Ocean dumpin(original)

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Ocean dumpin(original)

  1. 1. OCEAN DUMPING Ocean dumping is the dumping orplacing of materials in the ocean, often on the continentalshelf. A wide range of materials is involved, includinggarbage, construction and demolition debris, sewagesludge, dredge material, waste chemicals, and nuclearwaste. Sometime hazardous and nuclear waste are alsodisposed but these are highly dangerous for aquatic life andhuman life also.
  2. 2. 1) Many businesses generate wastes that are considered hazardous or harmful to human health or the environment because they are flammable, corrosive, reactive, or toxic. Due to the harmful potential of hazardous materials, workers must remain aware of the safety hazards and proper handling and disposal procedures in order to protect the environment, themselves, and comply with state and federal regulations.
  3. 3. 2) Workers that generate or handle hazardous waste require training on the hazards and safe, proper handling of these materials. Training should cover the procedures for collection, labeling, and storage of the hazardous waste before it is transported for final disposal or treatment. In addition, workers should be trained on emergency procedures and accidental spill response for the materials that they work with.3) Hazardous materials should never be disposed of down the drain or in regular trash receptacles. They should be put into proper and compatible containers that can be securely sealed. Compatible container materials ensure that wastes will not react with or corrode them. The containers should not be completely full; a ―head space‖ allows for waste expansion. The sealed containers should be labeled with the name and hazard class of the waste along with the words ‗Hazardous Waste‘ and the date it was generated.4) Waste containers should be stored in a secure manner and protected from extreme environments. They should be segregated and stored in compatible hazard classes (flammable, corrosive, oxidizers, etc.) to prevent hazardous reactions if the wastes combine. The containers should remain closed during storage, except when adding or removing waste.
  4. 4. 5) Proper handling and storage of waste containers can prevent ruptures, overturns, or other failures. They should not be stacked or handled in a manner that could cause them to fail. Some flammable material containers may require grounding and containers should be seismically secured, if possible, to prevent spills in an earthquake. Waste storage time limits vary depending on the facility or material; workers should be familiar with the requirements for their worksite and wastes.6) Storage areas for hazardous wastes should be inspected at least weekly. Secondary containment can prevent spills, but if a leak or spill occurs, workers should follow facility spill and emergency response procedures. Spill kits should be available for such emergencies; all cleanup materials should be handled as hazardous waste.7) Proper waste documentation is important to track and maintain accountability for hazardous waste prior to shipment. Workers should be familiar with the documents required for their facility and waste types including EPA Identification numbers issued by the Environmental Protection Agency and Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifests. Workers must receive training before they can sign waste manifest documentation. Transportation of hazardous wastes should be done according to regulation requirements and by dedicated hazardous waste haulers.
  5. 5. 9) Proper training and knowledge can help workers ensure that hazardous wastes are safely and properly handled from ―cradle to grave.‖
  6. 6.  The Ocean Dumping Act (ODA) regulates the dumping of materials into U.S. territorial ocean waters. the transportation of materials for the purpose of dumping. The purpose of the statute is to strictly limit ocean disposal of any material that would negatively affect human health. the marine environment. ecological systems. potential economic endeavors.
  7. 7. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), inconcert with the Secretary of the Army and theSecretary of the Coast Guard, is entrusted with theresponsibility for setting specific guidelines fordumping and enforcing those guidelines.
  8. 8. Anyone may dump certain types of wastes into theocean with a permit from EPA. However, if the material is"dredged material", which is material excavated from U.S.navigable waters, you must obtain a permit from theSecretary of the Army (via USACE) to place the material inthe ocean (http://www.epa.gov/region04/water/oceans/Dredged_ Material_Permit_Process.html).
  9. 9. As of December 31, 1991, ODA totally prohibits thedumping of sewage sludge or industrial waste intoocean waters for these types of wastes:sewage sludge – solid, semisolid, or liquid waste froma municipal wastewater treatment plant.industrial wastes – solid, semisolid, or liquid wastesgenerated by a manufacturing or processing plant.The ODA also prohibits the dumping ofradiological, chemical, and biological warfareagents, and high-level radioactive waste into theocean.
  10. 10. Penalties for violations, including dumping without a permit, anddumping materials inconsistent with the specific limitations on yourpermit, are punishable by up to a $65,000 fine for each first violation, and$157,500 for each subsequent violation.Penalties for someone who knowingly violates ODA includeimprisonment for up to five years;forfeiting any property derived directly or indirectly from the violation;forfeiting property intended to be used in the commission of theviolation.Additionally, a related law, the Shore Protection Act, has made it a crimeto transport any commercial waste within coastal waters by a vesselwithout a permit and number or other marking.
