Earth Quake
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Earth Quake

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The slide will educate you for understanding the reason and saftey measures for earthquake

The slide will educate you for understanding the reason and saftey measures for earthquake

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Earth Quake Earth Quake Presentation Transcript

  • Earthquake Hazards and Safety
    An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. The seismicity or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. Earthquakes are measured using observations from seismometers
  • The Earth
  • Know Your ZOne
  • Earthquake Zones in World Map
  • Interior Structure of Earth
    CRUST (0-100 KM )
    The Earth's outermost surface is called the crust. The crust is relatively light and brittle. Most earthquakes occur within the crust. Scientists believe that below the lithosphere is a relatively narrow, mobile zone in the mantle called the asthenosphere (from asthenes, Greek for weak).
    MANTLE (100-2900 KM )
    The region just below the crust and extending all the way down to the Earth's core is called the
    mantle. The mantle, a dense, hot layer of semisolid rock.
    Core (100-2900 KM )
    Beneath the mantle is the Earth's core. The Earth's core consists of a fluid outer core and a solid inner core.
    Inner Core (2900-5100 Km) Outer Core (5100 -6378 Km)
  • Focus and Epicenter of Earthquake
  • What Causes Earthquake?
    The sudden slip at the fault causes the earthquake…….a violent shaking of the Earth when large elastic strain energy released spreads out through seismic waves
    that travel through the body and along the surface of the Earth.
  • Fault
    Earthquakes occur on faults. A fault is a thin zone of crushed rock between two blocks of rock, and can be any length, from centimeters to thousands of kilometers.
    When an earthquake occurs on one of these faults, the rock on one side of the fault slips
    with respect to the other. The fault surface can be vertical, horizontal, or at some angle to the surface of the earth. The slip direction can also be at any angle. We classify these into two basic cases: strikeslip and dip-slip motion.
  • General Characteristics
    Earthquake Vibration
    Earthquake vibrations occur in a variety of frequencies and velocities. The actual rupture process may last from a few seconds to as long as one minute for a major earthquake. Seismic waves generated by the rupture can last from several seconds to a few minutes.
    Ground shaking is caused by body waves and surface waves
    Depth of Earhquake
    Measurement Scale
    Deep (300-700 Km)
    Magnitude- Richter (Charles Richter) Measures the magnitude of the
    Intensity , degree of damage (Mercilli)
    Intermediate (300-60 Km)
    Shallow (60-0 Km)
  • Determining the magnitude of an earthquake
    Magnitude-- measure of energy released during earthquake.
    There are several different ways to measure magnitude.
    Most common magnitude measure is Richter Magnitude, named for the renowned seismologist, Charles Richter.
     
    Richter Magnitude
    • Measure amplitude of largest S wave on seismograph record.
    • Take into account distance between seismograph & epicenter.
     
    Richter Scale
    • Logarithmic numerical (NOT a physical) scale
    • Increasing one whole unit on Richter Scale represents 10 times greater magnitude.
    • Going up one whole unit on Richter Scale represents about a 30 times greater release of energy.
    Intensity
    • Intensity refers to the amount of damage done in an earthquake
    • Mercalli Scale is used to express damage
  • Family Readiness
    • Create a family Earthquake plan
    • Know the safe spot in each room
    • Know the danger spots
    • Decide where your family will reunite if separated
    • Keep a list of emergency phone numbers
    • Develop a survival kit for work, car, and home
  • Hazards associated with Quakes
    • Shaking:
    Frequency of shaking differs for different seismic waves.
    High frequency body waves shake low buildings more.
    Low frequency surface waves shake high buildings more.
    Intensity of shaking also depends on type of subsurface material.
    Unconsolidated materials amplify shaking more than rocks do.
    Fine-grained, sensitive materials can lose strength when shaken. They lose strength by liquefaction.
    Buildings respond differently to shaking depending on construction styles, materials
    Wood -- more flexible, holds up well
    Earthen materials -- very vulnerable to shaking.
    • Ground displacement:
    Ground surface may shift during an earthquake (esp. if focus is shallow).
    Vertical displacements of surface produce fault scarps.
    • Tsunamis (NOT tidal waves)
    Tsunamis are huge waves generated by earthquakes undersea or below coastal areas.
    If earthquake displaces sea surface, wave is generated that can grow as it moves over sea surface.
    • Fires
    Usually occurs from shifting of subsurface utilities (gas lines)
  • Home Preparedness
    • Learn how to shut off gas, water, and electricity
    • Check chimneys, roofs, and wall foundations for stability
    • Secure heavy furnishings
    • Secure water heater and appliances
    • Keep heavy objects on lower shelves
    • Maintain emergency food, water, medicine, first aid kit, tools, and clothing
  • Emergency Supplies
    • First Aid supplies Band-Aids antibiotic ointment latex gloves cold/hot packs ace bandages arm sling Tylenol or Advil diarrhea medication
    • Equipment work gloves shovel tents sleeping bags ready to eat foods clothing radio, flashlights CASH
  • Emergency Food
    • Camp or backpacking stove propane tank
    • Canned foods manual can opener
    • MRE’s
    • Granola bars
    • Energy bars
  • Safe Drinking Water
    • Store a supply of water 1 and 5 gallon containers do not store on concrete
    • Purifying tap water 8 drops bleach per gal of water add bleach when storing or, boil for 10 minutes
    • Water from water heater turn off gas or electric turn off cold water supply once cooled, drain at bottom
    • Other sources toilet storage tank melted ice cubes water trapped in pipes
  • During an Earthquake
    • Stay away from windows, bookcases, file cabinets, heavy mirrors, and other heavy objects that could fall
    • Duck under a desk or sturdy table
    • Watch for falling plaster or ceiling tiles
    • Stay undercover until the shaking stops, and hold onto your cover
    • If the desk or table you are under moves… move with it
    • If in your car, stop, but not on a bridge, or under trees or a power line
    • If outside, stay outside, and move to an area clear of overhead trees, power lines, or objects that could fall from a structure
    • Don’t forget about aftershocks
  • After The Earthquake
    • Be prepared for aftershocks, plan for cover when they occur
    • Check for injuries, give first aid as necessary
    • Remain calm, try to reassure others
    • Wear shoes to avoid injury from broken glass
    • Check for fire and take appropriate actions
    • Check gas, water, and electric lines
    • Tune to emergency broadcast system on radio
  • How to Shut Off Utilities
  • Gas Shutoff
  • Water Shutoff
  • Electricity Shutoff
  • Thanks to: All My Friends for being a part