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Top 20 master.cwk (dr) Top 20 master.cwk (dr) Document Transcript

  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #1 2009 Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions WINDBAG Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating S Sharing Information Having Fun TEACHING Heres the challenge! How many breaths would it take to NOTES blow up a two metre long bag? Materials The "bag" is actually a long plastic bag in the shape of a tube. You can make your own long bag using a product called a Nappy Genie refill. Its part of a diaper system that parents use to store nappies. A Nappy Genie refill is commonly available at any major department store. Experiment 1. Tie a knot in one end of the bag. Invite a friend to blow up the bag, keeping track of the number of breaths it takes. Stop them after 5 breaths, Work out how many breaths would be needed to fill the tube. Then, let all of the air out of the bag. Explain to your friend that you can blow up the bag in one breath. 2. Have your friend assist you by holding onto the closed end of the bag. Hold the open end of the bag approximately 25 to 30 centimetres away from your mouth. Using only one breath, blow as hard as you can into the bag. Remember to stay about 25 centimetres away from the bag when you blow. 3. Quickly seal the bag with your hand so that none of the air escapes. How does it work? The long bag quickly inflates because air from the atmosphere is drawn into the bag from the sides along with the stream of air from your lungs. Heres the technical explanation: In 1738, Daniel Bernoulli observed that a fast moving stream of air is surrounded by an area of low atmospheric pressure. In fact, the faster the stream of air moves, the more the air pressure around the moving air drops. When you blow into the bag, higher pressure air in the atmosphere forces its way into the area of low pressure created by the stream of air from your lungs. In other words, air in the atmosphere is drawn into the long bag at the same time that you are blowing into the bag.Prepared by Warren Bruce - Adviser in Science Education - UC Education Plus 2009
  • Additional InfoFire fighters use this principle to quickly and efficiently force smoke out of a building.Instead of placing the fans up against the doorway or window, a small space is leftbetween the opening and the fan in order to force a greater amount of air into thebuilding. Fire fighters call it "Positive Air Flow." Hot Air Balloons can be filled with air morequickly using the same principle. ... was IWonder. n if th e tube appe ween t wo uld h renc e bet • wha r ? be a diffeople? longeere would short pe makes a • i f t h e o p l e a n d he pe ople t a l l p e age of t • if th ence? differ
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #1 2009 Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions WINDBAG Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating S Sharing Information Having Fun Science from the classroom to the dinner table Learning Intention: I am learning.... • about the properties of moving air. TEACHING NOTES Success Criteria: I will know I can do this when I am able to.... • explain how the windbag can be filled with one breath. • demonstrate the results of moving air, Prerequisite learning activities: Making Better Sense series: Making Better Sense of the Living World - Pgs 50 - 51 ‘Lift-off’ Building Science Concepts series: The Air Around Us #30 Other resources: http://scifiles.larc.nasa.gov/text/educators/activities/2000_2001/athome/bernoulli.html http://www.comfsm.fm/~dleeling/physci/ps83/air.xhtml http://www.losmedanos.edu/departments/ptech/documents/Bernoulli_5.pdf
  • Notice the position of the large fan to the left of the basketLiterature Connections:• Scown,J. (1999), Hot Air School Journal Story Library• The Wind Blew $17.30 ISBN 068971744Xby Pat Hutchins• Gilberto and the Wind $16.98 ISBN 0140502769by Marie Hall Ets• Millicent and the Wind $15.24 ISBN 0920236932by Robert Munsch• Where Do Balloons Go $33.63 ISBN 10 0060279806by Jamie Lee Curtis• I Feel the Wind $13.99 ISBN 0064450953by Arthur DorrosWeb sites:Hot Air Balloonwww.howstuffworks.com/hot-air-balloon.htmSolar Baghttp://www.stevespanglerscience.com/content/experiment/00000111http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/product/1358Windbag videofile:///Users/wbr24/Desktop/Further%20Top%2020%20ideas/Bernoulli%20bag%20aka%20Wind%20Bag%20Video.webarchive
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #2 2009 Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions BLACK BOX Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun What is happening inside the bucket? TEACHING NOTES Materials This ‘black box’ activity consists of a bucket with a lid that has a funnel made from the top of a 1.5 litre plastic bottle pushed through a hole in the lid. The funnel is covered with aluminium foil for effect. A plastic bag is attached with a rubber band to the funnel where it pokes through the underneath of the lid. The plastic bag needs to be large enough to sit on the bottom of the bucket. A 5 cm tube cut from a garden hose fits into the bucket about 5 cm up from the base of the bucket. This tube needs to fit about 1 cm into the bucket and sealed to make it water tight. You will need three small soft drink bottles. You will also need a clear container to catch water from the bucket and a small stand for the bucket to sit on. Fill each of the bottles with about 100 ml of water. Colour two of the bottles with different coloured food colouring. Fill the bucket with water until it flows out of the hose tubing. Put the lid on the bucket and carefully set it up ready for demonstration. Experiment Tell the students that you want them to watch what happens an to think about, what is happening inside the bucket? No talking, keep what you think to yourself. Demonstrate by pouring the clear water into the funnel and observe what happens. Clear water goes in clear water comes out. Pour in blue water and clear water comes out! Pour in yellow water and clear water comes out! How come?Prepared by Warren Bruce - Adviser in Science Education - UC Education Plus 2009
  • Now get the students to draw and label, if they want to, what they think is happeninginside the bucket. When ready get them to display and share their drawing. After havingheard each student allow them to make any changes to their original ideas.Introduce the following three thought bubbles: 1. At first I thought....... 2. Now I think.......... 3. Because..........After having heard what other students think, the students can acknowledge the namesof those in number 3 that have changed their original ideas.The whole idea of this activity is to allow the students to be creative and to work like ascientist. Often we can see what happens at the beginning and end but have no ideaabout what happens in between. Like a scientist we have to be innovative and creative inour thinking.To be consistent with NOS and the scientific enterprise, the students should NOT actuallylook into the bucket under any circumstances. It would also NOT be consistent with NOSfor the teacher to tell the students if their ‘visualisation’ is correct.How does it work?Each amount of water you pour into the funnel is gathered in the attached plastic bag.The result of water displacement is what you see coming out of the bucket’s outlet.Additional InfoThink about the Values and Key Competencies that are addressed by this activity. Whichone will you focus on? er.... s liquid I Wond pen if the r d e r ? o ou l d h a p d i f f e r e n t removed tw a • wha added in m foil wasat make a were e aluminiul, would th • i f t h the funne from ence? differ
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #2 2009 BLACK Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating BOX Sharing Information Having Fun Science from the classroom to the dinner table Learning Intention: TEACHING I am learning.... NOTES • about how scientists work by sharing their ideas and listening to other ideas Success Criteria: I will know I can do this when I am able to.... • make changes to my original ideas after sharing and listening to others. • when I acknowledge who changed my mind. Prerequisite learning activities: There are no prerequisite activities. This activity is important in developing an understanding of one aspect of the NOS (Nature of Science). Most phenomena that scientists investigate are ‘black’ in the sense they can not be ‘directly’ observed. Scientists have still been able to produce relatively reliable bodies of knowledge about the phenomena they investigate.
