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  • 1. an introduction to environmental behaviour change a course for: January 2010
  • 2. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 2 a summary… of a course delivered for CLASP by Corporate Culture (if using any content, please attribute and/or seek approval in advance) john.drummond@corporateculture.co.uk
  • 3. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 3 agenda a brief introduction to environmental behaviour change and social marketing discussion of context and your objectives identifying preferred behaviours agreeing audiences understanding what motivates people to act defining actions (communications actions and other strategies for change)
  • 4. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 4 latest NW research insight research organisation summary recommendations 1. there is a need to translate awareness into action (trial social marketing) 2. there is an opportunity to target the marketing (consumer, geography, business) 3. there has been no improvement on core messages since 2007 4. there is low level awareness of business support organisations 5. there is a frustration with funding streams Source: Perceptions of Climate Change, NW, URS 2009
  • 5. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 5 in the 2009 public perceptions research for the North West, the report recommended the use of social marketing to move from awareness to action Source: Perceptions of Climate Change, URS 2009
  • 6. the climate change agenda is increasingly focused on personal action. why?
  • 7. why?
  • 8. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 8 because increasing awareness…… 50% respondents identifying every use in the home as a major impact in climate change (up from 20% in 2001) Source: Defra, 2007
  • 9. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 9 does not translate into individual action 40% increase in household energy consumption, 1990-2005 Source: Defra, 2007
  • 10. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 10 what do we know of social marketing?
  • 11. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 11 behaviour change is becoming a discipline; the discipline of social marketing “social marketing is the systematic application of marketing along with other concepts and techniques to achieve specific behavioural goals for a social good”
  • 12. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 12 underlying principles you can persuade people to change their behaviour to do so, you need to understand exactly who your audiences are you also need to be clear about the behaviour you seek and the benefits and barriers of adopting that behaviour (and competitive behaviours) you also need to understand what would motivate your specific audiences to adopt the behaviour you seek you can then design interventions that will help achieve that goal; and collaborate with others to help achieve real change
  • 13. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 13
  • 14. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 14 the principles are backed up by a recent report from the GCN and the COI on communications and behaviour change Source: Communications and Behaviour Change report, GCN/COI
  • 15. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 15 objectives and context
  • 16. objectives need to work within environmental and public policy context
  • 17. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 17 the population is rising Source: The Times, 22 October 2009
  • 18. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 18 available energy is declining Source: The Times, 19 October 2009
  • 19. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 19 we face global warming Source: The UK Low Carbon Transition Plan, DEEC
  • 20. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 20 we need to act fast Source: The UK Low Carbon Transition Plan, DEEC
  • 21. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 21 we need to align action to national policy
  • 22. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 22 we need to understand our direction of travel Source: The UK Low Carbon Transition Plan, DEEC
  • 23. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 23 actions are aligned to national indicators each authority has up to 35 indicators from a set of 198 National Indicators
  • 24. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 24 the three priorities for local areas NI 185 CO2 reductions from local authority operations NI 186 Per capita CO2 emmisions in the LA area NI 188 Adapting to change
  • 25. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 25 we also need to understand national policy context including increasing focus on people power Gordon Brown: “..the next stage of public service reform will be characterised by a radical shift of power to the users of public services” 07/12/09 David Cameron: “instead of bureaucratic accountability there will be democratic accountability” 01/11/09
  • 26. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 26 which behaviours?
  • 27. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 27 which behaviours? 31 behaviours target 12 behaviours headline
  • 28. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 28 CO2 mitigation behaviours; big list don’t leave the install an efficient boiler TV on stand by drive more thoughtfully always fully load the washing machine look at micro generation cycle instead of driving use lower energy light bulbs fly less miles adopt a lower impact diet use public transport more turn off dripping taps properly insulate the home
  • 29. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 29 CO2 mitigation behaviours; big list unplug mobile phone buy a lower carbon car charger when unused source food locally, walk instead of driving in season drive less miles switch to a green electricity tariff keep car tyres properly inflated reduce drafts turn heating down a little boil only what you need use less hot water do a home energy check
  • 30. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 30 audiences
  • 31. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 31 where they are on the willingness to change AccountAbility segmentation Source: Selling Sustainability, NESTA
  • 32. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 32 DEFRA seven population segments Source: A Framework for Pro-environmental Behaviours, Defra
  • 33. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 33 but where they are on their journey is only one approach to segmenting: Energy Saving Trust segmentation 1 Environmentally 2 Educated 3 Discerning 4 Comfortable 5 Britain Mature Advocates Elders Conservatives Today High consumers Critical Gp in next Energy bills HH and vehicle HH & vehicle of HH and vehicle few yrs as lifestyle still quite high. emissions above emissions not high. energy will develop to Moderate vehicle average – scope for Below average larger homes ownership reducing emissions attitude towards and more cars environment 6 Restful 7 Driving 8 Financially 9 Ethnic 10 Environmentally Retirement Dependency Burdened Tradition Indifferent Those that are Relatively new New large housing. High proportion CO2 emissions independent will houses with Demands of family of extended just below want to save money lowest CO2 make energy families resulting average. Vehicle & so potentially emission score consumption in high energy ownership low interested in saving relatively high consumption energy
  • 34. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 34 there are at least nine ways of segmenting
  • 35. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 35 and there is a rich array of work on this available: segmentation options for environment
  • 36. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 36 top 12 tips for environmental behaviour change and communications
  • 37. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 37 tip one: you can only change one behaviour, one audience at a time
  • 38. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 38 tip two: good communications begins by listening
