Contingent model of chinese leadershipPresentation Transcript
Hangzhou, Dec 29th 2010 Xiaojuan Wang Contingent model of Chinese leadership: Challenge of internationalization for Chinese leaders
Agenda 1 China: Tradition and Modernization 4 2 Chinese Culture: evidence from GLOBAL study 7 Prototype leadership of different cultures 10 Insights from global study 11 3 Contingent model of Chinese leadership 14 integrated theoretical model 16 Suggestions for the managers 19
Contingent model of Chinese leadership China: Tradition and Modernization
China: Tradition and Modernization
China has enjoyed great economic prosperity and societal development since then in 1978 when Chinese government decided to develop its economy with reform and open policy .
Along with the economic prosperity and societal development , internationalization and scientific advancement transform Chinese behavior and values. Specifically, the youth generation are socialized by the society values and practices.
Extreme long history and profound influences of Confucius philosophies make China different from all the other countries in the sense that the basic values, beliefs and preferences here are very difficult to change completely. “Guanxi”, “power distance”, “Confucius ethics”, “loyalty”, et al. still determines the individual `s preference and behavior to a great extent than nobody can ignore it.
Most influential philosophies in China: Confucianism Personal development: Confucianism argue that there is no end for learning and advancement and stress the individual contribution to family and country. Interpersonal relationship: Confucianism stress “Five relationship” that deal with the norms and duties of five pivotal relationships in society: ruler-minister, father-son, elder-younger brother, et al. Mencius (372 BC-289 BC) Confucius(551 BC – 479 BC) Tung Chung-shu, (179BC–104 BC)
Potential “ leading generalization ”
the Bird's Nest Generation
the Bird's Nest Generation
Volunteers of 2008 Beijing Olympic Games
“ elegant and proficient in foreign languages, good communication, respect for the rules, strong sense of responsibility, advocate participation, with the characteristics of the era of reform and opening ”
The group, aged 10 to 29, accounts for about one third of China's 1.3 billion people .
Contingent model of Chinese leadership Chinese Culture: evidence from GLOBAL study
External adaption-empirical evidence a: significantly higher than the other countries c: significantly lower than the other countries (House,et al.,2004)
Value training and development
Emphasizing results more than people
Value assertiveness, competitiveness
Value bonus and financial rewards
It is most cherished by all the cultures among the cultural dimensions Performance orientation assertiveness p v p v Confucian Asia 4.58a 5.53c 4.09 4.54a Southern Asia 4.33 5.99a 3.86c 4.65a China 4.45 5.67 3,79 5.44 Indonesia 4.41 5.72 3.87 4,72 Singapore 4.9 5.73 4.17 4.41
Internal integration-empirical evidence
Power is seen as providing social order, relational harmony
Information is localized
Limited upward social mobility
Different groups have different involvement
Strong normative historical influences
Formalize their interaction with others
Be orderly, keep meticulous records
Take more moderate calculated risks
Show stronger resistance to change
a: significantly higher than the other countries c: significantly lower than the other countries (House,et al.,2004) Power distance Uncertainty avoidance p v p v Confucian Asia 4.19a 4.0a 4.42 4.74 Southern Asia 4.41a 3.77a 4.1 5.16a China 5.04 3.1 4.94 5.28 Indonesia 5.18 2.69 4.17 5.23 Singapore 4.99 3.04 5.31 4.22
Prototype leadership of different cultures House et al.,(2004) found that the same leadership was evaluated differently in various cultural background +: positive correlation between the cultural dimension and leadership -: negative correlation between the cultural dimension and leadership
Insights from GLOBAL study
Problem arises when evaluating the effectiveness of different types of leadership if thinking Chinese cultural pattern rather than focus on the single cultural dimension.
Obviously, Chinese managers have no idea of what kind of leadership is most suitable for them since some types of leadership on the opposite side if considering the three cultural dimension at the same time.
Chinese leaders should adopt charismatic leadership, team oriented leadership, human oriented leadership, self-protective leadership et al., in order to gain success according to GLOBAL study.
Insights from Global study The key to solving the problems lies in finding out the contextual factors or moderate variables that influence the effectiveness and practicality of different leadership.
Contingent model of Chinese leadership Contingent model of Chinese leadership
Findings from western viewpoints
Western researchers have already proposed the contingent theory of leadership since half a century ago.
Fiedler (1962):Contingency model of leadership effectiveness
House (1971):path-goal theory
Vroom and Yetton (1973) argued that the organizational structure, the threat faced by leaders and the group, the degree of formalization of the situation, the sophistication of the subordinates will influence the decision-making style of the leaders.
Fiedler (1962) House (1971)
Findings from eastern viewpoints
Zheng (1995) and other Asian scholars proposed the paternalistic leadership based on the Asian culture.
The leaders behave like a father, and they provide support and protection for the followers not only in work situations but also in life. The followers trust and show their loyalty to leaders.
Morality, friendliness and authority characterize paternalistic leadership, which means that the leaders use an authoritarian style, derogate subordinate capacity, manage the image and teach the followers to gain respect, trust and fear from the followers.
Paternalistic leadership has very close relationship with Chinese culture, especially the Confucius philosophy.
integrated theoretical model
western scholars should examine the effectiveness of contingent leadership theory in China, where culture is significantly different.
Chinese scholars should do more study in evaluating the paternalistic leadership in a new perspective, which means that they should take the response of youth generation, the internationalization and scientific development into consideration.
A model including individual differences, organizational variables, relational factors and cultural background
Suggestions for the managers cultivate democratic atmosphere and reduce power distance in organizations progressively in organization.
keep an open mind with learning orientation
know the most recent developed managerial ideology or theory.
be cautious when applying the newly developed managerial theory
There is no perfect and universal theory or method whose effectiveness is guaranteed
find out one`s owe leadership patterns which combine characteristics of several kinds of leadership
take one`s position, working industry and environment issues in to consideration when decide whether take certain leadership or not.
Global Competence for Asian Leaders
An applied research collaboration supported by the Human Capital Leadership Institute (Singapore) with the objective to derive a model for Asian leaders, which will lead to systematic global leadership development programs with Asian characteristics.
Built on our previous researches on Chinese and Indonesian intercultural sensitivity, we continue in this study by elaborating the cross-cultural experiences of the Chinese, Indonesian and Singaporean international assignees and their respective local co-workers in China and Indonesia. Intercultural sensitivity has been widely accepted as one of the most significant element of global competencies and one of the strongest predictor for global leaders and managers accomplishments.
The principal investigators of the project are Dr. Hora Tjitra, Dr. Hana Panggabean, and the research team of the the Zhejiang University (Hangzhou, China), Zhejiang University of Technology (Hangzhou, China) and the Atma Jaya Indonesia Catholic University (Jakarta, Indonesia).
Hora Tjitra Hana Panggabean Juliana Murniati Quan HE Jiewei ZHENG Chaohui ZHANG Teng SHENTU Jia ZHOU Xiaojuan WANG Dan ZHAO Xixie ZHANG Sebastian Partogi Yuanbo LIU Tayyibah Mushtaq Research Partners: Funding Partner: Zhejiang University China www.zju.edu.cn Zhejiang University of Technology China www.zjut.edu.cn Atma Jaya Catholic University Indonesia www.atmajaya.ac.id Human Capital Leadership Institute Singapore www.smu.edu.sg
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