  • Web sites:Google search :Avoiding De-Natured Science
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #3 2009 MENTOS & Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions COKE Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun Materials: TEACHING • A roll of Mentos NOTES • 2-litre bottle of diet coke • A release mechanism for the Mentos Experiment: This activity is probably best done outside in the middle of an abandoned field, or better yet, on a huge lawn. Release mechanism available from Every Educaid in Christchurch. Carefully open the bottle of coke. Position the bottle on the ground so that it will not tip over. Fill the releasing mechanism with 12 Mentos and screw onto the top of the bottle of coke. When ready, hold the bottle as you pull the pin that will release the Mentos into the coke. Then run! How Does It Work: As you probably know, soda pop is basically sugar (or diet sweetener), flavouring, water and preservatives. The thing that makes soda bubbly is invisible carbon dioxide gas, which is pumped into bottles at the bottling factory using tons of pressure. Until you open the bottle and pour a glass of soda, the gas mostly stays suspended in the liquid and cannot expand to form more bubbles, which gases naturally do. But theres more... If you shake the bottle and then open it, the gas is released from the protective hold of the water molecules and escapes with a whoosh, taking some of the soda along with it. What other ways can you cause the gas to escape? Just drop something into a glass of soda and notice how bubbles immediately form on the surface of the object. For example, adding salt to soda causes it to foam up because thousands of little bubbles form on the surface of each grain of salt.Prepared by Warren Bruce - Adviser in Science Education - UC Education Plus 2009
  • How does it work?Many scientists claim that the Mentos phenomenon is a physical reaction, not a chemical one.Water molecules strongly attract each other, linking together to form a tight mesh around eachbubble of carbon dioxide gas in the soda. In order to form a new bubble, or even to expand abubble that has already formed, water molecules must push away from each other. It takesextra energy to break this "surface tension." In other words, water "resists" the expansion ofbubbles in the soda.When you drop the Mentos into the coke, the gelatine and gum arabic from the dissolvingcandy break the surface tension. This disrupts the water mesh, so that it takes less work toexpand and form new bubbles. Each Mentos candy has thousands of tiny pits all over thesurface. These tiny pits are called nucleation sites - perfect places for carbon dioxide bubblesto form. As soon as the Mentos hit the soda, bubbles form all over the surface of the candy.Couple this with the fact that the Mentos candies are heavy and sink to the bottom of the bottleand youve got a double-whammy. When all this gas is released, it literally pushes all of theliquid up and out of the bottle in an incredible soda blast. You can see a similar effect whencooking potatoes or pasta are lowered into a pot of boiling water. The water will sometimesboil over because organic materials that leach out of the cooking potatoes or pasta disrupt thetight mesh of water molecules at the surface of the water, making it easier for bubbles andfoam to form.Next question... Why should you use diet Coke or diet Pepsi? The simple answer is that dietdrinks just works better than regular drinks. Some people speculate that it has something todo with the artificial sweetener, but the verdict is still out. More importantly, diet soda does notleave a sticky mess to have to clean up. Hey, thats important.On a personal note... ‘Ive performed this demonstration well over a thousand times - ontelevision, talk shows, science conventions, teacher associations, for CEOs at hugemotivational speaking rallies, for Nobel Prize winners and anyone else who might watch.And the reaction is always the same... thats amazing! My thanks to Lee Marek who originallyshared the Mentos idea with me and to the hundreds of teachers and science enthusiasts whocontinue to share their funny pictures, videos and experiences.’ Steve Spangler a ... used IWonder. appe n if I s? to tle? ould h er of Men in the bot t w mb • whaent nu s left ld? d r iffe much li quid i arm or cont sw ere • how e c o k e w a k w i t h d i f f • i f t h would wor • if it s ? drink
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #3 2009 MENTOS & Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions COKE Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun Science from the classroom to the dinner table TEACHING NOTES Learning Intention: I am learning.... • about planning a fair test investigation Success Criteria: I will know I can do this when I am able to.... • discuss my investigative question. • explain the variables I will control and the one variable I will change • explain what my gathered data tells me • share my findings and explain what I found out
  • Prerequisite learning activities:Making Better Sense series:Making Better Sense of the Material World - Pgs 74 - 84 ‘Fizzing and Foaming’Building Science Concepts series:Other resources:Kitchen Chemistry• Kids’ Kitchen Chemistry by Anne Lawes ISBN 1 875627 16 2• Kitchen Chemistry by John Bath and Sally Mayberry (Step-by-Step Science)• Kitchen Science by Chris Maynard0 ISBN 0 7513 6253 0This has access to an experiment and videohttp://www.stevespanglerscience.com/content/experiment/00000109 Literature Connections: • The Trouble with Chemistry by Roy Phillips ISBN 141209144-6 • The Fizzy Orange Soft Drink by Janet Bottin
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #4 2009 DROPS ON Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions A COIN Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun Materials TEACHING • pipettes NOTES • 10c coins • water • paper towels Experiment Place two 10c coins of different age on a paper towel, tails up. Begin putting drops of water on one coin at a time, counting the drops out loud. After a few drops ask the students to think of a question that you might have in your head, that you are trying to find the answer to. Get the students to write their question small white boards or a sheet of paper. After they have had time to record a question, allow them to show their question to their partner. Snowball the groups until you have eight students in a group. Each group selects one of the questions to share with the class. Place the selected students white board or paper at the front of the room for all to see. Make a recording of all these questions on the large class white board. Allow the other students time to ask questions further questions. . Record all these questions on the class white board. Sort the brainstormed questions by circling with different coloured white board pens into the following groups: 1. Those that can be investigated with the materials we now have. (red) 2. Those that require some extra material. (green) 3. Those that need to asked of an expert (blue) 4. Those that are too difficult (black)Prepared by Warren Bruce - Adviser in Science Education - UC Education Plus 2009
  • In pairs allocate one of the questions from those grouped in number one. Give some timefor them to carry out their investigation and gather data before sharing findings back tothe class.Additional InfoUsing your pipette. Make sure that you are holding the pipette high enough so that eachdrop falls individually onto the coin. Pipette The drop should each drop not touch the like this water on the coin before leaving the pipette 10c 10c er.... coins I Wond pen i f the l d h a p es? ds or t wouent ag e hea • w h a differ on th e wer y o u g e t more ater, the w • can ide? ent in ? t s ails used d e a eterg d i f f e r e n c e • if we t h a t m a k would
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #4 2009 DROPS ON Thinking Being Creative A COIN Asking Questions Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun Science from the classroom to the dinner table Learning Intention: I am learning.... • about water’s surface tension TEACHING NOTES Success Criteria: I will know I can do this when I am able to.... • explain how many drops of water I can get on the coin. • explain why there is a limit to the number of drops I can put on the coin. Prerequisite learning activities: Making Better Sense series: Making Better Sense of the Material World - Pgs 23 - 34 ‘Water’ Building Science Concepts series: Other resources:
  • Additional InfoSurface tension is an attractive property of the surface of a liquid. It is what causes thesurface of a portion of liquid to be attracted to another surface, such as that of anotherportion of liquid (as in connecting bits of water or as in a drop of mercury that forms acohesive ball).Applying Newtonian physics to the forces that arise due to surface tension accuratelypredicts many liquid behaviours that are so commonplace that most people take themfor granted. Applying thermodynamics to those same forces further predicts other moresubtle liquid behaviours.Surface tension has the dimension of force per unit length, or of energy per unit area.The two are equivalent — but when referring to energy per unit of area people use theterm surface energy — which is a more general term in the sense that it applies also tosolids and not just liquids. Literature Connections: • Who Sank the Boat by Pamela Allen ISBN 0-14-050940-2 • Mr Archimedes Bath by Pamela Allen ISBN 0-207-17285-4
