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Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)
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Genetic basis of life(mitosis and meiosis)

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  • 1. Cell Reproduction
  • 2. Stem Cell Shakes In The News
  • 3. Dividing Nuclear Material
    • Cells must accurately separate genetic material during cell reproduction
    • Methods
      • Mitosis
      • Meiosis
  • 4. Mitosis
    • Produces two identical cells
    • Each cell has full DNA complement
    • Used for growth and repair of somatic cells
  • 5. Meiosis
    • Produces 4 cells from parent cell
    • Daughter cells have half genetic complement
    • Produces gametes (sex cells)
  • 6.  
  • 7. Animal Life Cycle
    • Egg = female gamete
    • Sperm = male gamete
    • Zygote
      • Fusion of egg & sperm
      • Full complement of genetic material
  • 8. Diploid Cells (2N)
    • Full genetic complement
    • 23 pair of chromosomes in humans
  • 9. Haploid Cells (N)
    • Produced during meiosis
    • Contain only one set of chromosomes
    • Reduction of chromosomes allows for combination to form diploid zygote
  • 10. Fertilization
    • One sex cell from each parent joins
    • Creates diploid zygote
    • Process is called sexual reproduction
  • 11. Animal Life Cycles
    • Diploid phase dominates
    • Gametes live hours to days
  • 12. Plant Life Cycles
    • Most have multicellular haploid phase
    • Phase names
      • Gametophyte = haploid
      • Sporophyte = diploid
    • Either phase can dominate, depending on plant type
  • 13.  
  • 14. Single Cell Eukaryote Reproduction
    • Reproduce by mitosis
    • Called asexual reproduction
    • Produced two identical organisms
  • 15. Asexual Reproduction
    • All single cell eukaryotes
    • Some plants
    • Some animals
  • 16.  
  • 17. Cell Cycle
  • 18. Interphase
    • Most of cell cycle
    • Cell grows
    • Organelles replicated
    • DNA replicated
    • Readies for mitosis
    • Condenses DNA
  • 19. G 1 Interphase
    • Cell growth
    • Normal life functions
  • 20. S Interphase
    • DNA replicated
  • 21. G 2 Interphase
    • DNA condenses into chromosomes
      • Strands = sister chromatids
      • Chromatids connected by centromere
  • 22. Stages of Mitosis
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  • 23. Prophase
    • Chromosomes shorten & thicken
    • Nucleolus disappears
  • 24. Prophase
    • Spindle fibers formed from microtubules
    • Microtubules surround microtubule-organizing center (centrosome)
    • Chromosomes begin to move apart
  • 25. Metaphase
    • Pairs of sister chromatids align at center
      • Forms metaphase plate
  • 26. Anaphase
    • Chromatids separate at centromere
    • Chromatids pulled in two directions
    • Chromosomes move toward poles
    • Equally divides hereditary material
  • 27. Telophase
    • Cell readied for division
    • Spindle fibers disassemble
    • Nuclear envelope reforms
    • Nucleolus reappears
  • 28. Cytokinesis
    • Cell division after mitosis
    • Cleavage furrow enlarges
  • 29. Animal Cytokinesis
    • Cell pinched in two
    • Pinching by microfilaments contracting
  • 30. Plant Cytokinesis
    • New cell wall must be laid down
    • Cell plate forms
  • 31. Mitosis
  • 32. Cancer
    • Deregulation of cell cycle
    • Loss of control of mitosis
    • Result of mutation
    • Over 200 types
  • 33. United States Cancer Death Rates
  • 34. Characteristics of Cancer
    • Uncontrolled cell growth
    • Loss of cell differentiation
    • Invasion of normal tissues
    • Metastasis = spread
  • 35.  
  • 36.  
  • 37.  
  • 38. Stages of Cancer
    • Initiation
    • Promotion
    • Progression
  • 39. Initiation of Cancer Transformation
    • Series of gene mutations
    • Proto-oncogenes become oncogenes
    • Usually additional mutations are needed
      • Affect tumor suppressor genes
      • Turn off cell “off” switch
  • 40. Promotion of Cancer
    • Cells are stimulated to grow & divide
    • Carcinogens – initiate & promote cancer
      • Viruses
      • Chemicals
      • Radiation
    • Benign cells
      • Masses of partially transformed cells
      • Cells exhibit displasia
  • 41. Normal Cells Dysplastic Cells
  • 42. Progression of Cancer
    • Cells become less differentiated
    • Cells invade other tissue
    • Move to other areas of the body
    • Called malignant cells
  • 43.  
  • 44. Meiosis
    • Chromosome number halved
      • 2N  N
    • Required for sexual reproduction
    • Starts with diploid parents
  • 45. Homologues
    • Homologous chromosomes
    • 2 chromosomes, same linear gene sequence
  • 46. Process of Meiosis
    • Two stages:
    • Meiosis I
    • Meiosis II
    • Results in 4 haploid daughter cells
  • 47. Meiosis I
    • Splitting homologous pairs
    • Pairs line up = synapsis
  • 48. Meiosis I
    • Cross over – non sister chromosomes may cross over one another
    • Chromatids may exchange segments
  • 49. Stages of Meiosis I
  • 50. Interkinesis
    • Interphase-like period
    • Between meiosis I and meiosis II
    • No DNA replication
  • 51. Meiosis II Stages
  • 52. Meiosis
  • 53. Importance of Meiotic Recombination
    • Provides variability for offspring
    • Essential to process of evolution
  • 54.  
  • 55.  
  • 56. End chapter 12