November 28, 2013

Quantifying the Stability of Summer Temperatures
for Different Thermal Climate Zones: An Application
to...
1.INTRODUCTION
 Most researchers agree on the fact that, the impact of climate in the urban
planning process in practice ...
What is Comfort or Discomfort for Human?
 The Six Basic Factors determining thermal comfort
 4 Environmental factors

 ...
 Urban climate and urban planning responses
PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL
SCIENCES
ANALYSIS OF
SOCIO-ECONOMIC
CONDITIONS

URBAN PLA...
 Factors controlling urban climate
Time
Geographic Location

•Day
•Season

Climate
Topography
rural surrounds

Limits ...
 Climatic changes induced by settlements in the Asia cities
Source: Kataoka et al., 2009

b

a

Africa

Temperature ( C)
...
Problematic Urban Climate Aspects in Hot-humid Summer Climate of Bangkok

Fig. Urbanization and Changes of Settlement Patt...
Land use/cover patterns and changes in Bangkok city
Table:
Land use/cover statistics (area in sq.km, percentage
of the tot...
(2) Changing Urban Form in Bangkok

Fig.5.2 The Bangkok city’s Evaluation (Boonwong, 2006)
9
 Scale and layers relevant to urban climate

1.Urban Boundary Layer (UBL)

2.Urban
Canopy Layer
(UCL)

Source: modified f...
Climatic conditions and the impacts of hot-humid tropical climatic of Bangkok
Urban climatic characteristic

Total elect...
2.) This study aims:
To construct a thermal climate zones (TCZs)
classification system, which is defined as an area of
th...
3.) Schematic presentation of thermal climate zones classification methodology
Derivation of Surface Morphological Paramet...
(a.) Surface composition [proportion of ground plan covered by impervious cover]
 Spatial variability of building and exp...
(b.) Surface configuration [dimensions of the buildings roughness]
 Spatial variability of floor area ratio (FAR) distrib...
(c.) Surface composition [proportion of ground plan covered by vegetated area]
 Spatial variability of green coverage rat...
(4.) A GIS-Multivariate Analysis Approach to Delineate Thermal Climate Zones
Characterization of Bangkok
 The Spatial Pat...
Combination of Multivariate Statistical Techniques with a Geostatistical
Approach such as Cluster Analysis (CA)

(b.)Farne...
(5.) Distribution of Climate-based Urban and Rural Landform classes in the Bangkok
(i) Distribution of thermal climate zon...
(6.) A bridged definitions and values of geometric and surface cover properties for thermal climate zones (TCZs)

Urban Si...
(7.) Assessing the stability of local temperatures for different thermal climate
zones (TCZs) in the summer using surface ...
(7.) Assessing the impacts of urbanization on urban thermal environment of Bangkok (cont.)
1) Surface urban heat island (S...
(8.) A simplified classification of distinct the thermal climate zones arranged in
approximate decreasing order of their a...
(9.) Major Factors Responsible for Thermal Climate Zone (TCZ)’s
Temperature Stability
Table : Correlation coefficients (th...
10.) CONCLUSIONS
The Bangkok area consists of 7 different categories of
the thermal climate zones (TCZs) characterization...
11.) Conceptual Framework of Integrated the Multi-scale Urban Climatic Assessment
LOCAL/MICROSCALE

MESOSCALE

Local/Micro...
Integrated suite of tools for multi-scalar assessment should have levels of observation in
urban climate studies and param...
Thanks you for your attention.

International Conference on Southeast Asian Weather and Climate 2013
“ASEAN Adapting to Cl...
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Quantifying the Stability of Summer Temperatures for Different Thermal Climate Zones: An Application to the Bangkok Metropolitan Area

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International Conference on Southeast Asian Weather and Climate 2013 “ASEAN Adapting to Climate Change” (Link: http://www.icsaforum.org/ICSA/index.php) and

Srivanit, M., Hokao, K., Iamtrakul, P. (2014). Classifying Thermal Climate Zones to Support Urban Environmental Planning and Management in the Bangkok Metropolitan Area. Journal of Architectural/Planning Research and Studies (JARS), 11(1), pp.73-92. (Link: https://www.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jars/article/view/23879)

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Quantifying the Stability of Summer Temperatures for Different Thermal Climate Zones: An Application to the Bangkok Metropolitan Area