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #5 2009 EATING Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions NAILSSorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun TEACHING Materials NOTES • cup of Kornies • strong magnet • Zip-lock bag • water Experiment 1. Pour a cup of Kornies into a zip-lock bag and crush the contents in your hands. 2. Pour the crushed cereal into a new clip lock bag. The first bag may have been punctured while you were crushing the cereal. Fill the bag at least half full (thats right half full!) with water. Carefully seal the bag, leaving an air pocket inside. Mix the cereal and the water by squeezing and smooshing the bag until the contents become a brown, soupy mixture. This may take a long time. In fact, you may want to let it sit for an hour so the cereal softens completely. Warm water will speed up the process. Dont move onto the next step until the cereal is completely dissolved! (DOES NEED TO SIT FOR AN HOUR and WORKS BEST WITH A NEODYMIUM MAGNET) 3. Make sure the bag is tightly sealed and lay it on a flat side in the palm of your hand. Place the super-strong magnet on top of the bag. Put your other hand on top of the magnet and flip the whole thing over so the magnet is underneath the bag. Slowly slosh the contents of the bag in a circular motion for 15 or 20 seconds. The idea is to attract any free moving bits of metallic iron in the cereal to the magnet. 4. Use both hands again and flip the bag and magnet over so the magnet is on top. Gently squeeze the bag to lift the magnet a little above the cereal soup. Dont move the magnet just yet. Look closely at the edges of the magnet where its touching the bag. You should be able to see tiny black specks on the inside of the bag around the edges of the magnet. Thats the iron!Prepared by Warren Bruce - Adviser in Science Education - UC Education Plus 2009
  • 5. Keep one end of the magnet touching the bag and draw little circles. As you do, theiron will gather into a bigger clump and be much easier to see.How does it work?Many breakfast cereals are fortified with food-grade iron particles (metallic iron) as amineral supplement.The chemical symbol for iron is Fe. Many people believe that metallic iron is digested inthe stomach, and eventually absorbed in the small intestine. However, there is a growingnumber of nutritionists who do not buy these claims and believe that the metallic ironsimply passes through your system.However, iron is found in a very important component of your blood, called haemoglobin.Haemoglobin is the compound in red blood cells that carries oxygen from your lungs sothat it can be utilised by your body. Its the iron in haemoglobin that gives blood its redappearance.A diet deficient in iron can result in fatigue, reduced resistance to diseases, andincreased heart and respiratory rates. Food scientists say that a healthy adult requiresabout 18 mg of iron each day. So, as you can see, iron is a very important part of whatyou and your friends and family need to stay healthy. Eat up! er.... ence? I Wond ake a differ ? wo othuld m er cereals water m? •i f hot e is iron incomes fro er n • if th r e t h e i r o • wh e
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #5 2009 EATING Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions NAILS Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun Science from the classroom to the dinner table Learning Intention: I am learning.... TEACHING • about some of the things added to my breakfast cereal. NOTES Success Criteria: I will know I can do this when I am able to.... • demonstrate how the fortified iron can be found. • discuss why the fortified iron is added to breakfast cereal. Prerequisite learning activities: Making Better Sense series: Making Better Sense of the Physical World World - Pgs 83 - 105 ‘Magnets and Magnetism’ Building Science Concepts series: Other resources: This has access to an experiment and video http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/content/experiment/00000034
  • fortified iron
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #6 2009 SCREAMING BALLOONS Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun TEACHING NOTES Warning: The spinning penny trick is known to be addicting. Once you start, it’s almost impossible to stop. Centripetal force may get the best of you. Proceed with caution! It’s an amazing display of centripetal force. Once you get started, it’s almost habit forming. Left untreated, you’ll be spinning everything in sight! Materials • Some small washers, hexagonal nuts and 10c coins. Try different sized washers and hexagonal nuts • Balloons Experiment Squeeze a washer through the mouth of one of the balloons. Make sure that the washer goes all the way into the balloon so that there is no danger of it being sucked out while blowing up the balloon. Blow up the balloon. Tie off the balloon and you’re ready to go. Grip the balloon at the stem end as you would a bowling ball. The neck of the balloon will be in your palm and your fingers and thumb will extend down the sides of the balloon. While holding the balloon, palm down, swirl it in a circular motion. The washer may bounce around at first, but it will soon begin to roll around the inside of the balloon. The best orbit or path for the washer is one parallel to the floor. Once the washer begins spinning, use your other hand to stabilise the balloon. Your washer should continue to spin for 30 seconds or more.Prepared by Warren Bruce - Adviser in Science Education - UC Education Plus 2009
  • How does it work? Use this demonstration to pique curiosity about centripetal forces. Centripetal force is the inward force on a body that causes it to move in a circular path. The old concept of “centrifugal force” (an outward or centre fleeing force) has been largely replaced by a more modernistic understanding of “centripetal force” (an inward or centre seeking force). When we attach a ball to a string and swing it in a circular path, we feel the forces of the ball pulling on the string, and that of the string pulling on our hand. That effect is probably responsible for the misconception of a centrifugal, or centre fleeing force. Scientists have now proven that only centripetal forces are responsible for the effects we experience with the ball and string. Let’s consider the experiment where one swings aG tethered ball in a circular motion around one’s head. If we were to let go of the string, and if centre fleeing forces (centrifugal) were in effect, the ball would fly off radially fromS the point of release. But, it doesn’t do that! Instead, it flies off tangentially, in the direction of the velocity it had at the moment it was released. In the example of the ball and string, it is the string that supplies the inward force while in the case of the washer in the balloon; it is the balloon that imposes an inward force on the penny thereby keeping it travelling in a circular path. Additional Info Compare the motion of the washer in the balloon with that of the planets around the sun. See if your kids can figure out that gravity takes the place of the string and balloon in providing an inward force on the planets. Compare the behaviour of a gyroscope to that of the washer spinning in the balloon. A gyroscope is essentially a spinning mass, and so is the washer. Once the disk (mass) of the gyroscope starts spinning, it resists tipping on its axis of rotation. A child’s spinning “top” is a good example of a gyroscope to which we can easily relate. Just as the “top” resists tipping over while it’s spinning, so does the washer. The gyroscopic action of the washer provides stability to its orbit within the balloon. er.... her I Wond en if th e wasl nut? na ld happ a h e x a g o n make t wou ith lloo • whareplaced w of the ba will w a s s the size na l nuts • d o e e re n ce ? e d h e x a g o a diff fferent siz ce. ª if di a differen make
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #6 2009 SCREAMIN Thinking Being Creative G Asking Questions Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating BALLOONS Sharing Information Having Fun Science from the classroom to the dinner table Learning Intention: I am learning.... • about centripetal force TEACHING NOTES Success Criteria: I will know I can do this when I am able to.... • explain what centripetal force is • demonstrate centripetal force Prerequisite learning activities: Making Better Sense series: Building Science Concepts series: Other resources: This has access to an experiment and video http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/experiment/00000054
  • Gently rotate the balloon by holding it in one hand. Stop rotating the balloon after the washer/coin/nut begins to spin round inside the balloon. It should continue to spin inside the balloon for a few more seconds.See Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wall_of_death_(motorcycle_act)
