Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering

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Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering

  1. 1. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
  2. 2. Human Cloning-The Science In The News
  3. 3. Biotechnology <ul><li>Use of scientific & engineering principals to manipulate organisms or their genes </li></ul>
  4. 4. Products of Biotechnology <ul><li>Organisms with special biochemical, morphological, and/or growth characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms that produce useful products </li></ul><ul><li>Information about an organism or tissue that would other wise not be known </li></ul>
  5. 5. Classical Biotechnology <ul><li>Propagation to get selected characteristics </li></ul>Plants derived from wild mustard
  6. 6. Techniques for Classical Biotechnology <ul><li>Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Hybridization </li></ul><ul><li>Mutation </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hybrid <ul><li>Offspring from crossing two genetically similar varieties of a species </li></ul><ul><li>Cross between two different species </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hybrid Vigor <ul><li>Hybrid improved in certain ways over parents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stronger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With higher yields </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Important Microbiology Events <ul><li>Pasturization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Louis Pasteur (1860s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process to kill microorganisms that cause fermentive change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germ theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Koch (late 1800s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germs cause infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed pure culture methods </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Antibiotics <ul><li>Alexander Fleming (1927) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mold that contaminated cultures killed bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Began process of screening for antibiotics </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Molecular Biotechnology <ul><li>Manipulating genes </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic recombination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange of DNA sequences between molecules </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Bacterial Exchange of DNA <ul><li>Transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Transduction </li></ul><ul><li>Conjugation </li></ul>
  13. 13. Transformation <ul><li>Donor bacterium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lysed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Releases DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recipient bacterium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take up DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be induced </li></ul>
  14. 14. Transduction <ul><li>Virus transfers DNA from donor to recipient </li></ul>
  15. 15. Conjugation <ul><li>Donor & recipient make contact </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is transferred </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer in bacteria with plasmids </li></ul>
  16. 16. Plasmids <ul><li>Extra chromosomal pieces of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Replicate independently </li></ul><ul><li>Small portion of bacteria’s DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Contain genes that promote transfer </li></ul>
  17. 17. Engineering Gene Transfer <ul><li>Recombinant DNA technology </li></ul><ul><li>Individual genes isolated and transferred </li></ul>
  18. 18. Applications of Biotechnology <ul><li>Producing proteins for therapeutic use </li></ul><ul><li>Producing vaccines </li></ul><ul><li>DNA fingerprinting </li></ul><ul><li>Research on genome structure & function </li></ul><ul><li>Gene therapy to treat disease </li></ul><ul><li>Modification of food </li></ul>
  19. 19. Producing Therapeutic Proteins <ul><li>Insert genes into bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulate bacteria to produce proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Purify proteins for use </li></ul>
  20. 20. Finding the Gene of Interest <ul><li>Shotgun cloning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolating & purifying genomic DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutting DNA into fragments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insert fragments into bacteria or yeast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results in complete genomic library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library screened to find desired gene </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. DNA into Gene Fragments <ul><li>DNA clipped with restriction enzymes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize certain DNA sequences </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Cloning Genes <ul><li>Restriction fragments into bacteria or yeast using plasmids or viruses </li></ul>
  23. 25. Complementary DNA (cDNA) Cloning <ul><li>Gene of interest is known </li></ul><ul><li>Messenger RNA from gene available </li></ul><ul><li>Use reverse transcriptase to make gene </li></ul><ul><li>Can be expressed in bacterial systems </li></ul>
  24. 26. Gene Synthesis Cloning <ul><li>Desired sequence must be known </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory made gene inserted into yeast or bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Used for insulin cloning as example </li></ul>
  25. 27. Screening for Desired Genes
  26. 28. DNA Probes <ul><li>Molecule that binds to a specific gene </li></ul><ul><li>Types of DNA Probe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules of RNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complementary sequences of DNA </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. Genetically Engineered Vaccines <ul><li>Vaccines stimulate an immune response </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit of genetically engineered vaccine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non pathogenic </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. DNA Vaccines <ul><li>DNA sequence of pathogen injected </li></ul><ul><li>Immune system develops antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No risk of infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No risk of illness from contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long lasting immune response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can administer many vaccines in a single shot </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. DNA Fingerprinting <ul><li>DNA fragments amplified </li></ul><ul><li>Fragments drawn through gel </li></ul><ul><li>Bands visualized by dyes </li></ul><ul><li>Humans have unique patterns </li></ul>
  30. 32. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) <ul><li>Makes copies of DNA fragments </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for analysis starting with small samples </li></ul><ul><li>Gives large number of copies </li></ul>
  31. 34. PCR can be Automated
  32. 35. Electrophoresis <ul><li>Separates DNA fragments </li></ul>
  33. 36. DNA Fingerprints & Paternity
  34. 37. Human Genome Project <ul><li>Sequence of Human DNA </li></ul><ul><li>3 billion base pairs </li></ul><ul><li>30,000 to 40,000 genes </li></ul>
  35. 38. Genomics <ul><li>Subdiscipline of genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping, sequencing, & analyzing </li></ul><ul><li>Two areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural genomics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional genomics </li></ul></ul>
  36. 39. DNA Arrays (DNA Chips) <ul><li>Allows screening of thousands of genes </li></ul>
  37. 40. Gene Therapy <ul><li>Uses recombinant DNA to treat genetic disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Replaces defective genes </li></ul><ul><li>Includes targeted gene repair </li></ul>
  38. 41. Food Modification with Biotechnology <ul><li>Increase yield </li></ul><ul><li>Increase quality </li></ul><ul><li>Modification of genes in organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Example: transgenic plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetically altered </li></ul></ul>
  39. 43. Transgenic & Cloned Animals <ul><li>Dolly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First cloned animal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear transfer from cell to produce embryo </li></ul></ul>
  40. 44. Transgenic & Cloned Animals <ul><li>Bioengineered animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combine desired traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cow example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy muscle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low fat </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 46. Genetic Engineering Controversy <ul><li>Potential dangers exist </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments governed by National Institute of Health </li></ul><ul><li>Genetically modified foods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common in U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposed by Europe </li></ul></ul>
  42. 47. Arguments Against Bioengineering <ul><li>Long term safety of engineered foods </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of bioengineered genes </li></ul>

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