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Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering
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Biotechnology and1 genetic engineering

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  • Human Cloning-The Science In The News
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  • 1. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
  • 2. Human Cloning-The Science In The News
  • 3. Biotechnology
    • Use of scientific & engineering principals to manipulate organisms or their genes
  • 4. Products of Biotechnology
    • Organisms with special biochemical, morphological, and/or growth characteristics
    • Organisms that produce useful products
    • Information about an organism or tissue that would other wise not be known
  • 5. Classical Biotechnology
    • Propagation to get selected characteristics
    Plants derived from wild mustard
  • 6. Techniques for Classical Biotechnology
    • Selection
    • Hybridization
    • Mutation
  • 7. Hybrid
    • Offspring from crossing two genetically similar varieties of a species
    • Cross between two different species
  • 8. Hybrid Vigor
    • Hybrid improved in certain ways over parents
      • Stronger
      • With higher yields
  • 9. Important Microbiology Events
    • Pasturization
      • Louis Pasteur (1860s)
      • Process to kill microorganisms that cause fermentive change
    • Germ theory
      • Robert Koch (late 1800s)
      • Germs cause infection
      • Developed pure culture methods
  • 10. Antibiotics
    • Alexander Fleming (1927)
      • Mold that contaminated cultures killed bacteria
      • Began process of screening for antibiotics
  • 11. Molecular Biotechnology
    • Manipulating genes
    • Genetic recombination
      • Exchange of DNA sequences between molecules
  • 12. Bacterial Exchange of DNA
    • Transformation
    • Transduction
    • Conjugation
  • 13. Transformation
    • Donor bacterium
      • Lysed
      • Releases DNA
    • Recipient bacterium
      • Take up DNA
    • Can be induced
  • 14. Transduction
    • Virus transfers DNA from donor to recipient
  • 15. Conjugation
    • Donor & recipient make contact
    • DNA is transferred
    • Transfer in bacteria with plasmids
  • 16. Plasmids
    • Extra chromosomal pieces of DNA
    • Replicate independently
    • Small portion of bacteria’s DNA
    • Contain genes that promote transfer
  • 17. Engineering Gene Transfer
    • Recombinant DNA technology
    • Individual genes isolated and transferred
  • 18. Applications of Biotechnology
    • Producing proteins for therapeutic use
    • Producing vaccines
    • DNA fingerprinting
    • Research on genome structure & function
    • Gene therapy to treat disease
    • Modification of food
  • 19. Producing Therapeutic Proteins
    • Insert genes into bacteria
    • Manipulate bacteria to produce proteins
    • Purify proteins for use
  • 20. Finding the Gene of Interest
    • Shotgun cloning
      • Isolating & purifying genomic DNA
      • Cutting DNA into fragments
      • Insert fragments into bacteria or yeast
      • Results in complete genomic library
      • Library screened to find desired gene
  • 21. DNA into Gene Fragments
    • DNA clipped with restriction enzymes
      • Recognize certain DNA sequences
  • 22. Cloning Genes
    • Restriction fragments into bacteria or yeast using plasmids or viruses
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25. Complementary DNA (cDNA) Cloning
    • Gene of interest is known
    • Messenger RNA from gene available
    • Use reverse transcriptase to make gene
    • Can be expressed in bacterial systems
  • 26. Gene Synthesis Cloning
    • Desired sequence must be known
    • Laboratory made gene inserted into yeast or bacteria
    • Used for insulin cloning as example
  • 27. Screening for Desired Genes
  • 28. DNA Probes
    • Molecule that binds to a specific gene
    • Types of DNA Probe
      • Molecules of RNA
      • Complementary sequences of DNA
  • 29. Genetically Engineered Vaccines
    • Vaccines stimulate an immune response
    • Benefit of genetically engineered vaccine
      • Non pathogenic
  • 30. DNA Vaccines
    • DNA sequence of pathogen injected
    • Immune system develops antibodies
    • Advantages
      • No risk of infection
      • No risk of illness from contamination
      • Long lasting immune response
      • Can administer many vaccines in a single shot
  • 31. DNA Fingerprinting
    • DNA fragments amplified
    • Fragments drawn through gel
    • Bands visualized by dyes
    • Humans have unique patterns
  • 32. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
    • Makes copies of DNA fragments
    • Allows for analysis starting with small samples
    • Gives large number of copies
  • 33.  
  • 34. PCR can be Automated
  • 35. Electrophoresis
    • Separates DNA fragments
  • 36. DNA Fingerprints & Paternity
  • 37. Human Genome Project
    • Sequence of Human DNA
    • 3 billion base pairs
    • 30,000 to 40,000 genes
  • 38. Genomics
    • Subdiscipline of genetics
    • Mapping, sequencing, & analyzing
    • Two areas
      • Structural genomics
      • Functional genomics
  • 39. DNA Arrays (DNA Chips)
    • Allows screening of thousands of genes
  • 40. Gene Therapy
    • Uses recombinant DNA to treat genetic disorders
    • Replaces defective genes
    • Includes targeted gene repair
  • 41. Food Modification with Biotechnology
    • Increase yield
    • Increase quality
    • Modification of genes in organisms
    • Example: transgenic plants
      • Genetically altered
  • 42.  
  • 43. Transgenic & Cloned Animals
    • Dolly
      • First cloned animal
      • Nuclear transfer from cell to produce embryo
  • 44. Transgenic & Cloned Animals
    • Bioengineered animals
      • Combine desired traits
      • Cow example:
        • Heavy muscle
        • Low fat
  • 45.  
  • 46. Genetic Engineering Controversy
    • Potential dangers exist
    • Experiments governed by National Institute of Health
    • Genetically modified foods
      • Common in U.S.
      • Opposed by Europe
  • 47. Arguments Against Bioengineering
    • Long term safety of engineered foods
    • Spread of bioengineered genes
  • 48.  

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