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #7 2009 CANDLE IN Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions A JAR Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun TEACHING NOTES Experiment 1. Place the candle in the centre of the aluminium pie pan. To ensure that the candle is firm, either have the candle sitting on a blob of blu tak or, light the candle before hand and put some drops of wax in the centre of the pan so that the candle can be put in the wax. 2. Fill the pie pan 3/4 of the way with water and add 3 drops of food colouring. 3. Light the candle. Think about what a candle needs to burn. 4. Cover the candle with the jar. What invisible thing is inside the bottle? Carefully observe what happens to the water level in the bottle. What happened to the candle flame? 5. Repeat the experiment several times and record the stages using a digital camera. 6. Write down or draw a picture that explains why the water level rises. How does it work? The candle needs oxygen to burn. When you cover the burning candle with the jar, the flame eventually goes out as soon as all of the oxygen is used up. Since there is no more oxygen under the cup, the rest of the gases (nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and others) are exerting less pressure compared to the atmospheric air. The greater atmospheric pressure on the outside of the bottle pushes the water in the pan up into the bottle. However, there is another important factor that accounts for the rise in water level. The candle flame heats the air in the bottle, and this hot air expands. Some of the expanding air escapes out from under the bottle — you might see some bubbles. When the flame goes out, the air in the jar cools down and the cooler air contracts. The contraction of the air draws the water up into the bottle.Prepared by Warren Bruce - Adviser in Science Education - UC Education Plus 2009
  • er.... sedI Wond pen i f you ur level te ul d hap ld the wa t wo ou • w h a andles, w h? ould tw o c e as hig n dle w ic he ca be tw e size of t ce? sed 3 h n you u s? • if t a differe appen if eight make t would h ifferent h • whales, all of d cand
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #7 2009 CANDLE IN Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions A JAR Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun Science from the classroom to the dinner table Learning Intention: I am learning.... • about what happens when a burning candle, sitting in TEACHING a pan of water is covered with a jar. NOTES Success Criteria: I will know I can do this when I am able to.... • explain why the water rises in the jar. • discuss the effect of using two candles. Prerequisite learning activities: Making Better Sense series: Building Science Concepts series: Candles #64 Other resources: This has access to an experiment and video http://home.ntelos.net/~rollinso/Candle/CandleExpt.html
  • Using a measuring cylinder helps accentuate theamount of water that is forced into it after thecandle goes out. Remember oxygen is usedup, but that the heated air has also expandedand been forced out of the jar/cylinder. Thewater is not sucked in but pushed in by the airoutside trying to equalise the air pressure. Asthe water is in the way it gets forced into thejar/cylinder.
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #8 2009 AMAZING Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions TOOTHPICK Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating S Sharing Information Having Fun TEACHING NOTES Materials • Eyedropper • Toothpicks • Cup of water • Smooth table/desk surface Experiment 1. Snap one toothpick in half so that the two halves remain connected. 2. Place the snapped toothpick on a piece of laminated card. 3. Predict what you think will happen when you carry out step 4. 4. Using the eyedropper place two or three drops of water on the break in the snapped toothpick. (see figure one on back page) 5. Observe carefully what happens. 6. Explain what has happened. 7. Now snap five toothpicks in half making sure that the two halves remain connected. 8. Arrange the five toothpicks like the spokes of a wheel on a piece of laminated card. (see figure two on back page) 9. Predict what you think will happen when you carry out step 10. 10. Using the eyedropper place a few (no more than 4 at a time AND ONLY add more when the water has been soaked up) drops of water in the centre of the wheel. 11. Observe carefully what happens. 12. Explain what has happened. 13. Brainstorm some questions you would like answered about this activity. Select the questions you could investigate. Be prepared to share your investigative questions.Prepared by Warren Bruce - Adviser in Science Education - UC Education Plus 2009
  • Additional InfoWater molecules are attracted to each other. The attraction of one water molecule toanother is called cohesion. One result of the attraction, orcohesion, is called surface tension. The cohesive property of water isevident in the rounded shape of the water drops on the waxed paper.The attraction and attaching of a substance to something else is called adhesion. Thewater drops are attracted to the toothpicks and then absorbed by them through capillaryaction. The toothpick is made up of dead plant cells. The water that is absorbed by thetoothpick fills the interior of the cells causing them to expand. This expansion causes thetoothpicks to move. er.... used I Wond ppen i f you ld ha t wou • w h a water. with r w ar m work k sticks o uld bloc is wo • if th hsticks,ice rs. matc oo skewe bamb
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #8 2009 AMAZING Thinking Being Creative TOOTHPICK Asking Questions Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating S Sharing Information Having Fun Science from the classroom to the dinner table Learning Intention: I am learning.... • about how water causes wooden fibres to swell TEACHING NOTES Success Criteria: I will know I can do this when I am able to.... • explain what happens when a liquid is added to a snapped toothpick • talk about why the toothpick reacts to the liquid. Prerequisite learning activities: Making Better Sense series: Building Science Concepts series: Other resources: This has access to an experiment and video http://www.bofunk.com/video/7140/awesome_moving_toothpicks_trick.html
  • place water hereplace water here Figure One Figure Two place water here place water here
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #9 2009 NAPPY SECRET Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun TEACHING Materials NOTES • Disposable baby nappy (several brands) • Zipper-lock bag • Scissors • Water • Newspaper Experiment 1. Place a new (unused is your first choice) nappy on the piece of newspaper. Carefully cut through the inside lining and remove all the cotton-like material. Put all the stuffing material into a clean, zipper- lock bag. 2. Scoop up any of the polymer that may have spilled onto the paper and pour it into the bag with the stuffing. Blow a little air into the bag to make it puff up like a pillow, then seal the bag. 3. Shake the bag for a few minutes to remove the powdery polymer from the stuffing. Notice how much (or how little) powder falls to the bottom of the bag. 4. Carefully remove the stuffing from the bag and check out the dry polymer you just extracted from the diaper. Amazing stuff! 5. Cut the corner off the bag and remove any fluffy bits. Pour the remaining powder into a clear disposable cup. 6. Add about a quarter of a cup of water to the powder and observe what happens. SEE THE PICTURES ON THE BACK OF THE SHEET FOR THINGS YOU CAN DO AND FURTHER INFORMATION!Prepared by Warren Bruce - Adviser in Science Education - UC Education Plus 2009
  • Extension5. Grab a new nappy and slowly pour about 60 ml of warm tap water into the centre.Hold the nappy over a large pan or sink and continue to add water, a little at a time, untilit will hold no more. Keep track of how much water the nappy can absorb before itreaches its limit.How does it work?The secret, water-absorbing chemical in a nappy is a super absorbent polymer calledsodium polyacrylate. A polymer is simply a long chain of repeating molecules(monomers). If the prefix poly means many, then a polymer is a large molecule made upof many smaller units, called molecules, that are joined together. Some polymers aremade up of millions of monomers. Super absorbent polymers expand tremendouslywhen they come in contact with water because water is drawn into and held by themolecules of the polymer. They act like giant sponges. Some can soak up as much as800 times their weight in water! The cotton-like fibres you removed help to spread outboth the polymer and the, "water" so that baby doesnt have to sit on a "gooshy" lump ofwater-filled gel. Its easy to see that even a little bit of powder will hold a huge quantityof water, but it does have its limits. At some point, baby will certainly let you know whenthe gel is full and its time for new undies!ADD SALT... Gather the pieces of gel into a cup and smoosh it down with your fingers.Add a teaspoon of salt, stir it with a spoon, and watch what happens. Salt messes up thegels water-holding abilities! When youre finished, pour the salt water goo down thedrain. r er.... f wate unt o n o t I Wond amo ximum g e l w o u ld m a t the e the hot • wha b e b e f o r ld than would? re co w o r k would ho ld mo • If it r ? wate
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #9 2009 NAPPY SECRET Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun Science from the classroom to the dinner table Learning Intention: I am learning.... • about the properties of the polymer found in babies TEACHING nappies NOTES Success Criteria: I will know I can do this when I am able to.... • demonstrate the absorbent properties of the polymer. Prerequisite learning activities: Making Better Sense series: Building Science Concepts series: Other resources: This has access to an experiment and video http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/content/science-video/baby-diaper-secret
  • Stuffing material from inside the nappy. The powder will gather in one corner of the bag.Cut the corner of the plastic bagcontaining the powder andempty into a cup. Add waterand the powder will quickly soakup the water and form a gel.Up-end the cup oversomeoneʼs head. This is bestdone in a polystyrene cup. Theperson will expect to becovered in water but they donot get wet. What a relief! The powder has absorbed up to 800 times its own weight.