  11. 11.  In 1991, the government of Somalia – in the Horn of Africa – collapsed. Its nine million people have been teetering on starvation ever since – and many of the ugliest forces in the Western world have seen this as a great opportunity to steal the country’s food supply and dump our nuclear waste in their seas.  YES NUCLEAR WASTE As soon as the government was gone, mysterious European ships started appearing off the coast of Somalia, dumping vast barrels into the ocean. The coastal population began to sicken. At first they suffered strange rashes, nausea and malformed babies. Then, after the 2005 tsunami, hundreds of the dumped and leaking barrels washed up on shore. People began to suffer from radiation sickness, and more than 300 died.
  12. 12. • Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah, the UN envoy to Somalia, tells me:―Somebody is dumping nuclear material here. There is also lead, andheavy metals such as cadmium and mercury – you name it.‖ Much of itcan be traced back to European hospitals and factories, who seem to bepassing it on to the Italian mafia to ―dispose‖ of cheaply. When I askedOuld-Abdallah what European governments were doing about it, he saidwith a sigh: ―Nothing. There has been no clean-up, no compensation, andno prevention.‖
  13. 13. PLACES WHERE OCEAN DUMPING(HAZARDOUS) HAS BEEN DONE•SOMALIA,LOCATED ON EASTEDPART OF AFRICANEAR BY THEGULF OF ADEN.•GREEN LINEINDICATESWHEREDUMPING HASTOOK PLACED.
  14. 14. ANOTHER EPISODE•At present, ocean dumping is predominantly banned by internationallaw. The motivation for banning ocean dumping was sparked by theshutdown of beaches due to contaminated wastes from sewage-derived micro-organisms, the closing of shellfish beds due to metalcontamination, and infection of fish by lesion-causing parasites.•Coastal oceans continually enriched by nutrients in waste productsthat run off the land suffer from eutrophication resulting in an increasein toxic algal blooms and decreased oxygen levels, both of which cankill fish populations.•With more than 80 percent of the ocean at depths of more than 3,000m, the deep-sea floor may seem safe from the man-made disturbancesthat threaten terrestrial and coastal ocean environments.•And yet most environmental litter from both natural and artificialwaste—such as sewage sludge, mining tailings, fly ash from powerstations, dredged spoils from harbors and estuaries, dangerous man-made organic compounds used for pesticides, weapons, and industrialuses, as well as packaged goods—makes its way to the sea floor overtime.
  15. 15. The three-person submersible Alvin can dive to just under 15,000 feet, enabling itto reach 86 percent of the worlds ocean floor. The sub typically makes 150-200dives each year.
  16. 16. •The vast and remote deep-sea floor could make it appear like an attractivealternative for dumping. To determine the impact of waste disposal on bottom-living animals, the National Undersea Research Program (NURP) has recentlysupported numerous projects in the oceans and Great Lakes.•Of particular concern to researchers are the effects of dumping on livingresources and deep-sea biodiversity, as well as the transmission ofcontaminants back to the human population.• In the most detailed study ever done related to the impacts of oceandumping, NURP-funded scientists documented the impact of 42 million tonsof wet sewage sludge dumped 2,500 m (8,000 ft) off the Mid-Atlantic coastbetween 1986 and 1992. One of the most significant environmental impactsdetected at the "106-mile dumpsite," named for its location 106 nautical milessoutheast of New York Harbor, was the restructuring of a community of deepsea organisms.•Two momentous developments laid the foundation for observations made atthe 106-mile dumpsite. The first development was the invention of the boxcorer, a stainless steel trap that takes relatively undisturbed bites out of theseafloor, enabling biologists to count the number of species in each core andcompare them to cores collected elsewhere in the deep ocean. The seconddevelopment was an ecological survey conducted for the U.S.
