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Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
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Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)

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  • 1. Cell Reproduction
  • 2. Stem Cell Shakes In The News
  • 3. Dividing Nuclear Material <ul><li>Cells must accurately separate genetic material during cell reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meiosis </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Mitosis <ul><li>Produces two identical cells </li></ul><ul><li>Each cell has full DNA complement </li></ul><ul><li>Used for growth and repair of somatic cells </li></ul>
  • 5. Meiosis <ul><li>Produces 4 cells from parent cell </li></ul><ul><li>Daughter cells have half genetic complement </li></ul><ul><li>Produces gametes (sex cells) </li></ul>
  • 6.  
  • 7. Animal Life Cycle <ul><li>Egg = female gamete </li></ul><ul><li>Sperm = male gamete </li></ul><ul><li>Zygote </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fusion of egg & sperm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full complement of genetic material </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Diploid Cells (2N) <ul><li>Full genetic complement </li></ul><ul><li>23 pair of chromosomes in humans </li></ul>
  • 9. Haploid Cells (N) <ul><li>Produced during meiosis </li></ul><ul><li>Contain only one set of chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of chromosomes allows for combination to form diploid zygote </li></ul>
  • 10. Fertilization <ul><li>One sex cell from each parent joins </li></ul><ul><li>Creates diploid zygote </li></ul><ul><li>Process is called sexual reproduction </li></ul>
  • 11. Animal Life Cycles <ul><li>Diploid phase dominates </li></ul><ul><li>Gametes live hours to days </li></ul>
  • 12. Plant Life Cycles <ul><li>Most have multicellular haploid phase </li></ul><ul><li>Phase names </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gametophyte = haploid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sporophyte = diploid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Either phase can dominate, depending on plant type </li></ul>
  • 13.  
  • 14. Single Cell Eukaryote Reproduction <ul><li>Reproduce by mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>Called asexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Produced two identical organisms </li></ul>
  • 15. Asexual Reproduction <ul><li>All single cell eukaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>Some plants </li></ul><ul><li>Some animals </li></ul>
  • 16.  
  • 17. Cell Cycle
  • 18. Interphase <ul><li>Most of cell cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Cell grows </li></ul><ul><li>Organelles replicated </li></ul><ul><li>DNA replicated </li></ul><ul><li>Readies for mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>Condenses DNA </li></ul>
  • 19. G 1 Interphase <ul><li>Cell growth </li></ul><ul><li>Normal life functions </li></ul>
  • 20. S Interphase <ul><li>DNA replicated </li></ul>
  • 21. G 2 Interphase <ul><li>DNA condenses into chromosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strands = sister chromatids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromatids connected by centromere </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. Stages of Mitosis <ul><li>Prophase </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase </li></ul>
  • 23. Prophase <ul><li>Chromosomes shorten & thicken </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleolus disappears </li></ul>
  • 24. Prophase <ul><li>Spindle fibers formed from microtubules </li></ul><ul><li>Microtubules surround microtubule-organizing center (centrosome) </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes begin to move apart </li></ul>
  • 25. Metaphase <ul><li>Pairs of sister chromatids align at center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms metaphase plate </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. Anaphase <ul><li>Chromatids separate at centromere </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatids pulled in two directions </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes move toward poles </li></ul><ul><li>Equally divides hereditary material </li></ul>
  • 27. Telophase <ul><li>Cell readied for division </li></ul><ul><li>Spindle fibers disassemble </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear envelope reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleolus reappears </li></ul>
  • 28. Cytokinesis <ul><li>Cell division after mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>Cleavage furrow enlarges </li></ul>
  • 29. Animal Cytokinesis <ul><li>Cell pinched in two </li></ul><ul><li>Pinching by microfilaments contracting </li></ul>
  • 30. Plant Cytokinesis <ul><li>New cell wall must be laid down </li></ul><ul><li>Cell plate forms </li></ul>
  • 31. Mitosis
  • 32. Cancer <ul><li>Deregulation of cell cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of control of mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>Result of mutation </li></ul><ul><li>Over 200 types </li></ul>
  • 33. United States Cancer Death Rates
  • 34. Characteristics of Cancer <ul><li>Uncontrolled cell growth </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of cell differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion of normal tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Metastasis = spread </li></ul>
  • 35.  
  • 36.  
  • 37.  
  • 38. Stages of Cancer <ul><li>Initiation </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Progression </li></ul>
  • 39. Initiation of Cancer Transformation <ul><li>Series of gene mutations </li></ul><ul><li>Proto-oncogenes become oncogenes </li></ul><ul><li>Usually additional mutations are needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect tumor suppressor genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn off cell “off” switch </li></ul></ul>
  • 40. Promotion of Cancer <ul><li>Cells are stimulated to grow & divide </li></ul><ul><li>Carcinogens – initiate & promote cancer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benign cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Masses of partially transformed cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells exhibit displasia </li></ul></ul>
  • 41. Normal Cells Dysplastic Cells
  • 42. Progression of Cancer <ul><li>Cells become less differentiated </li></ul><ul><li>Cells invade other tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Move to other areas of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Called malignant cells </li></ul>
  • 43.  
  • 44. Meiosis <ul><li>Chromosome number halved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2N  N </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Required for sexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Starts with diploid parents </li></ul>
  • 45. Homologues <ul><li>Homologous chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>2 chromosomes, same linear gene sequence </li></ul>
  • 46. Process of Meiosis <ul><li>Two stages: </li></ul><ul><li>Meiosis I </li></ul><ul><li>Meiosis II </li></ul><ul><li>Results in 4 haploid daughter cells </li></ul>
  • 47. Meiosis I <ul><li>Splitting homologous pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Pairs line up = synapsis </li></ul>
  • 48. Meiosis I <ul><li>Cross over – non sister chromosomes may cross over one another </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatids may exchange segments </li></ul>
  • 49. Stages of Meiosis I
  • 50. Interkinesis <ul><li>Interphase-like period </li></ul><ul><li>Between meiosis I and meiosis II </li></ul><ul><li>No DNA replication </li></ul>
  • 51. Meiosis II Stages
  • 52. Meiosis
  • 53. Importance of Meiotic Recombination <ul><li>Provides variability for offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Essential to process of evolution </li></ul>
  • 54.  
  • 55.  
  • 56. End chapter 12

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