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #10 2009 TISSUE Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions POWER Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun TEACHING Materials NOTES • Salt • Cardboard paper towel tube • Paper towel • Rubber band • Stick cut from broom handle Experiment 1. Take a paper towel tube and place a paper towel over one end of the tube. Wrap the paper towel up the side of the tube and hold in place with the rubber band. 2. Pour the salt into the tube until it is filled to about a depth of 15 cm. 4. Predict what you think will happen when you push the stick as hard as you can into the salt from the open end of the tube. Hold the paper towel tube in your hand away from the table when doing this. 5. Observe what happens. 6. Explain what you saw happen. Can you explain why? 7. Brainstorm some questions you would like answered about this activity. Select the questions you could investigate. Be prepared to share your investigative questions. How does it work? There are lots and lots of tiny air spaces between the grains of salt. When the stick strikes, the energy from the blow goes into pushing the salt crystals closer together and against the sides of the tube. This absorbs the entire force of the blow. There is no energy left to tear the paper towel.Prepared by Warren Bruce - Adviser in Science Education - UC Education Plus 2009
  • alt er.... nt of sI Wond imum amou min encil, tis the ld use? r, like a p • wha ou cou s thinne that ye stick wa k? that w ork? h r • if t at wo would wo uuld thused salt ª if yo
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #10 2009 TISSUE POWER Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun Science from the classroom to the dinner table Learning Intention: I am learning.... • about what happens when a force is applied to salt packed into a small space. TEACHING NOTES Success Criteria: I will know I can do this when I am able to.... • explain what happens when a wooden rod is pushed into a tube partially filled with salt. Prerequisite learning activities: Making Better Sense series: Building Science Concepts series: Other resources: This has access to an experiment and video http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/content/kitchenscience/exp/jamming-rice/
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #11 2009 POWERFUL STRAW Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun Materials TEACHING NOTES • Plastic straw • Large raw potato • Paper towel • Band-Aid strip Experiment 1. The challenge is quite simple: Stab the straw through the potato without bending or breaking the straw. Most will think it cant be done but you, of course, know better. 2. As you hold the potato, keep your fingers on the front and thumb on the back and not on the top and bottom. Grab the straw with your writing hand and (this is the secret) cap the top end with your thumb. Hold on firmly to both the straw and the potato and with a quick, sharp stab, drive the straw into and part way out of the narrow end of the potato and not the fatter middle part. Youre so cool! 3. Your audience will be impressed and want to try it. Great! Tell them to hold the potato the way you did so they dont stab a finger or thumb with the straw. They may not know the secret so dont give it away just yet. Oh, you may need more stiff straws for them, too.Prepared by Warren Bruce - Adviser in Science Education - UC Education Plus 2009
  • How does it work? The secret is inside the straw: its air! Placing your thumb over the end of the straw traps the air inside. When you trap the air inside the straw, the air molecules compress and give the straw strength; which in turn keeps the sides from bending as you jam the straw through the potato. The trapped, compressed air makes the straw strong enough to cut through the skin, pass through the potato, and out the other side. Without your thumb covering the hole, the air is simply pushed out of the straw and it crumples and breaks as it hits the hard potato surface. Make sure to keep your fingers out of the way. After you stab the straw, take a look at the end that passed through the potato. Theres a plug-o-spud inside the straw. If you should have a finger or thumb or hand in the way ofL the straw as it collides with the potato, then there will be a plug-o-you in the straw, too. You can patch up any holes in your hand by using the supplied Band-Aid. ... IWonder. tried i f y o u ra, carrot? e n ma happ ork t w o u l d les like ku s w o u l d w • wha vegetab ed straw ngth? othe fferent sizmeter or le r • if di maller dia i.e. s
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #11 2009 POWERFUL Thinking Being Creative STRAW Asking Questions Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun Science from the classroom to the dinner table Learning Intention: I am learning.... • about how strong compressed air can be TEACHING NOTES Success Criteria: I will know I can do this when I am able to.... • demonstrate the strength of trapped air. • explain why the straw will go right through the potato. Prerequisite learning activities: Making Better Sense series: Building Science Concepts series: Other resources: This has access to an experiment and video http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/content/experiment/00000147
  • L Hold the potato firmly and make sure your finger is firmly over the top of the straw. Stab the potato in a firm You should end up with the downward movement. straw through the potato. Watch you hand though! The straw will have a plug of potato in it.
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #12 2009 Water Screen Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun Materials TEACHING NOTES - Plastic mesh bag used for produce at the grocery store - Wide mouth jar - Rubber band - Index card - Pitcher of water - Bucket to catch the falling water! Experiment 1. Plastic mesh bags come in all shapes and sizes. The mesh bags used to sell small onions or cloves of garlic seem to work well. Cut a piece of mesh from the bag large enough to drape over the mouth of the bottle. 2. Stretch the mesh over the bottle and use a rubber band to secure it in place. 3. Fill the bottle with water by pouring the water through the screen. This proves to your friends that the water easily flows through the screen. Fill the bottle almost to the very top. 4. Cover the bottle with an index card. Hold the card in place as you turn the card and the bottle upside down. Slowly remove the card from the opening and the water mysteriously stays in the bottle. Oh, did we mention that you should probably hold the bottle over the bucket... or just hold the bottle over your friend who is holding the bucket :-)Prepared by Warren Bruce - Adviser in Science Education - UC Education Plus 2009
  • 7. Tip the bottle slightly to the left or right and the water will fall. Shake the bottle and the water will fall. Touch the screen and the water will fall. It might be a good idea to tell your friends about this so they have a chance to run. 8. If you have a very steady hand, try this. While the bottle is turned upside down and the water is defying gravity, gently feed a toothpick through one of the screen holes without breaking the water seal and watch it float to the surface. Okay, this is easier said than done, but be sure to watch the video of Steve Spangler doing this.en How does it work? If you dip a piece of the screen (the mesh bag) into a glass of water, you notice that the water fills the screen holes. A force called cohesion, which is the attraction of molecules that are the same to each other, causes this effect. The surface tension “membrane” is always trying to contract, which explains why falling droplets of water are spherical or ball shaped. The water stays in the bottle even though the card is removed because the molecules of water are joined together to form a thin membrane between each opening in the screen. Tipping the bottle or touching the screen will break the surface tension and surprise everyone with a gush of water! ... used IWonder. n if you appe uld h esh? sed at wo ized m • wh ent s you u en if fer happ jar, dif t wouldids? o f the • whaent liqu d the size differ u change rk? • If yo i t s t i l l w o would
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #12 2009 Water Screen Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun Science from the classroom to the dinner table Learning Intention: I am learning.... • about waters surface tension. TEACHING NOTES Success Criteria: I will know I can do this when I am able to.... • explain about cohesion and surface tension Prerequisite learning activities: Making Better Sense series: Building Science Concepts series: Other resources: This has access to an experiment and video http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/experiment/water-screen
  • Put a piece of gauze like fly screen over a bottle or jar. Fill the bottle or jar with water. Place a card over the top of the bottle and up-end it. Take the card away and the water remains in the jar!Take a toothpick and poke itthrough the gauze so that itfloats to the top of the water,or is that the bottom of thewater?
