Keller sbm3 09

1,431 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,431
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
9
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
201
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • 2 The largest worldwide brand study, enabling Y&R to speak to the issue on the agenda, Brands and Financial Performance, but also enabling me to speak about brands the way consumers do. It’s helpful to think about Brands as you think about Relationships-- how brands are built how they progress how they can go sour and how to re-build damaged ones I’m going to talk about the
  • 9 So here’s the first check point. Is this a relationship with a future? If Differentiation, as we say, is greater than Relevance… (refer to the slide) If Relevance is greater than Differentiation...
  • 9 So here’s the first check point. Is this a relationship with a future? If Differentiation, as we say, is greater than Relevance… (refer to the slide) If Relevance is greater than Differentiation...
  • 9 So here’s the first check point. Is this a relationship with a future? If Differentiation, as we say, is greater than Relevance… (refer to the slide) If Relevance is greater than Differentiation...
  • 9 So here’s the first check point. Is this a relationship with a future? If Differentiation, as we say, is greater than Relevance… (refer to the slide) If Relevance is greater than Differentiation...
  • 11 OK, so here’s the cheat sheet. I’m Miss Lonelyhearts and I’m checking out what you’re telling me about the brands. I want to know about Brand Strength and Brand Stature and what they tell me about pursuing the relationship further.
  • 12
  • Keller sbm3 09

    1. 1. 9.1CHAPTER 9:CHAPTER 9:MEASURING SOURCES OF BRAND EQUITY:MEASURING SOURCES OF BRAND EQUITY:CAPURING CUSTOMER MINDSETCAPURING CUSTOMER MINDSETKevin Lane KellerKevin Lane KellerTuck School of BusinessTuck School of BusinessDartmouth CollegeDartmouth College
    2. 2. 9.2Qualitative Research TechniquesQualitative Research Techniques Free associationFree association What do you like best about the brand? What are itsWhat do you like best about the brand? What are itspositive aspects?positive aspects? What do you dislike? What are its disadvantages?What do you dislike? What are its disadvantages? What do you find unique about the brand? How is itWhat do you find unique about the brand? How is itdifferent from other brands? In what ways is it thedifferent from other brands? In what ways is it thesame?same?
    3. 3. 9.3Free AssociationsFree AssociationsLEVI’S501High quality, long lasting,and durableBlue denim, shrink-to-fitcotton fabric, button-fly,two-horse patch,and small red pocket tagFeelings of self-confidenceand self-assuranceComfortable fittingand relaxing to wearHonest, classic,Contemporary, approachable,independent, and universalAppropriate for outdoorwork and casual socialsituationsWestern, American,blue collar, hard-working,traditional, strong,rugged, and masculineBENEFITSATTRIBUTESSymbolicUsage ImageryUser ImageryBrand PersonalityFunctionalProduct-RelatedExperiential
    4. 4. 9.4Qualitative Research TechniquesQualitative Research Techniques Projective techniquesProjective techniques Diagnostic tools to uncover the true opinions andDiagnostic tools to uncover the true opinions andfeelings of consumers when they are unwilling orfeelings of consumers when they are unwilling orotherwise unable to express themselves on theseotherwise unable to express themselves on thesemattersmatters
    5. 5. 9.5Projective TechniquesProjective Techniques Consumers might feel that it would be sociallyConsumers might feel that it would be sociallyunacceptable to express their true feelingsunacceptable to express their true feelings Projective techniques are diagnostic tools toProjective techniques are diagnostic tools touncover the true opinions and feelings ofuncover the true opinions and feelings ofconsumersconsumers Examples:Examples: Completion and interpretation tasksCompletion and interpretation tasks Comparison tasksComparison tasks
    6. 6. 9.6New approach: ZMETNew approach: ZMET Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation TechniqueZaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique(ZMET)(ZMET) ZMET is “a technique for elicitingZMET is “a technique for elicitinginterconnected constructs that influence thoughtinterconnected constructs that influence thoughtand behavior.”and behavior.”