  1. 1. November 28, 2013 Quantifying the Stability of Summer Temperatures for Different Thermal Climate Zones: An Application to the Bangkok Metropolitan Area Manat Srivanit Faculty of Architecture and Planning, Thammasat University (Rangsit Campus), Thailand E-mail address: s.manat@gmail.com 1
  2. 2. 1.INTRODUCTION  Most researchers agree on the fact that, the impact of climate in the urban planning process in practice is usually low [Oke, 1984; Lindqvist and Mattsson, 1989; Pressman, 1996]. Urban Climatology Science / Theoretical Climatologist Multi-scale phenomena Observational approaches; Field measurement, Thermal remote sensing,  Small-scale modeling at the canopy level Focus on achieving predictive power Urban Planning Climate knowledge have low impact on the planning process Applied Engineer/Artistic/Planner Different urban scales decisions Outdoor environment Urban forms & functions Comfort & health Landscape planning The goal of creating more sustainable settlements Needed to Develop Tools and Systems Suitable for Urban Planners [Source: Author] 2
  3. 3. What is Comfort or Discomfort for Human?  The Six Basic Factors determining thermal comfort  4 Environmental factors  2 Personal factors These factors may be independent of each other, but together contribute to a worker’s thermal comfort. The most commonly used indicator of thermal comfort is air temperature, it is easy to use and most people can relate to it. (HSE http://www.hse.gov.uk)
  4. 4.  Urban climate and urban planning responses PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES ANALYSIS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS URBAN PLANNING ASSESSMENT OF URBAN FORM AND PHYSICAL CONDITIONS STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT AND PUBLIC PARTICIPATION MESUREMENT AND MODELING OF URBAN CLIMATIC EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES URBAN CLIMATIC ASSESSMENT EVALUATION OF ADAPTATION STRATEGIES ADAPTATION STRATEGIES “Transferring scientific research into tools applicable for urban planning ought to be a great challenge for urban climatologists.” HEALTH CRISIS ALERT AND RESPONSE SYSTEMS HEALTHY, WELL ADAPTED COMMUNITIES HEALTH SCIENCES Fig. A Schematic Representation of the Many Functions and Disciplines Essential for Effective Urban Climate Adaptation [Source: Modified from Chee F.C. et al., 2007] 4
  5. 5.  Factors controlling urban climate Time Geographic Location •Day •Season Climate Topography rural surrounds Limits UHI, for simplicity we’ll assume ideal calm, clear, i.e. ‘worst case’ Synoptic Weather v •Cloud •Wind Urban Climate and Environment (Urban Heat Island-UHI) City Form City Size •Materials •Geometry •Green space Linked to form and function City Function •energy use •water use •pollution Modified from Oke, 2006 International Conference on Southeast Asian Weather and Climate 2013 “ASEAN Adapting to Climate Change” Of potential use in mitigation 5
  6. 6.  Climatic changes induced by settlements in the Asia cities Source: Kataoka et al., 2009 b a Africa Temperature ( C) Percentage of population residing in urban areas Source: United Nations, 2010 Asia Europe Latin America & the Caribbean North America Oceania Year Year Figs. (a) Percentage of Population Residing in Urban Areas by Continent 19502050 and (b) Variation in Yearly Mean Temperature in Large Asian Cities Using Observational Temperature Data. 6
  7. 7. Problematic Urban Climate Aspects in Hot-humid Summer Climate of Bangkok Fig. Urbanization and Changes of Settlement Patterns in Bangkok Metropolitan since 1900 to 1981 (source: Sternstein, 1982) 7