  • 39. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 39 rainbow of options
  • 40. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 40 involve your key audiences Source: peopleandparticipation.net
  • 41. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 41 tip three: identify benefits, barriers and motivators of preferred behaviours
  • 42. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 42 the behaviour/motivation three step 1 research 2 behavioural analysis 3 motivational analysis
  • 43. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 43 imagine we have completed the research and we are now doing a behavioural analysis in teams
  • 44. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 44 a brief overview of motivation
  • 45. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 45 two dimensional model of behavioural change
  • 46. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 46 three dimensional model of behavioural change
  • 47. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 47 tip four: grab my attention
  • 48. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 48 my attention and motivation has a physical location situated at the base of the brain stem; the reticular activating system is the physical centre of arousal and motivation in animals it may be the bridge between the conscious and the unconscious; involved with the circadian rhythm; the 24 hour cycle thought to influence strength, wakefulness, heart rate, digestive and hormonal activity
  • 49. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 49 tip five: give me the facts
  • 50. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 50 need for the new “ people are motivated to seek out novel experiences as a way to achieve satisfaction – a process controlled by the striatum (a tiny piece of tissue in the lower brain).” Gregory S. Bern Psychiatrist and behavioural scientist, Emory University Author of ‘Satisfaction’
  • 51. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 51
  • 52. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 52 need for the new in the UK we have: 21 national newspapers 240 TV channels 284 local radio stations 1301 regional and local newspapers 3445 consumer magazines 3500 cinema screens 5113 business magazines 288,000 outdoor advertising sites
  • 53. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 53 tip six: focus on the here and now
  • 54. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 54 focus on where they are now we live in the ‘now’, what William James calls the “specious present.” the neuroscientist Ernst Poppel says “we take life three seconds at a time” – this is the time of a drink, a drag on a fag or a handshake Steven Pinker, The Stuff of Thought
  • 55. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 55 what’s happening here?
  • 56. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 56 tip seven: focus on the heart as well as the head
  • 57. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 57 the importance of emotion Source: Selling Sustainability, NESTA
  • 58. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 58 evolving theory of neuroscience the old view the new view there’s a small person the brain and the body are part of in our brain that makes the same organism, and reason informed, balanced, and emotion assist each other to rational decisions pin down what we think, feel and do
  • 59. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 59 “ the brain and the body are indissociably integrated by mutually targeted biochemical and neural circuits.” Antonio Damasio Descartes’ Error
  • 60. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 60 commitment example option to increase take up of insulation phone phone and phone and place and ask look in attic hand on an insulated water heater when involved, people were more likely to see themselves as committed energy conservers Source: Pacific Gas and Electricity study quoted by Doug McKenzie-Mohr
  • 61. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 61 tip eight: show me that other people are doing it (and maybe hook me up with them)
  • 62. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 62 social proof: modelling 67% of people complied when two or more students modelled turning water off while soaping (only 6% did so if there was just a sign)
  • 63. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 63 methods of achieving social proof
  • 64. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 64 public pledges lead to action
  • 65. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 65 personal contact when households were visited by a block leader delivering leaflets to encourage recycling they were twice as likely to recycle than if they received only the leaflet
  • 66. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 66 tip nine: ask for a small commitment and build
  • 67. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 67 the power of consistency ask small and build residents in Bloomington, Indiana were called and asked, hypothetically, if they would consider spending 3 hours a week collecting for the American Cancer Society when they were called back later by a different individual they were far more likely to volunteer than a group not asked the earlier question (31% to 4%)
  • 68. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 68 tip ten: make it easy to act
  • 69. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 69 making it easy to recycle
  • 70. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 70 use prompts to help make it easy for people to act
  • 71. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 71 tip eleven: use communications channels that touch me at the relevant place and time
  • 72. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 72 identify interventions
  • 73. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 73 personal interventions lead to personal change
  • 74. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 74 tip twelve: create a sense of momentum and keep me in touch with progress
  • 75. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 75 give your communications a sense of momentum tap into existing values and then follow a process: 1 raising awareness of the need to change 2 creating a conviction of the need to act 3 providing the tools that make it easy to act 4 creating communities of interest around the shared issue 5 measuring progress, reviewing, refreshing Source: Eric Friedenwald-Fishman
  • 76. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 76 case study: Berea, Kentucky Berea locals have a goal they call 50 x 25 they aim to have the town using 50% less energy by 2025 – deriving 50% from local sources – getting 50% of food from local and processors within 100 miles – generating 50% of GDP from locally owned independent businesses they are one of 40 US transition communities Note: the inaugural Transition Cities conference held in UK
  • 77. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 77 ideally, give me ownership case study: community ecoteams a group of friends or neighbours meet 8 times over 4 months and take it in turns to review a chapter of a practical Household Ecoteams Handbook someone who has already done this acts as a volunteer coach US households that participate produce 42% less waste, use 25% less water, produce 16% less CO2 and use 16% less fuel for transportation each Ecoteam is responsible for creating two new Ecoteams
  • 78. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 78 sources of information
  • 79. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 79 sources of information
  • 80. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 80 sources of information
  • 81. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 81 sources of information
  • 82. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 82 sources of information
  • 83. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 83 sources of information
  • 84. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 84 sources of information
  • 85. Environmental Behaviour Change – Course Page 85 sources of information