Allotropes

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Allotropes

  1. 1. AllotropesBySakshi ShettyManasvee SarafSneha Shastri
  2. 2. What is an Allotrope?An allotrope• is a variant of a substance consisting of only one type ofatom.• a new molecular configuration, with new physicalproperties.Allotropes of a given substance will often have substantialdifferences between each other. For example, oneallotrope of carbon, fullerene, is many times stronger andlighter than steel.
  3. 3. What is an Allotrope?• Allotropes are different formsof the same element.• Different bondingarrangements between atomsresult in different structureswith different chemical andphysical properties.• Allotropes occur only withcertain elements, in Groups 13through 16 in the PeriodicTable. This distribution ofallotropic elements isillustrated in Figure 1.Figure 1
  4. 4. Elements and Their AllotropesThe following slides are about a few common elementsand their allotropes... You will find allotropes ofCarbonPhosphorusOxygenSulphurBoronSilicon
  5. 5. Allotropes of Carbon A striking example of differing physicalproperties among allotropes is the caseof carbon. Solid carbon exists in twoallotropic forms: diamond and graphite.• Diamond is the hardest naturally occurringsubstance and has the highest melting point(more than 6,335°F [3,502°C]) of anyelement.• In contrast, graphite is a very soft material,the substance from which the "lead" in leadpencils is made. The 8 Allotropes of Carbon are: a)Diamond, b) Graphite, c)Lonsdaleite, d)Buckminsterfullerene, e) C540, f)C70,g)Amorphous, h) Carbon Nanotube
  6. 6. Allotropes of PhosphorusWhite phosphorus -crystalline solid P4Red phosphorus -polymeric solidScarlet phosphorusViolet phosphorusBlack phosphorusDiphosphorus
  7. 7. Allotropes of OxygenA. Dioxygen- O2B. Ozone- O3C. Tetraoxygen- O4D. Octaoxygen- O8AB C D
  8. 8. Allotropes of SulphurPlastic (Amorphous)Sulphur - polymeric solidRhombic Sulphur - largecrystals composed of S8moleculesMonoclinic Sulphur - fineneedle-like crystalsOther ring molecules suchas S7 and S12RhombicSulphurMonoclinicSulphur
  9. 9. Allotropes of BoronAmorphous Boron -brown powderCrystalline Boron -black, hard, and aweak conductor atroom temperature.Crystalline BoronAmorphousBoron
  10. 10. Allotropes of SiliconAmorphous Silicon -brown powderCrystalline Silicon -has a metallic lusterand a grayish color.AmorphousSiliconCrystallineSilicon

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