  8. 8. Land use/cover patterns and changes in Bangkok city Table: Land use/cover statistics (area in sq.km, percentage of the total study area) in Bangkok LULC Types Year Changes 1994 2000 2009 1994-2009 Built-up area 233.33 (14.80%) 519.87 (32.98%) 657.29 (41.70%) 423.96 (26.90%) Vegetated area 1,131.08 (71.76%) 777.52 (49.33%) 636.01 (40.35%) -495.07 (-31.41%) Water bodies 177.69 (11.27%) 207.36 (13.16%) 167.95 (10.66%) -9.73 (-0.62%) Other (bare land) 34.00 (2.16%) 71.36 (4.53%) 114.84 (7.29%) 80.84 (5.13%)  Agricultural land was converted to urban uses as Bangkok expanded along three major transport corridors to the southwest, southeast and north of the city.  The expansion of urban land use is characterized by unplanned, sprawl and ineffectively regulated. Source: Srivanit, M. and Hokao, K., 2012 8
  9. 9. (2) Changing Urban Form in Bangkok Fig.5.2 The Bangkok city’s Evaluation (Boonwong, 2006) 9
  10. 10.  Scale and layers relevant to urban climate 1.Urban Boundary Layer (UBL) 2.Urban Canopy Layer (UCL) Source: modified from Tim Oke (1997) Urban Surface/ Near-surface Temperature Fig. Schematic of climatic scales and vertical layers found in urban areas 10
  11. 11. Climatic conditions and the impacts of hot-humid tropical climatic of Bangkok Urban climatic characteristic Total electricity consumption by sectors Average seasonal pattern of daily mortality Electricity consumption pattern International Conference on Southeast Asian Weather and Climate 2013 “ASEAN Adapting to Climate Change” 11
  12. 12. 2.) This study aims: To construct a thermal climate zones (TCZs) classification system, which is defined as an area of thermally homogenous surface morphological properties. To assess the stability of summer temperatures for different TCZs, and quantify the relationship between regional land surface temperature (LST) variations and the TCZ morphological features. International Conference on Southeast Asian Weather and Climate 2013 “ASEAN Adapting to Climate Change” 12
  13. 13. 3.) Schematic presentation of thermal climate zones classification methodology Derivation of Surface Morphological Parameters (Spatial grid cells with a size of 300 m.) LANDSAT TM Satellite images Acquired on April 25, 2009 Validation Data Radiometric and Geometric correction Thermal Infrared Band (10.4–12.5 m) or Band 6 Conversion of digital numbers to radiation radiance value Land surface temperature (LST) Spectral reflectance in TM red (band3) and near-infrared (band4) Calculate the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (i) Green coverage ratio (GCR) GIS Vector Data Scale 1:4,000 Building layers were taken in 2009 Calculation of surface configuration parameters (ii) Building coverage ratio (BCR) (iii) Floor area ratio (FAR) A GIS-Multivariate Analysis Approach to Delineate Thermal Climate Zones (TCZs) : Cluster Analysis (CA) Spatial Character Differentiation of TCZ Classes Quantifying the stability of summer temperatures for different thermal climate zones (Spearman’s rank correlation to examine the relationship) 13
  14. 14. (a.) Surface composition [proportion of ground plan covered by impervious cover]  Spatial variability of building and exposed ground coverage ratio (BCR) BCR  Where: BCR AC AR AI AT AC AR  AI  AT AT (a) is building and exposed ground coverage ratio (%), is the combined surface area of the buildings and exposed ground, is the building roof area, is the area of impervious surface at ground level, and is the plan area of the study site (b) International Conference on Southeast Asian Weather and Climate 2013 “ASEAN Adapting to Climate Change” 14
  15. 15. (b.) Surface configuration [dimensions of the buildings roughness]  Spatial variability of floor area ratio (FAR) distributed according to a uniform grid mesh  A h  N FAR  Where: FAR A fi hi N AT i 1 fi i AT is floor area ratio (unitless values), is the area of the building footprint i at ground level, is the height of building i , is the total number of buildings in the plan area fraction, is the total plan area of the region of interest International Conference on Southeast Asian Weather and Climate 2013 “ASEAN Adapting to Climate Change” 15