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #13 2009 SPEAR IT! Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun TEACHING Materials NOTES • 5 sharp pencils with round edges • Water • A few paper towels • Plastic bag Experiment Before you get started… Practice this over a sink before you present it at the dinner table. 1. Start by sharpening the pencils. 2. Fill the bag 1/2 full with water and then seal the bag closed. Pose this question to your dinner guests, “What would happen if I tried to push one of these pencils through the bag of water?” Will the water leak out and make a giant mess?” Yes... unless you know the scientific secret. 3. Here comes the scary part. Hold the pencil in one hand and the top of the bag in the other hand. Believe it or not, you can push the pencil right through one side of the bag and half way out the other side without spilling a drop. The bag magically seals itself around the pencil. Sounds impossible? Try it… over the sink for the first time! 4. Continue to rekindle your “spear-it” for science by jabbing the remaining pencils through the bag. 5. When you are finished, remove the pencils while holding the bag over the sink. Throw away the bag and dry the pencils. Here are a few helpful hints… Make sure the tips of the pencils are sharpened to a point. Be careful not to push the pencils all the way through the bag, or your “spear-it” experiment will turn into a big “clean- up-the-water” activity.Prepared by Warren Bruce - Adviser in Science Education - UC Education Plus 2009
  • How does it work?The plastic bag is made out of long chains of molecules called polymers. This gives thebag its stretchy properties. The sharpened pencil slips between the molecule strandswithout tearing the entire bag. Believe it or not, the long chains of molecules seal backaround the pencil to prevent leaks. Now that’s the Spear-It of science! ... IWonder. pen if i used hap wouldt bags? ather t er th ings r • wharmarke se oth supe u could u ags s of b • if yopencils? ferent type than many dif • howd work? woul
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #13 2009 SPEAR IT! Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun Science from the classroom to the dinner table Learning Intention: I am learning.... • about some of the properties of plastic bags TEACHING NOTES Success Criteria: I will know I can do this when I am able to.... • explain how the pencil can go through the plastic bag. • explain why the pencil does not make the bag leak. Prerequisite learning activities: Making Better Sense series: Building Science Concepts series: Other resources: This has access to an experiment and video http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/experiment/00000049
  • Literature Connections:• The Incredibly Wonderful life of Riley by ColinThompson Partially fill the clip lock bag with water. Colour for effect! Holding the bag from the top stab a sharpened pencil through the bag. How many pencils will fit through the bag? What would happen if you stabbed a straw through the bag?
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #14 2009 BALANCING Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions TOOTHPICK Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun Experiment Materials 1. Stand the coin on its edge on a firm table. Glass Wool If you find that too tricky, then frankly, give up now and go and watch Coronation Street, because the next part is really hard. If you must cheat, use the Blu Tac. (figure one) Material for cheats - 2. Balance the toothpick on the coin. then Blu tac turn the glass upside down over the coin and the balanced toothpick. (figure two) 20c coin 3. Your challenge now is to get the toothpick off the coin, without knocking the coin over, touching the glass, or jumping up and down Match or Balloon toothpick on the floor, or thumping the table. 4. Inflate the balloon and rub it on your hair/cat/ woollen cloth. Now, very carefully, bring the charged side of the balloon up towards the glass. You should see the toothpick start to twitch, and with a deft flick you can tip it off the coin. (figure three) figure one figure two figure threePrepared by Warren Bruce - Adviser in Science Education - UC Education Plus 2009
  • How does it work?After you rub the balloon it will be negatively charged. When you hold it near the glass thetoothpick, being small, is attracted to the balloon and begins to move. You may be able toget it to turn round, but if you give the balloon a little flick, you should cause the toothpickto fall.Static Electricity:When you rub a balloon on your jersey it causes some of the electrons from the jersey to berubbed onto the balloon. The balloon now has a negative charge and the jersey a positivecharge. This type of charge is called ‘static electricity’. You will find that the balloon willattract some uncharged materials, such as small pieces of paper. The balloon will be attractedto the jersey (unlike charges attract). Rub two balloons and hold them near each other andthey will repel each other (like charges repel) . er.... to rub I Wond t materials e a k dd ifferenld that ma se u • if I ualloon, wo ed a t he b nce? n i f I u s k? appe ic differet would h of a toothp • whah instead matc
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #14 2009 BALANCING Thinking Being Creative TOOTHPICK Asking Questions Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun Science from the classroom to the dinner table Learning Intention: I am learning.... • about the effects of static electricity. TEACHING Success Criteria: NOTES I will know I can do this when I am able to.... • explain how to ‘charge’ the balloon. • demonstrate the effect on the toothpick. • explain why the toothpick reacts as it does. Prerequisite learning activities: Making Better Sense series: Building Science Concepts series: Other resources:
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #15 2009 INERTIA Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun TEACHING Materials NOTES • An old playing card or an index card • Small hex nuts • Empty 1.5 litre soft drink bottle • Roll of masking tape (used as a ring or hoop) Experiment 1. Place the card on top of the bottle, and place the hex on top of the card making sure the hex nut is sitting just above the opening of the bottle. 2. Flick the card with your index finger so that the card slides out from underneath the hex nut and falls into the bottle. 3. Stack some hex nuts and see how many you can get into the bottle at one time. 4. Place a ring on top of the bottle and place a nut on top of the ring so that it sits above the opening of the bottle. 5. To make this work you need to hit the ring from the inside by flicking the ring out with your finger. (It takes practice) 6. Find out how many hex nuts you can stack on the ring and successfully get into the bottle. How does it work? When you hit the ring from the inside, the ring flexes ever so slightly down, the nut remains for a few nanoseconds where it is and then drops straight down in to the bottle. There’s a law of motion stated by Sir Isaac that an object at rest wants to remain at rest unless something smacks it (maybe these are not his exact words!)Prepared by Warren Bruce - Adviser in Science Education - UC Education Plus 2009
  • ... onder. use dIW n i f y o uts appe u t u l d h f the hex n r k ? wo d o • w h a instea ld wo coins m e l o l l i e s wou • if so
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #15 2009 Thinking Being Creative INERTIA Asking Questions Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun Science from the classroom to the dinner table Learning Intention: I am learning.... • about inertia TEACHING NOTES Success Criteria: I will know I can do this when I am able to.... • explain why the nut does not move at first. • demonstrate what happens to the nut when a force is applied. Prerequisite learning activities: Making Better Sense series: Building Science Concepts series: Other resources:
  • Place a nut or lolly on top of the ring and flick the ring outfrom under the lolly/nut so that it falls into the bottle.Stack more than one nut on top of each other on thering. How many can you get into the bottle at one time?Try putting a card on top of the bottle and placing a nuton the card. Flick the card off the top of the bottleallowing the nut to drop into the bottle.
