <ul><li>Recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>Examine employee demographics </li></ul><ul><li>Examine composition of the labor pool in the area </li></ul><ul><li>Examine composition of the customer base </li></ul><ul><li>Career Advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate the glass ceiling </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplish mentoring relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodating Special Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Child care </li></ul><ul><li>Non-English speaking training materials and information packets can be provided </li></ul><ul><li>Maternity or paternity leave </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible work schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Home-based employment </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term-care insurance, special health or life benefits </li></ul>0
  20. 20. Stages of Diversity Awareness Source: Based on M. Bennett, “A developmental Approach to Training for Intercultural Sensitivity,” International journal of Intercultural relations 10 (1986), 176-196. Highest Level of Awareness Lowest Level of Awareness Denial  No awareness of cultural differences  Parochial view of the world  In extreme cases, may claim other cultures are subhuman Defense  Perceives threat against one’s comfortable worldview  Uses negative stereotyping  Assumes own culture superior Minimizing Differences  Focuses on similarities among all peoples  Hides or trivializes cultural differences  Accepts behavioral differences and underlying differences in values  Recognizes validity of other ways of thinking and perceiving the world Acceptance Adaptation  Able to empathize with those of other cultures  Able to shift from one cultural perspective to another Integration  Multicultural attitude-enables one to integrate differences and adapt both cognitively and behaviorally Exhibit 13.6 0
  21. 21. Organizational Relationships <ul><li>Emotional Intimacy </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Harassment - various forms defined by one university: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropriate/offensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solicitation with promise of reward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coercion with threat of punishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual crimes and misdemeanors </li></ul></ul>Two Issues of Concern of Close Relationships in the Workplace 0
  22. 22. Global Diversity Programs <ul><li>Expatriates = employees who live and work in a country other than their own </li></ul><ul><li>Global Diversity Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding high vs. low-context communication context </li></ul></ul>0
  23. 23. High and Low Context Cultures Chinese Korean Japanese Vietnamese Arab Greek Spanish Italian English North American Scandinavian Swiss German High Context Low Context 0
  24. 24. Leveraging Diversity <ul><li>Multicultural teams = made up from diverse national, racial, ethnic and cultural backgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>Employee network groups = based on social identity, and organized by employees to focus on concerns of employees from that group </li></ul>0
  25. 25. Managing Multicultural Teams <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced creativity, innovation, and value in today’s global marketplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate more and better alternatives to problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce more creative solutions than homogeneous teams </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage - increased potential for miscommunication and misunderstanding </li></ul>0

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