  16. 16. (c.) Surface composition [proportion of ground plan covered by vegetated area]  Spatial variability of green coverage ratio (GCR) GCR  Where: GCR AG AAG ABG AT (a) AG AAG  ABG  AT AT is green and pervious surface coverage ratio (%), is the combined surface area of the horizontal green cover, is the trees canopy areas (or above green cover), is the summation of grass, shrubs, cultivated plants and pervious surface at ground level, and is the plan area of the study site (b)  Distribution of Green Coverage Ratio in BMA International Conference on Southeast Asian Weather and Climate 2013 “ASEAN Adapting to Climate Change” 16
  17. 17. (4.) A GIS-Multivariate Analysis Approach to Delineate Thermal Climate Zones Characterization of Bangkok  The Spatial Patterns of Surface Morphological Variables and Variation of Land Surface Temperature in the Summer  Calculating Fuzzy Membership of Each Urban and Rural Landscape Class (a) (ii)Farness zone Building Coverage Ratio (BCR) (a.) None building Less than 0.1 0.1 - 0.2 0.2 - 0.3 0.3 - 0.4 0.4 - 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 - Don Muan g Estimating spatial disaggregation of urban thermal stress Sa i M ai 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 Class membership (zones) Don Muan g Sa i M ai The mean class centroid (i)Nearest zone Schemes of BMA’s TCZs in 7 classes include:  nearest zones  farness zones ÷ ø Lak Si Kh long Sa m Wa Non g C hok Ba ng Khe n Lak Si Kh long Sa m Wa 1 Note: Grid size 500X500 meters Non g C hok Ba ng Khe n 30 4 1 5 0 Ka nna Ya o Cha tuchak ÷ ø5 30 4 Lat Phra o Ba ng Sue 5 0 Kilometers Cha tuchak ÷ ø 304 Ka nna Ya o Floor Area Ratio (F.A.R.) 5 Bu ngku m Minbu ri Lat Phra o Ba ng Sue (b.) None building ÷ Less ø than 0.1 0.1 - 0.2 0.2 - 0.3 0.3 - 0.4 0.4 - 0.5 Kilometers 0.5 - 0.6 0.6 - 0.7 0.7 - 0.8 0.8 - 0.9 0.9 - 1.0 338 338 Dusit Ba ngko k N oi Note: Grid size 500X500 meters Po m Prap Sa ttru Phai Kh long Sa m Wa Pa th umw an Wa ttha na Sa pha n Sung Non g C hok 3 Su an L uan g Kh long Sa n 1 Kh long Toei Sa th on Thon buri ÷ ø 30 4 7 Wa ttha na 7 Latkra ban g Ba ng Khe n Ba ng R ak Ph asi Ch aro en Ba ng Kha e Pa th umw an Latkra ban g Lak Si Sa mph antha wo ng Ba ngka pi Sa pha n Sung Ba ngka pi Ratthe we e Po m Prap Sa ttru Phai Hua i Kh wa ng Sa mph antha wo ng Sa i M ai Hua i Kh wa ng Ph ra Nakh orn Ba ngko k Yai Ba ngko k Yai Wa ng Th ong L ang Din D an g Ratthe we e Ph ra Nakh orn Minbu ri Don Muan g Ph ayatha i Dusit Wa ng Th ong L ang Din D an g Taling C ha n Bu ngku m Ba ngko k N oi Ph ayatha i Thaw ee W attan a 304 Taling C ha n Thaw ee W attan a Ba ngp hlat ÷ ø ÷ ø Ba ngp hlat 4 3 Ba ng R ak Ph asi Ch aro en Su an L uan g Kh long Sa n Ba ng Kha e 5 0 Ph ra Kh ano ng Ba ngkh o Lae m Lat Phra o Cho m Thon g Kilometers Ya nna wa Ba ng Sue ÷ ø 304 ÷ ø 3242 Bu ngku m Praw et (c.) Cho m Thon g ÷ ø Minbu ri Ba ng N a Ph ra Kh ano ng Ba ngkh o Lae m Non gkha m Praw et Ka nna Ya o Cha tuchak 5 Kh long Toei Sa gkha Nonth on m Thon buri 4 Ratb ura na Green Coverage Ratio (GCR) ÷ ø Ba ngp hlat Ya nna wa 338 3242 Ph ayatha i Ba ng Bon Less than 0.1 0.1 - 0.2 0.2 - 0.3 0.3 - 0.4 0.4 - 0.5 Ba ng Bon Thun g Kru 35 ô ó 0.5 - 0.6 0.6 - 0.7 0.7 - 0.8 0.8 - 0.9 0.9 - 1.0 (b) Don Muan g Hua i Kh wa ng Dusit Thun g Kru Ba ngko k N oi 35 ô ó Wa ng Th ong L ang Din D an g Ba ng N a Taling C ha n Thaw ee W attan a Ratb ura na Po m Prap Sa ttru Phai Sa mph antha wo ng Ba ngko k Yai Bangphlat 1.00 Pa th umw an Bangphlat 3 Lak Si Ba ng R ak Phayathai 7 Wa ttha na Ba ng Khu n Thia n Ph asi Ch aro en Latkra