bio ozone


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bio ozone

  1. 1. Team H5N1
  2. 2. <ul><li>The ozone layer is a layer in Earth's atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). </li></ul><ul><li>This layer absorbs 97-99% of the sun's high frequency ultraviolet light Over 90% of ozone in earth's atmosphere is present here. </li></ul>Introduction
  3. 3. <ul><li>It is mainly located in the lower portion of the stratosphere from approximately 15 km to 35 km above Earth's surface. </li></ul><ul><li>The ozone layer was discovered in 1913 by French physicists Charles Fabry and Henri Buisson. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Ozone (O3) is a tri atomic molecule, consisting of three oxygen atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic species O2. </li></ul><ul><li>Ground-level ozone is an air pollutant. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Ozone in the upper atmosphere filters ultraviolet light from reaching the Earth's surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone is the first allotrope of a chemical element to be described by science. </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered by Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1840, who named it after the Greek word for smell (ozein). </li></ul>
  6. 7. Ozone
  7. 8. <ul><li>Ozone in the earth's stratosphere is created by ultraviolet light striking oxygen molecules containing two oxygen atoms (O2). </li></ul><ul><li>The atomic oxygen then combines with unbroken O2 to create ozone, O3. </li></ul><ul><li>The ozone molecule is also unstable and when ultraviolet light hits ozone it splits into a molecule of O2 and an atom of atomic oxygen. </li></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>This process called the ozone-oxygen cycle, thus creating an ozone layer in the stratosphere, the region from about 10 to 50 km above Earth's surface. </li></ul><ul><li>About 90% of the ozone in our atmosphere is contained in the stratosphere. Ozone concentrations are greatest between about 15 and 40 km, where they range from about 2 to 8 parts per million. </li></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>Ten percent of the ozone in the atmosphere is contained in the troposphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Tropospheric ozone has two sources: about 10 % is transported down from the stratosphere while the remainder is created in situ in smaller amounts through different mechanisms. </li></ul>
  10. 14. <ul><li>Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earth's stratosphere since around 1980; </li></ul><ul><li>And a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth's polar regions during the same period. </li></ul><ul><li>The latter phenomenon is commonly referred to as the ozone hole. </li></ul>
  11. 15. <ul><li>In addition to this well-known stratospheric ozone depletion, there are also tropospheric ozone depletion events, which occur near the surface in polar regions during spring. </li></ul>
  12. 17. <ul><li>Catalytic destruction of ozone by atomic chlorine and bromine occur at the trophosperic level. </li></ul><ul><li>The main source of these halogen atoms in the stratosphere is photodissociation of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds, commonly called freons, and of bromofluorocarbon compounds known as halons. </li></ul><ul><li>Because ozone filters the most harmful rays like UVB of UV light, Montreal Protocol is adopted to reduce the usage of ozone depleting substances. </li></ul>
  13. 18. <ul><li>free radical catalysts hydroxyl radical (OH·), the nitric oxide radical (NO·) and atomic chlorine (Cl·) and bromine (Br·) can destroy the ozone. </li></ul><ul><li>These elements are found in certain stable organic compounds, especially chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). CFCs will wander till the stratosphere level unreacted because of their low reactivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Once in the stratosphere, the Cl and Br atoms are liberated from the parent compounds by the action of ultraviolet light. </li></ul>
  14. 20. <ul><li>The Cl and Br atoms can then destroy ozone molecules through a variety of catalytic cycles. </li></ul><ul><li>A chlorine atom reacts with an ozone molecule, taking an oxygen atom with it (forming ClO) and leaving a normal oxygen molecule. </li></ul><ul><li>A free oxygen atom then takes away the oxygen from the ClO, and the final result is an oxygen molecule and a chlorine atom, which then reinitiates the cycle. </li></ul>
  15. 22. Effect of ozone depletion on human <ul><li>1. Basal and Squamous Cell Carcinomas. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common forms of skin cancer in humans, basal and squamous cell carcinomas, have been strongly linked to UVB exposure. </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption of UVB radiation causes the pyrimidine bases in the DNA molecule to form dimers, resulting in transcription errors when the DNA replicates. </li></ul><ul><li>These cancers are relatively mild and rarely fatal. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists have estimated that a one percent decrease in stratospheric ozone would increase the incidence of these cancers by 2%. </li></ul>
  16. 23. <ul><li>2. Malignant Melanoma. </li></ul><ul><li>Another form of skin cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Less common but far more dangerous. </li></ul><ul><li>Both UVB and UVA are involved in the trigger of these cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>One study showed that a 10% increase in UVB radiation was associated with a 19% increase in melanomas for men and 16% for women </li></ul>
  17. 24. <ul><li>3. Increased Tropospheric Ozone </li></ul><ul><li>Increased surface UV leads to increased tropospheric ozone. </li></ul><ul><li>Ground-level ozone is generally recognized to be a health risk, as ozone is toxic due to its strong oxidant properties. </li></ul><ul><li>At this time, ozone at ground level is produced mainly by the action of UV radiation on combustion gases from vehicle exhausts. </li></ul>
  18. 25. <ul><li>4.Effects on Crops </li></ul><ul><li>An increase of UV radiation would be expected to affect crops. </li></ul><ul><li>A number of economically important species of plants depend on cyanobacteria residing on their roots for the retention of nitrogen. </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanobacteria are sensitive to UV light and they would be affected by its increase. </li></ul>
  19. 26. <ul><li>5.Effects on Plankton </li></ul><ul><li>Research has shown a widespread extinction of plankton 2 million years ago that coincided with a nearby supernova. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a difference in the orientation and motility of planktons when excess of UV rays reach earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers speculate that the extinction was caused due to the weakening of the ozone layer at that time when the radiation from the supernova produced nitrogen oxides that catalyzed the destruction of ozone. </li></ul>
  20. 28. <ul><li>Since the ozone layer absorbs UVB ultraviolet light from the Sun, ozone layer depletion is expected to increase surface UVB levels. </li></ul><ul><li>This was the reason for the Montreal Protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no direct observational evidence linking ozone depletion to higher incidence of skin cancer in human beings. </li></ul>Conclusion