  17. 17. Eel pout, about 0.5 m long, seen from ALVINs starboard viewing port while collecting re-suspended sediment at the 106 Mile Dump Site. This species of deep water fish was frequentlyattracted to the lights and sampling activity on ALVIN dives in this area
  18. 18. •In a series of 233 cores taken for the survey along a 176-kilometer track off thecoast of New Jersey and Delaware during a two-year period, Grassle andMaciolek found an incredible diversity of animals, most of which were unknown.•They picked out 798 species, 171 families, and 14 phyla at around 2,100 m(6,720 ft)—a sampling that revealed much richer life at those depths than earliersamples had hinted. They reserved their count to the tremendous diversity oftiny invertebrate mud dwellers too big to slip through their sieves.•One aspect of the deep-sea biodiversity study was not apparent until sewagesludge dumping began at the 106-mile dumpsite around the same time period. Ashallower site in the New York Bight Apex had shown unacceptably highpathogen levels and signs of fish disease, which led to its closure.•As an alternative, roughly eight million tons of sludge a year began to bedumped at the 106-mile deepwater site on the continental rise adjacent to theNew York Bight starting in 1986.•Researchers Grassle and Maciolek found themselves with a baseline ofinformation on deep-sea organisms right around the dumpsite, which otherscientists could use for comparison in determining whether damage might becaused to deep-living communities.
  19. 19. •During the course of the next six years, NURP sponsored studies to determinethe fate and effects of the sewage sludge at the sea floor.•All of the evidence indicated that the sludge material dumped by barges didreach the ocean bottom slightly west of the area where it was discharged, andthat it had significant effects on the metabolism, diet, and composition oforganisms that lived there.•There was a presence of sludge in sediments at the dumpsite, and the level ofsilver was 20 times higher at the site relative to an unaffected reference area.This was confirmed by chemist Michael Bothner of the U.S. Geological Survey.•The submersible Alvin used by Bothner and his colleagues helped them collectthe silver samples in sediment cores to make the determination. They were alsoable to observe how contaminants introduced to the sediments from dumpingpenetrated to a depth of 5 cm below the sea floor as organisms living in thesediments burrowed through them. However, during a 10-month period ofsampling, researchers observed seven occasions where the currents werestrong enough to resuspend the contaminated sediments.•During the same period, chemist Hideshige Takada of Tokyo University andBothner reported elevated levels of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), widely used assurfactants in synthetic detergents, and coprostanols, a fecal marker of animals,at the dumpsite
  20. 20. •The Physicians for Social Responsibility said NO amount of radiation is safe infood/water and now the worlds ocean is being used as a dumping ground forhighly contaminated water. "The level of radioactive substances in the water isup to 500 times the legal limit permitted for release in the environment.―•"The dumping of tons of radioactive water from a waste treatment facility at thecrippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility into the ocean has started, TokyoElectric Power Company officials said Monday. The additional dumping of waterfrom reactors Nos. 5 and 6 will begin within hours, they said.•In all, about 11,500 tons of radioactive water that has collected at the nuclearfacility will be dumped into the Pacific Ocean, officials said Monday, as workersalso try to deal with a crack that has been a conduit for contamination.•The radiation levels were highest in the water from reactor No. 6, the officialssaid.•Officials with Tokyo Electric, which runs the plant, proposed the release ofexcess water that has pooled in and around the Nos. 3, 4, 5 and 6 reactors intothe sea. But most of the dumped water -- 10,000 tons -- will come from the plantscentral waste treatment facility, which will then be used to store highlyradioactive water from the No. 2 unit, an official with the power company said."
  21. 21. •"If this situation continues for a long time and the amount of radioactive leakageadds up, it will have a big impact on the ocean even if it spreads and dilutes,"Edano said. "We need to stop this as soon as possible, so (the government)instructed Tepco to take steps immediately.•" NOTE -The TOXIC water leaking from reactor number two has a radioactivity exceeding1,000 millisieverts per hour. The water that is leaking directly into the ocean isfrom reactor number two..."Authorities know the water in the cracked concrete shaft is emitting at least thatmuch radiation -- which equates, at a minimum, to more than 330 times the dosean average resident of an industrialized country naturally receives in a year."•The Pacific Oceans currents will eventually bring radioactive trash to theUnited States making that phrase One Mans Trash Is Another Mans Treasuredoubtful.•Update Radioactive Fish is no joke!! "Readings from samples taken Saturday inthe concrete pit outside the turbine building of the No. 2 reactor -- one of six atthe crisis-plagued plant -- had radiation 7.5 million times the legal limits, a TEPCOofficial said. Newer findings, from Tuesday afternoon, showed a sizable drop to 5million times the norm.•Both the utility and Japans nuclear safety agency say they dont know howmuch water is leaking into the sea from reactor No. 2. But engineers have had topour nearly 200 tons of water a day into the No. 2 reactor vessel to keep itcool, and regulators say they believe that is the water leaking out.