ban g Sa pha n Sung Sa i M Ba ngka pi ai Ratthe we e Ph ra Nakh orn Su an L uan g Kh long Sa n 4 1 Note: Grid size 500X500 meters Ba ngkh o Lae m Ba ng Khu n Thia n Non gkha m Ya nna wa Cho m Thon g ÷ ø 3242 5 0 Cha tuchak 5 Bangkok Noi Ratb ura na Thermal Stress (centigrade) Kilometers (Result) 29.299 - 29.622 29.622 - 29.944 ô ó ÷ ø 29.944 - 30.267 30.267 - 30.589 30.589 - 30.912 30.912 - 31.234 31.234 - 31.557 31.557 - 31.879 31.879 - 32.202 32.202 - 34.049 Minimum : 29.527 Maximum : 34.049 ÷ ø Mean : 30.267 Std.Deviation : 0.645 35 Ph ayatha i Dusit Ba ngko k N oi Ba ng Khu n Thia n Ratthe we e Po m Prap Sa ttru Phai Pa th umw an 3 Ba ng R ak Ph asi Ch aro en ※ All surf ace properties are unitless and normalize values (between 0 and 1) Bangkok Yai Sa mph antha wo ng Wa ttha na Kh long Sa n Ba ng Kha e A simple statistical hypothesized of near-surf ace air temperature Hua i Kh wa ng Ph ra Nakh orn Ba ngko k Yai Sa th on Thon buri Kh long Toei 4 Ba ngkh o Lae m Ya nna wa Cho m Thon g Dusit Bangkok Noi Phayathai Praw et Ph ra Kh ano ng Nearest cases ÷ ø 30 4 0.80 Din Dang Ratthewee Phra Nakhorn Ka nna Ya o Ba ng N a Dusit 0.70 ÷ ø 304 Bu ngku m Pom Prap Sattru Phai Minbu ri Ratthewee Bangphlat Bangkok Yai Pom Prap 0.50 Sattru Phai Samphanthawong Pathumwan Thonburi 3242 Ratb ura na Phayathai Latkra ban g Sa pha n Sung Ba ngka pi Samphanthawong Bang Rak Pathumwan 0.40 Bangkok Noi Bang Rak Praw et 2 Ratthewee Phra Nakhorn Ph ra Kh ano ng 0.20 Sathon Thonburi Su an L uan g 0.30 Sathon 0 2 Pom Prap Sattru Phai 4 Kilometers Ba ng N a Samphanthawong Bangkok Yai 0.10 Din Dang Khlong San Dusit 7 Khlong San Non gkha m Non g C hok Wa ng Th ong L ang Din D an g Taling C ha n Thaw ee W attan a Farness cases Ba ng Khe n Phra 0.60 Nakhorn Thun g Kru Ba ngp hlat 0.90 Lat Phra o Ba ng Sue Ba ng Bon 338 Din Dang Kh long Sa m Wa Kh long Toei Sa th on Thon buri Distance of zone from class centroid Ba ng Kha e Pathumwan Ba ng Bon 2 Thun g Kru 0 2 35 ô ó 4 Kilometers 0.00 0 1 2 Ba ng Khu n Thia n International Conference on Southeast Asian Weather and Climate 2013 “ASEAN Adapting to Climate Change” 3 0 4 5 Sathon Phayathai Class membership 2 7 8 Din Dang 4 Kilometers Ratthewee Phra Nakhorn Pom Prap Sattru Phai Bangkok Yai 6 Dusit Bangkok Noi 2 Bang Rak Bangphlat Khlong San Thonburi Samphanthawong Pathumwan 17
  18. 18. Combination of Multivariate Statistical Techniques with a Geostatistical Approach such as Cluster Analysis (CA) (b.)Farness the final cluster center Bangkok area consists of 7 different categories of the thermal climate zones (TCZs) characterization schemes The final cluster center (a.)Nearest the final cluster center 18 * Thermal responsiveness is considered here as the summer diurnal range of the urban canopy layer (UCL) air temperature.
  19. 19. (5.) Distribution of Climate-based Urban and Rural Landform classes in the Bangkok (i) Distribution of thermal climate zone (TCZ) classes (ii) Mean value of the surface morphological variables of TCZs (a) Class 1 Class 1 (n=3,794) Class 2 2 (b) Class (n=1,305) Building Coverage Ratio (%) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Floor Area Ratio (unitless) (d) Class (n=483) Class 4 4 (c) Class(n=871) Class 3 3 ELD VLD LD MD HD VHD EHD ELD 8.0 VLD LD MD HD VHD EHD 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 (e) Class 5 Class 5 (n=91) (f) Class(n=63) Class 6 6 Where: (g) Class 7 Class 7 (n=13) Class 1—Extremely Low Density (ELD) Class 2—Very Low Density (VLD) Class 3—Low Density (LD) Class 4—Medium Density (MD) Class 5—High Density (HD) Class 6—Very High Density (VHD) Class 7—Extremely High Density (EHD) Green Coverage Ratio (%) 120 100 80 60 40 20 International Conference on Southeast Asian Weather and Climate 2013 “ASEAN Adapting to Climate Change” 0 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 5 Class 6 Class 7 Thermal Climate Zone (TCZ) 19
