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Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations
 

Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations

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    Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations Presentation Transcript

    • Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations CHAPTER 17 0
    • Learning Objectives
      • Define attitudes, including their major components, and explain their relationship to personality, perception, and behavior.
      • Discuss the importance of work-related attitudes.
      • Identify major personality traits and describe how personality can influence workplace attitudes and behaviors.
      • Define the four components of emotional intelligence and explain why they are important for today’s managers.
      0
    • Learning Objectives (contd.)
      • Explain how people learn in general and in terms of individual learning styles.
      • Discuss the effects of stress and identify ways individuals and organizations can manage stress to improve employee health, satisfaction, and productivity.
      0
    • Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations
      • Employees and managers bring their individual differences to work each day
      • Differences in attitudes, values, personality, and behavior influence
        • how people interpret an assignment,
        • whether they like to be told what to do
        • how they handle challenges
        • how they interact with others
      Managers need to understand the way individuals & groups act 0
    • Organizational Behavior
      • Interdisciplinary field dedicated to the study of
        • attitudes
        • behavior
        • performance
      Commonly called OB 0
    • Organizational Citizenship
      • Tendency of people to help one another and put in extra effort that goes beyond job requirements to contribute to the organization’s success.
      0
    • Attitudes
      • Cognitive and affective evaluation that predisposes a person to act in a certain way
      • Attitudes determine how people
        • Perceive the work environment
        • Interact with others
        • Behave on the job
      0
    • Components of an Attitude Exhibit 17.1 0
    • Components of Attitudes
      • Cognitive component includes the beliefs, opinions, and information the person has about the object of the attitude
      • Affective component is the person’s emotions or feelings about the object of the attitude
      • Behavioral component of an attitude is the person’s intention to behave toward the object of the attitude in a certain way
      Particularly important when attempting to change attitudes 0
    • High-Performance Work Attitudes
      • Two attitudes that might relate to high performance
        • Job Satisfaction
        • Organizational Commitment
      Managers of today’s knowledge workers often rely on job satisfaction to keep motivation and enthusiasm for the organization high 0
    • High-Performance Work Attitudes
      • Job Satisfaction = positive attitude toward one’s job
      • Organizational Commitment = loyalty to and heavy involvement in one’s organization
      0
    • Conflicts Among Attitudes
      • Cognitive Dissonance = condition in which two attitudes or a behavior and an attitude conflict
        • Leon Festinger – 1950s
        • People want to behave in accordance with their attitudes
        • Usually will take corrective action
      0
    • Perception
      • Cognitive process people use to make sense out of the environment by
        • Selecting
        • Organizing
        • Interpreting information
      0
    • The Perception Process Exhibit 17.4 0
    • Common Perceptual Distortions
      • Tendency to assign an individual to a group or broad category and then attribute generalizations about the group to the individual
      Stereotyping 0
    • Common Perceptual Distortions
      • Overall impression of a person or situation based on one characteristic, either favorable or unfavorable
      Halo Effect 0
    • Common Perceptual Distortions
      • Tendency to see one’s own personal traits in other people
      Projection 0
    • Common Perceptual Distortions
      • Tendency of perceivers to protect themselves by disregarding ideas objects, or people that are threatening to them
      Perceptual Defense 0
    • Attributions
      • Judgments about what caused a person’s behavior—either characteristics of the person or of the situation
      • As people organize what they perceive, they often draw conclusions
      0
    • External or Internal Attributions Exhibit 17.6 0
    • Attribution Biases
      • Fundamental Attribution Error = tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors on another’s behavior and to overestimate the influence of internal factors
      • Self-serving Bias = tendency to overestimate the contribution of internal factors to one’s successes and the contribution of external factors to one’s failures
      0
    • Personality
      • Set of characteristics that underlie a relatively stable pattern of behavior in response to ideas, objects, or people in the environment
        • Big Five Personality Factors
          • Extroversion
          • Agreeableness
          • Conscientiousness
          • Emotional Stability
          • Openness to Experience
      0
    • Emotional Intelligence (EQ) Basic Components
      • Self-awareness: basis for all other components, being aware of what you are feeling
      • Self-management: control disruptive or harmful emotions and balance one’s moods so they do not cloud thinking
      • Social awareness: understand others and practice empathy
      • Relationship awareness: connect to others, build positive relationships, respond to emotions of others, and influence others
      0
    • Locus of Control
      • Tendency to place primary responsibility for one’s success or failure either within oneself (internally) or on outside forces (externally)
        • Internal locus of control- your actions influence what happens to you
        • External locus of control- represents pawns of fate
      0
    • Behaviors Influenced by Personality
      • Authoritarianism = belief that power and status differences should exist within the organization
        • Concerned with power and toughness
      Obey recognized authority above them Stick to conventional values Critically judge others Oppose the use of subjective feelings 0
    • Behaviors Influenced by Personality
      • Machiavellianism = tendency to direct much of one’s behavior toward the acquisition of power and the manipulation of other people for personal gain
      0
    • Problem Solving Styles
      • Individuals differ in the way they solve problems and make decisions
      • Gathering and evaluating information are separate activities
        • Gather information
          • Sensation
          • Intuition
        • Evaluate information
          • Thinking
          • Feeling
      Based on work of Carl Jung 0
    • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
      • Personality test that measures a person’s preference for
        • introversion vs. extroversion
        • sensation vs. intuition
        • thinking vs. feeling
        • judging vs. perceiving
      0
    • Learning and Learning Styles
      • Learning = change in behavior or performance that occurs as the result of experience
      • Learning Styles
        • Diverger
        • Assimilator
        • Converger
        • Accommodator
      0
    • Stress and Stress Management
      • Stress = physiological and emotional response to stimuli that place physical or psychological demands on an individual
      • Type A Behavior = pattern characterized by extreme competitiveness, impatience, aggressiveness, and devotion to work
      • Type B Behavior = pattern that lacks Type A and includes a more balanced, relaxed lifestyle
      0
    • Causes of Work Stress
      • Four Categories
      • Job Tasks Demands
      • Physical Demands
      • Role Demand (Sets of expected behaviors)
      • Interpersonal Demands
      0