  22. 22. •About the same time as the Tokyo Electric news, Japanese Chief CabinetSecretary Yukio Edano said the presence of radioactive iodine "in one sample offresh fish" prompted authorities to regulate the radiation in seafood for the firsttime." Tuesday, April 5, 6:30 p.m. ET, Tokyo.•Fish contamination is now emerging. The Ibaraki fish association announced itdetected a high contamination level of iodine 131 (4,080 Bq per kilogram) andcesium 137 (526 Bq per kilogram). The Ministry of Health and Welfare is nowassembling an advisory committee to establish safety standards for radioactivecontamination (only temporary standards exist now). Theres No Such Thing as Safe Radiation
  23. 23. RADIOACTIVE TUNA(FISH)•Marine life gotradio active duringthe dumping ofradio active waterand waste in pacificocean.•All the fishes onwhich Japan eatsgot radio active.•Due to thisthousands of peoplesuffered.
  24. 24. HOW RADIATION IS TRANSMITTED
  25. 25. AREAS WHERE DUMPED CHEMICAL WEAPONS CAUSED ACCIDENTS
  26. 26. TEPCO RELEASING DUMPING VESSELS IN PACIFIC OCEAN•Tokyo Electric PowerCompanyofficials(TEPCO),DUMPING WASTE INOCEANS.•IN THE SAME MANNERUS,UK,RUSSIA ANDOTHER COUNTRIESDUMPED THEIR WASTEIN OCEANS.
  27. 27. HIGHLY RADIOACTIVE WASTE DUMPED•More than 47800containers and 14500cylinder were dumpedin west of SANFrancisco, many of theseare in gulf of thefarallones NationalMarine Sanctuary.•This containers andcylinders were foundwhen survey was donewith sonar.
  28. 28. Iron fertilization.• USE OF FERTILIZERS IN COASTAL AGRICULTURE CAN ALSO POLLUTE THE SEAS, AS IF IN SPREADS IN SEAS AND OCEANS CO2 WILL NOT BE ABLE TO TRANSFER FROM ATMOSPHERE TO SEA.• AS IRON REACTS WITH SALT AND CO2.• IT’LL AFFECT MARINE LIFE DIRECTLY.
  29. 29. Large amount of steam hazardouswaste left of from power plant at JAPAN
  30. 30. EXPLOSION TOOK PLACED DUE TO NUKES DUMPED IN OCEANThis explosion tookplace on Bikini Atoll inthe Marshall islands, thesite of many Americannuclear tests anddumping area.
  31. 31. DUMPING OF REMAINS OF WASTE DONE DURING WAR
  32. 32. SURVEY OF OCEAN DUMPINGDONE BY NEW INSTRUMENTS LIKE SONAR
  33. 33. RADIO ACTIVE WASTE DUMPED•PLACE AT SANTODOMINGO INDOMINICANREPUBLIC COUNTRY.•DARK RED COLOURSTAR REPRESENTSLARGE AMOUNT OFRADIO ACTIVE WASTEDUMPING.•STARS WITH CIRLEREPRESENTS SMALLSCALE OF DUMPINGAND OTHER SMALLSYMBOLSREPRESENTS LEASTSCALE OF DUMPING.
  34. 34. THERMAL MAP OF OCEAN
  35. 35. ACCIDENTALLY OCEAN DUMPING TAKES PLACE BY ACCIDENTS
  36. 36. DEATH OF MARINE LIFE DUE TO OCEAN DUMPINGDUE TO MARINEPOLLUTION ANDDUMPING, THEDIFFUSION OFOXYGEN TAKESPLACE AT VERYLOWER RATE,SORESPIRATIONPROBLEMSOCCURS WITHPOLLUTANTCONTAININGWATER.
  37. 37. VESSELS OF DUMPED WASTE IN OCEAN BED FOUNDED BY DIVERS.
  38. 38. REFERENCE TAKEN FROM:-WWW.GOOGLE.COMWWW.OAR.NOAA.GOVWWW.HIGHBEAMRESEARCH.COMWWW.EDIS.IFAS.UFL.EDUWWW.STATEFUNDCA.COMWWW.POLLUTIONISSUES.COM
  39. 39. BHARGAV ROHIT PARUL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY(PIT) ELECTRICAL 110870109040 SHWETA ENGINEER AND P OOJA

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