  20. 20. (6.) A bridged definitions and values of geometric and surface cover properties for thermal climate zones (TCZs) Urban Site Description The BMA’s TCZs* for each class Num. of Cases 1. Extremely low density (ELD) % 3,794 57.31 Close to the edge of the city, this area is bordered by farmland and has Chaophraya river and canal running through it. Building type is a single dwelling unit, cottage housing, or with one single-family structure. 2. Very low density (VLD) (a) Nearest the mean class centroid for all seven classes 2A 1A 1,305 3A 4A 19.71 Detached single family structures, horizontal skyline of low-rise buildings (one- or two-story) and well separated by open, paved spaces. Including warehouses, wholesale, research and development, and manufacturing uses. 3. Low density (LD) Typical for nearest and farness the mean class centriod of seven urban and rural classes FAR=0. , BCR= . , GCR= . (Mean class centroid) FAR=0. , BCR= . , GCR= . (Nearest the mean class centroid) 6A 5A 871 7.30 FAR=0. , BCR= . , GCR= . FAR= .340, BCR=1.152, GCR=0.040 7A 13.16 483 FAR= . , BCR= . , GCR=0. FAR= .218, BCR=0.783, GCR=0.113 FAR=0. , BCR= . , GCR= . FAR= .107, BCR=0.444, GCR=0.220 Two stories, Smaller detached homes. Buildings separated by yards, and set along medium-width streets. Small commercial structures, multi-story mixed use and residential structures. 4. Medium density (MD) 5. High density (HD) 1B 91 63 Buildings are often large and dense, attached or close-set , and homogeneous in character with narrow streets. Heavy traffic flow. 0.95 FAR=0. , BCR= . , GCR= . (Mean class centriod) FAR=0.059, BCR=0.070, GCR=0.020 (Farness the class centroid) FAR= . FAR= . FAR=0. , BCR= . , GCR= . FAR= .066, BCR=0.341, GCR=0.332 , BCR= . , BCR= . FAR=0. , BCR= . , GCR= . FAR= .338, BCR=1.448, GCR=0.032 , GCR=0. , GCR= . 6B 5B 13 4B 3B 2B 1.37 High-rise apartment buildings (e.g., modern city core, tall apartment, major institution), Office/Midrise apartment building three-story large or closely spaced, semidetached and row houses. 7. Extremely high density (EHD) FAR= . , BCR= . , GCR= . FAR=1.654, BCR=1.412, GCR=0.042 (b) Farness the mean class centroid for all seven classes Scattered tall towers, residential-closely spaced less than four-story row and block buildings or major facilities, town center, narrow street canyons, e.g., old town centers, dense row, and semidetached housing. 6. Very high density (VHD) FAR= . , BCR= . , GCR= . FAR= .795, BCR=1.124, GCR=0.040 FAR= . , BCR= . , GCR= . FAR= .603, BCR=1.623, GCR=0.012 Low-rise apartment building or townhouses, gardens, small trees (two- or three-story). Mixed houses and small shop. Warehouse, light industrial area or shopping mall with large paved or open space. 7B 0.20 FAR= . , BCR= . , GCR= . FAR= .653, BCR=2.214, GCR=0.008 FAR= . , BCR= . , GCR= . FAR=1.174, BCR=1.565, GCR=0.018 FAR= . , BCR= . , GCR= . FAR=2.266, BCR=1.683, GCR=0.016 20
  21. 21. (7.) Assessing the stability of local temperatures for different thermal climate zones (TCZs) in the summer using surface temperatures  The land surface temperature (LST) has been shown to be highly correlated with the near-surface air temperature [Srivanit M., et al, 2012;Weng Q. et al., 2009; Nichol J.E. et al., 2008]. L  ( Lmax  Lmin )  ( DN  QCALmin )  Lmin QCALmax  QCALmin Tk  Where: Tk K1 K2 K1 K2  Derivation of LST from LANDSAT Imageries [Eqn.1] K2 [Eqn.2]  K1  In  L  1     is the temperature in Kelvin (K) is the prelaunch calibration of constant 1 in unit of W/(m2 sr·m) and is the prelaunch calibration constant 2 in Kelvin. For LANDSAT TM, is about 607.76 W/(m2 sr·m) and is about 1260.56 W/(m2 sr·m) N b. Band2 (0.525-0.605 µm) Pixel