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #16 2009 EGG IN Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions BOTTLE Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun TEACHING NOTES Materials Youll need: - A wide mouth juice bottle or old milk bottle - Hard-boiled eggs or water bomb balloons - Several strips of paper towel or tissue paper (4 mm x 10 mm) - Matches - Water. Experiment The object of the challenge was to somehow get the whole egg into the bottle without harming the egg. Since old milk bottles are hard to come by, here’s a modern day version of the same experiment only this time we’re using a juice bottle and a balloon! Your job is to get the balloon in the bottle, but don’t break the balloon, or you’ll be all wet but if you are using just air there is less risk. 1. Carefully fill the balloon with water or air, so the balloon is about the size of a small egg, and tie if off. Make several balloons just in case the first one breaks! 2. Rinse out the bottle to remove any leftover, sticky, slimy stuff that might be in the bottom. Before going any further, make sure that the water balloon is slightly larger than the mouth of the bottle. 3. Here’s the challenge: Your job is to find a way to get the balloon into the bottle… without breaking it. How are you going to do it? It’s important that you take a minute to test out some of your ideas before jumping ahead to read our solution. Keep trying!Prepared by Warren Bruce - Adviser in Science Education - UC Education Plus 2009
  • Heres our answer! 1. Start by smearing some water around the mouth of the bottle. 2. Have the adult light a match and set the strip of paper on fire. Quickly putthe burning strip into the bottle. Be careful not to accidentally burn your fingers. 3. Immediately cover the mouth of the bottle with the balloon. In just seconds,the balloon will start to wiggle around on the top of the bottle, the fire will go out, andsome invisible force will literally “push” the balloon into the bottle. That’s amazing!REMEMBER to inTry it with an egg!Just repeat the steps above substituting a hard-boiled egg for the water balloon. Thetrick here is to find an egg that is just a little bigger than the mouth of the bottle - Iprefer medium size eggs. The other little secret is to grease the mouth of the bottle witha vegetable oil so the egg slides right in!How does it work?The burning piece of paper heats the molecules of air in the bottle and causes themolecules to move far away from each other. Some of the heated molecules actuallyescape out past the water balloon that is resting on the mouth of the bottle (that’s whythe balloon wiggles on top of the bottle). When the flame goes out, the molecules of air inthe bottle cool down and move closer together. This is what scientists refer to as a“partial vacuum “. Normally the air outside the bottle would come rushing in to fill thebottle. However, that darn water balloon is in the way! The “push” or pressure of the airmolecules outside the bottle is so great that it literally pushes the balloon into the bottle.Remember this: When molecules of air heat up, they move far away from each other andtake up more space. When molecules of air cool down, they move closer together andtake up less space. Now, the challenge is to get the balloon out of the bottle. Use whatyou have learned about air and air pressure to come up with a way to get the balloonback out. Hint: Try sneaking a straw along side the balloon when you pull it out. If theoutside air can get inside the bottle, the water balloon will come out! ... sed a IWonder. en if you u happ still t would? o uld it • whac bottle ss paper w plasti u used le water yo • if ? t tle in he bo w o r k warmed tk? u r • If yo i t s t i l l w o would
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #16 2009 EGG IN Thinking Being Creative BOTTLE Asking Questions Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun Science from the classroom to the dinner table Learning Intention: I am learning.... • about some of the effects of air pressure TEACHING NOTES Success Criteria: I will know I can do this when I am able to.... • explain why the balloon/egg goes into the bottle. • demonstrate how the balloon/egg can be removed from the bottle. Prerequisite learning activities: Making Better Sense series: Building Science Concepts series: The Air Around Us #30 Other resources: This has access to an experiment and video http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/experiment/00000022 http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/content/science-video/egg-in-the- bottle-table-trick
  • Roll the piece of paper into a tube and light oneend. Place the burning paper in the bottle andquickly place the boiled egg or balloon onto thetop of the bottle. It is important that theegg/balloon forms a seal round the top of thebottle. If you use a balloon DO NOT inflate itmore than the size of an egg.
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #17 2009 MOVING Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions MILK Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun TEACHING Materials NOTES • Blue top milk • Saucer • Food colouring (red, yellow, green, blue) • Dishwashing soap (Sunlight brand works well) • Cotton buds Experiment 1. Pour enough milk in the saucer to completely cover the bottom and allow it to settle. 2. Add one drop of each of the four colours of food colouring - red, yellow, blue, and green - to the milk. Keep the drops close together in the centre of the plate of milk. 3. Find a clean cotton bud for the next part of the experiment. Predict what will happen when you touch the tip of the cotton swab to the centre of the milk. Its important not to stir the mix just touch it with the tip of the cotton bud. 4. Place a drop of liquid dish soap (the Sunlight brand works well) on the tip of the cotton bud. Place the soapy end of the cotton bud back in the middle of the milk and hold it there for 10 to 15 seconds. Look at that burst of colour! 5. Add another drop of soap to the tip to the cotton bud and try it again. Experiment with placing the cotton bud at different places in the milk. Notice that the colours in the milk continue to move even when the cotton bud is removed. What makes the food colouring in the milk move?Prepared by Warren Bruce - Adviser in Science Education - UC Education Plus 2009
  • How does it work?Milk is mostly water but it also contains vitamins, minerals, proteins, and tiny droplets offat suspended in solution. Fats and proteins are sensitive to changes in the surroundingsolution (the milk).When you add soap, the weak chemical bonds that hold the proteins in solution arealtered. Its a free for all! The molecules of protein and fat bend, roll, twist, and contortin all directions. The food colour molecules are bumped and shoved everywhere,providing an easy way to observe all the invisible activity. At the same time, soapmolecules combine to form a micelle, or cluster of soap molecules. These micellesdistribute the fat in the milk.This rapidly mixing fat and soap causes swirling and churning where a micelle meets afat droplet. When there are micelles and fat droplets everywhere the motion stops, butnot until after youve enjoyed the show!Theres another reason the colours explode the way they do. Since milk is mostly water, ithas surface tension like water. The drops of food colouring floating on the surface tend tostay put. Liquid soap wrecks the surface tension by breaking the cohesive bondsbetween water molecules and allowing the colours to zing throughout the milk. What aparty!Additional InfoRepeat the experiment using water in place of milk. Will you get the same eruption ofcolour? Why or why not? What kind of milk produces the best swirling of colour: skim,whole milk, cream, milk powder?Detergent, because of its bipolar characteristics (hydrophilic on one end andhydrophobic on the other), weakens the milks bonds by attaching to its fat molecules.The detergents hydrophilic end dissolves in water and its water-fearing end attaches toa fat globule in the milk. er.... used I Wond ppen i f you ld it ou ld ha milk ilk , wou tw f • whaent types o wdered m differ u used po from • if yo? loo k like w o r k t it would • wharneath? unde
  • bottle-table-trick PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #17 2009 MOVING Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions MILK Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun Science from the classroom to the dinner table Learning Intention: I am learning.... TEACHING NOTES • the effect detergent has in milk. Success Criteria: I will know I can do this when I am able to.... • explain why the milk moves. • talk about the different types of milk. Prerequisite learning activities: Making Better Sense series: Making Better Sense of the Material World Pgs 49 Building Science Concepts series: Other resources: This has access to an experiment and video http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/content/science-video/color-changing-milk http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/content/science-video/color-changing-milk1
  • Place 3 or 4 drops of food colouring close together in thecentre of the milk. Dip the cotton bud in the detergent beforedipping it into the centre of the milk. You can dip the cottonbud several times into the detergent and the milk.