Res 30 m Visible Green c. Band3 (0.603-0.690 µm) Pixel Res 30 m Visible Red d. Band4 (0.750-0.900 µm) Pixel Res 30 m Near Infrared Number of Pixels a. Band1 (0.450-0.515 µm) Pixel Res 30 m Visible Blue Digital Numbers & Gray color scale km 0 e. Band5 (1.550-1.750 µm) Pixel Res 30 m Middle Infrared f. Band6 (10.400-12.500 µm) Pixel Res 120 m Thermal Infrared g. Band7 (2.080-2.350 µm) Pixel Res 30 m Middle Infrared 128 h. Example the digital structure of Band 5 255 International Conference on Southeast Asian Weather and Climate 2013 “ASEAN Adapting to Climate Change” 21
  22. 22. (7.) Assessing the impacts of urbanization on urban thermal environment of Bangkok (cont.) 1) Surface urban heat island (SUHI) changes in the city core of Bangkok (a.) Mar5,1994 (b.) Feb18,2000 3) Surface temperature patterns related to urban landscape features (c.) Apr25, 2009 2) Changes on greenness (a.) Mar5,1994 (b.) Feb18,2000 (c.) Apr25, 2009 Source: M.Srivanit and K. Hokao, August 2012 22
  23. 23. (8.) A simplified classification of distinct the thermal climate zones arranged in approximate decreasing order of their ability to impact local climate (a) An urban thermal environmental map (UTEMap) (b) The stability of surface temperature for different thermal climate zones in the summer of Bangkok Classifying thermal climate zone using K-means cluster analysis Thermal Climate Zones Area Sq.km. Number of thermal Cluster 46.0 Don Muang Sai Mai Lak Si Khlong Sam W a Nong C hok Bang Khen 1 ø ÷ 3 04 Kanna Yao Chatuchak Lat Phrao Bang Sue ø ÷ 3 04 Bungkum Minburi Bangphlat ø ÷ 338 Phayathai Wang Thong Lang Din Dang Taling Chan Thawee W attana Dusit Bangkok Noi Huai Khwang Bangkapi Ratthewee Phra Nakhorn Latkrabang Saphan Sung Pom Prap Sattru Phai Sam phanthawong Bangkok Yai Pathum wan 7 Watthana 3 Bang Rak Phasi Charoen Suan Luang Khlong San Bang Khae Sathon Thonburi Khlong Toei 4 Prawet Phra Khanong Bangkho Laem Nongkham Yannawa Chom Thong ø ÷ 3242 Bang Na Ratburana Bang Bon Bangphlat Thung Kru 35 ó ô Phayathai Bang Khun Thian Din Dang Dusit Huai Khwang Ratthewee Phra Nakhorn Pom Prap Sattru Phai Samphanthawong Bangkok Yai Pathumwan Watthana Sathon 0 2000 42.0 40.0 38.0 36.0 34.0 Khlong San 2000 44.0 3 Bang Rak Thonburi Land Surface Temperature (Celsius) (percentage of study area) climate zones Extremely Low Density (ELD) 3,794 948.50 (57.31%) Very 1,305 Density 326.25 (19.71%) Low (VLD) 3 871 217.75 (13.16%) 4 Low Density (LD) 120.75 (7.30%) 483 5 91 22.75 (1.37%) 6 Medium Density (MD) 63 15.75 (0.95%) 7 High 13 Density (HD)3.25 (0.20%) Very High meters Note: Grid size 300X300 Density (VHD) 5 0 5 10 (EHD) Extremely High DensityKilometers 1 2 Khlong Toei ELD 4000 Meters VLD LD MD HD VHD EHD Thermal Climate Zone (TCZ) The result found that the urban-rural temperature difference, or urban heat island intensity (UHII), can often exceed ~ 4.23 ºC in the summer. International Conference on Southeast Asian Weather and Climate 2013 “ASEAN Adapting to Climate Change” 23
  24. 24. (9.) Major Factors Responsible for Thermal Climate Zone (TCZ)’s Temperature Stability Table : Correlation coefficients (the Spearman’s rho) between the variation of land surface temperature and urban morphology descriptors of thermal climate zones. Thermal Climate Zones (TCZs) Urban Surface Morphology Feature Level ELD VLD LD MD HD VHD EHD 1.Building coverage ratio (BCR) .608** .532** .484** .455** .871** .470** .346 .885** 2.Floor area ratio (FAR) .606** .424** .187** .106** .307** .176 .313 .876** 3.Green coverage ratio (GCR) -.134** -.306** -.225** -.207** -.278** -.369** -.468 -.577** Note: Significance level at **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05 The similarity in the highest LST variations (with a mean LST of ~41.72 ºC) of High Density (HD) areas can be explained relating to a high proportion of built-up surface covers and a lowest amount of green space. While the lowest LST variations were observed for low density residential, agricultural and natural cultivation zones (with a mean LST of ~37.49 ºC). International Conference on Southeast Asian Weather and Climate 2013 “ASEAN Adapting to Climate Change” 24
  25. 25. 10.) CONCLUSIONS The Bangkok area consists of 7 different categories of the thermal climate zones (TCZs) characterization schemes, each distinguished by its surface configuration and composition properties that have a roughly similar propensity (homogeneous) to modify the local climate. The local thermal stability is significantly different among the TCZ types. The large thermal variations caused by the intra-urban morphological heterogeneity are consistent with the findings in other areas. It is possible to attain a low regional thermal variation by planning different TCZs in a reasonable configuration. International Conference on Southeast Asian Weather and Climate 2013 “ASEAN Adapting to Climate Change” 25
  26. 26. 11.) Conceptual Framework of Integrated the Multi-scale Urban Climatic Assessment LOCAL/MICROSCALE MESOSCALE Local/Micro Climatic Data Climate observational Micro-climate numerical modeling assessment Regional Metadata-sets Geographical database Remote sensing Official surveys Local Authority Information Meteorological stations Building typologies and configurations An Urban Thermal Environment Map (UTEMap) for Spatial Planning Spatial-temporal dynamics in response to urbanization Urban thermal remote sensing & vegetation distribution Quantify the surface properties of the thermal source area Mapping on GIS and analysis using methods including SPSS Settlement/City-wide Level Climatic Mapping Settlement Climatic Information Decision Making A City-wide Develop A Climate-based Classification System In Between Urban Rural Select the thermal climate zones (TCZs) “METUTOPIA” Measuring the Local Climatic Character of Their Sites Quantify Benefit of Local Climate Improvement Optimum Greening Design And Management Method Development of greening modifications Greening benefits derived from solving problematic Etc. Guidelines for Using Climate Zones Classification Updating Site Designations More Objective Guiding the Spatial Planning Decision Process Multi-scale Climatic Information Planning and Management Planning with Local Climate in Different Climatic Zones Guidelines for Local Environment Improvement “METUTOPIA” is a meteorogically optimized urban planning and design [Source: Author] 26
  27. 27. Integrated suite of tools for multi-scalar assessment should have levels of observation in urban climate studies and parameters of pleasant outdoor environment analysis Levels of Observation Objective  Building (Individual building, Parcel) Building Form Design  Building Groups (Block, or Thermal Climate Zone-TCZ, Neighborhood, District)  A City Settlement (Climate-based Landforms Classification System) Parameters of Analysis Location Materials Type of building Design (e.g. shape, orientation, etc.) Occupant behavior Building placement Outdoor landscaping (open spaces and greening) Materials and surfaces Street dimensions & orientation Shadow areas Outdoor Comfort and Health (The Optimum Planning and Design System) Zoning Overall extent, shape and pattern Guidelines on (densities; heights; land uses; and green-spaces) Green infrastructure planning Transport policy A Climate-based Urban Development Pattern Approach (CUDPA) [Source: Author] 27
  28. 28. Thanks you for your attention. International Conference on Southeast Asian Weather and Climate 2013 “ASEAN Adapting to Climate Change” 28

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