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #18 2009 WATER IN Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions BALLOON Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun Materials TEACHING • Safety glasses NOTES • Balloons • Water • Matches • Candle Warning! This science activity uses matches which means you need to find a very cool supervising adult to help with this experiment. Experiment Blow up a balloon just as you normally would and tie it off. Light a candle and place it in the middle of the table. Put on your safety glasses because its time to pop the balloon. Hold the balloon a foot or two over the top of the flame and slowly move the balloon closer and closer to the flame until it pops. Youll notice that the flame doesnt have to even touch the balloon before the heat melts the latex and it pops. Lets just say you had to prove what you already know. Lets repeat the experiment but this time the bottom of the balloon will have a layer of water. To do this, fill the balloon to the top with water – it probably holds a few millitres (60 ml for the scientists) - and then blow it up with air. If you accidentally let go of the balloon before you tie it off, youll spray yourself and your friends. Just tie off the balloon and get ready for the next step. Youre going to slowly lower the water-filled balloon over the candle and watch as people start to run. HOLD THE BALLOON JUST ABOVE THE FLAME. Everyone knows that its going to pop... but for some strange reason it doesnt. If youre very brave, you can actually allow the flame to touch the bottom of the balloon and it still doesnt pop.Prepared by Warren Bruce - Adviser in Science Education - UC Education Plus 2009
  • Remove the balloon from the heat and carefully examine the soot on the bottom. Yes...theres soot and the balloon didnt pop. Before reading the explanation, try to figure outwhy the layer of water kept the balloon from popping.How does it work?Water is a great substance for soaking up heat. The thin balloon allows the heat to passthrough very quickly and warm the water. As the water closest to the flame heats up, itbegins to rise and cooler water replaces it at the bottom of the balloon. This cooler waterthen soaks up more heat and the process repeats itself. In fact, the exchange of waterhappens so often that it keeps the balloon from ever popping!The soot on the bottom of the balloon is actually carbon. The carbon was deposited onthe balloon by the flame, and the balloon remains undamaged.Using water to control heat is a valuable process. In fact, fire-fighters in Colorado oftenuse a polymer foam to control large wildfires. Since polymers soak up a tremendousamount of water, they are useful in controlling and stopping the heat energy in the fire.Your body even uses water to control heat. When you exercise, what’s that dripping fromyour armpits? EWWW... it’s sweat! But your body actually uses the water in your sweat tocontrol your internal temperature so you don’t get overheated. ... IWonder. if I us ed a ppen uld ha s are at wo ? • wh r c u p cup muffin pe paper pa ed the • if I us in? baked
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #18 2009 WATER IN Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions BALLOON Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun Science from the classroom to the dinner table Learning Intention: I am learning.... • about some of the properties of water. TEACHING NOTES Success Criteria: I will know I can do this when I am able to.... • explain why the balloon does not burst. • demonstrate the effect of the heat on a balloon filled with air. Prerequisite learning activities: Making Better Sense series: Building Science Concepts series: Other resources: This has access to an experiment and video http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/content/science-video/fire-water- coolest-conductor-of-heat1
  • Gently lower the balloon containing water down onto the flameand observe what happens.
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #19 2009 BUBBLING Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions EXPLOSION Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun Materials TEACHING • A4 sized clip lock bag NOTES • Teaspoon • Tartaric Acid • Baking Soda Experiment 1. Carefully place one teaspoon of baking soda in the plastic bag. 2. Place one teaspoon of tartaric acid into the bag. 3. Fill a film canister with water and carefully sit it on the bottom of the inside of the plastic bag. 4. Make sure someone holds the film canister from the outside to stop it spilling the water. 5. Carefully seal the plastic bag. 6. Carefully shake the sealed bag so that the water, tartaric acid and baking soda are all thoroughly mixed together. 7. Hold the bag in the palms of you hand. What do you notice? Use your.... HANDS, EYES and EARS to find out as much as you can.Prepared by Warren Bruce - Adviser in Science Education - UC Education Plus 2009
  • er.... put aI Wond appen if you d a n ould h rtaric acid a a ? what wn of ta d • o ing so sa teaspopoon of bakwater make t a b l e s amount of • If the nce? differe
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #19 #1 2009 BUBBLING EXPLOSIO Thinking Being CreativeUsing Scientific Vocabulary Asking Questions Investigating N Sorting Questions Sharing Information Having Fun Science from the classroom to the dinner table Learning Intention: I am learning.... TEACHING NOTES • about what happens in a chemical reaction Success Criteria: I will know I can do this when I am able to.... • list the different things that occur in a chemical reaction. • explain endothermic reactions Prerequisite learning activities: Making Better Sense series: Making Better Sense of the Material World - Pgs 74 - 84 ‘Fizzing and Foaming’ Building Science Concepts series: Other resources:
  • Clip Lock Plastic Bag Tartaric Acid Baking SodaFilm canister containing clear water
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #20 2009 MYSTERY Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions MIXSorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun TEACHING Materials NOTES • Calcium Chloride (Damp Rid) • Baking Soda (coloured yellow with food colouring) • Food colouring (blue) • Teaspoon • A4 zip lock bag • Film canister • Water Experiment 1. One person holds the bag open. 2. The second person puts 2 teaspoons of coloured baking soda and tips it into the plastic bag. 3. Measure 4 teaspoons of Calcium Chloride into the bag and mix the two materials together thoroughly. 4. Half fill a film canister with water. 5. Add three drops of blue food colouring to the water in the canister. 6. Hold the bag, resting the bottom on the ground. Without tipping the water out, carefully place the film canister in the bag so that it sits on the bottom of the bag. Get someone to hold the canister from the outside. DO NOT TIP THE WATER OVER! 7. Zip lock the bag by squeezing as much air out as you can. PREDICT : What do you think will happen when the water is tipped over and the contents thoroughly mixed together? OBSERVE : Observe the contents closely while holding the bag by the base. EXPLAIN : What happened? Put the bag in the rubbish. Wash your hands!Prepared by Warren Bruce - Adviser in Science Education - UC Education Plus 2009
  • How does it work?When the water, baking soda and calcium chloride are all mixed together you start achemical reaction which is demonstrated through fizzing, gas (carbon dioxide) inflating thebag, colour changes and when you rest it in the palm of you hand you will notice it is warm.When a chemical reaction increases the temperature, it is called an exothermic chemicalreaction. ... IWonder. heat? ls in g the e chemicat the ausin th e • wh at is c re to put o u l d y o u g u we r, w ient • if yoerent orde ingred hich a diff result? a different out w same u left out ld you fin d • if yo time wou t? each ed the hea creat
  • PHYSICAL WORLD and MATERIAL WORLD Act ivity #20 2009 MYSTERY Thinking Being Creative Asking Questions MIX Sorting QuestionsUsing Scientific Vocabulary Investigating Sharing Information Having Fun Science from the classroom to the dinner table Learning Intention: I am learning.... • about what happens in a chemical reaction TEACHING NOTES Success Criteria: I will know I can do this when I am able to.... I will know I can do this when I am able to.... • list the different things that occur in a chemical reaction. • explain exothermic reactions Prerequisite learning activities: Making Better Sense series: Making Better Sense of the Material World - Pgs 74 - 84 ‘Fizzing and Foaming’ Building Science Concepts series: Other resources:
  • Plastic Clip Lock Bag Baking SodaFilm Canister containing blue Blue Food Colouringcoloured water Calcium Chloride