    7. 7. 9.7ZMETZMET The guided conversation consists of a series of stepsThe guided conversation consists of a series of stepsthat includes some or all of the following:that includes some or all of the following: Story tellingStory telling Missed imagesMissed images Sorting taskSorting task Construct elicitationConstruct elicitation The most representative pictureThe most representative picture Opposite imagesOpposite images Sensory imagesSensory images Mental mapMental map Summary imageSummary image VignetteVignette
    8. 8. 9.8Brand Personality and ValuesBrand Personality and Values Brand personalityBrand personality refers to the human characteristicsrefers to the human characteristicsor traits that can be attributed to a brand.or traits that can be attributed to a brand. The Big FiveThe Big Five Sincerity (down-to-earth, wholesome, and cheerful)Sincerity (down-to-earth, wholesome, and cheerful) Excitement (daring, spirited, imaginative, and up-to-Excitement (daring, spirited, imaginative, and up-to-date)date) Competence (reliable, intelligent, and successful)Competence (reliable, intelligent, and successful) Sophistication (upper class and charming)Sophistication (upper class and charming) Ruggedness (outdoorsy and tough)Ruggedness (outdoorsy and tough)Jennifer Aaker, 1997Jennifer Aaker, 1997
    9. 9. 9.9Identifying Key Brand PersonalityIdentifying Key Brand PersonalityAssociationsAssociationsBUSHBUSH KERRYKERRY CoffeeCoffee Dunkin’ DonutsDunkin’ Donuts StarbucksStarbucks TechnologyTechnology IBMIBM AppleApple AutoAuto FordFord BMWBMW RetailRetail KmartKmart TargetTarget Fast FoodFast Food McDonald’sMcDonald’s SubwaySubway2004 U.S. presidential election, random sample of undecided voters
    10. 10. 9.10Experiential MethodsExperiential Methods By tapping more directly into their actual home, work,By tapping more directly into their actual home, work,or shopping behaviors, researchers might be able toor shopping behaviors, researchers might be able toelicit more meaningful responses from consumers.elicit more meaningful responses from consumers. Advocates of the experiential approach have sentAdvocates of the experiential approach have sentresearchers to consumers’ homes in the morning to seeresearchers to consumers’ homes in the morning to seehow they approach their days, given business travelershow they approach their days, given business travelersPolaroid cameras and diaries to capture their feelingsPolaroid cameras and diaries to capture their feelingswhen in hotel rooms, and conducted “beeper studies”when in hotel rooms, and conducted “beeper studies”in which participants are instructed to write down whatin which participants are instructed to write down whatthey’re doing when they are paged.they’re doing when they are paged.
    11. 11. 9.11Quantitative Research TechniquesQuantitative Research Techniques AwarenessAwareness ImageImage Brand responsesBrand responses Brand relationshipsBrand relationships
    12. 12. 9.12AwarenessAwareness RecognitionRecognition Ability of consumers to identify the brand (and itsAbility of consumers to identify the brand (and itselements) under various circumstanceselements) under various circumstances RecallRecall Ability of consumers to retrieve the actual brandAbility of consumers to retrieve the actual brandelements from memoryelements from memory Unaided vs. aided recallUnaided vs. aided recall
    13. 13. 9.13AwarenessAwareness Corrections for guessingCorrections for guessing Any research measure must consider the issue of consumersAny research measure must consider the issue of consumersmaking up responses or guessing.making up responses or guessing. Strategic implicationsStrategic implications The advantage of aided recall measures is that they yieldThe advantage of aided recall measures is that they yieldinsight into how brand knowledge is organized in memoryinsight into how brand knowledge is organized in memoryand what kind of cues or reminders may be necessary forand what kind of cues or reminders may be necessary forconsumers to be able to retrieve the brand from memory.consumers to be able to retrieve the brand from memory. The important point to note is that the category structure thatThe important point to note is that the category structure thatexists in consumers’ minds—as reflected by brand recallexists in consumers’ minds—as reflected by brand recallperformance—can have profound implications for consumerperformance—can have profound implications for consumerchoice and marketing strategy.choice and marketing strategy.
    14. 14. 9.14ImageImage Ask open-ended questions to tap into theAsk open-ended questions to tap into thestrength, favorability, and uniqueness of brandstrength, favorability, and uniqueness of brandassociations.associations. These associations should be rated on scales forThese associations should be rated on scales forquantitative analysis.quantitative analysis.
    15. 15. 9.15Brand ResponsesBrand Responses Research in psychology suggests that purchaseResearch in psychology suggests that purchaseintentions are most likely to be predictive of actualintentions are most likely to be predictive of actualpurchase when there is correspondence between thepurchase when there is correspondence between thetwo in the following categories:two in the following categories: Purchase IntentionsPurchase Intentions Action (buying for own use or to give as a gift)Action (buying for own use or to give as a gift) Target (specific type of product and brand)Target (specific type of product and brand) Context (in what type of store based on what prices and otherContext (in what type of store based on what prices and otherconditions)conditions) Time (within a week, month, or year)Time (within a week, month, or year)
    16. 16. 9.16Brand RelationshipsBrand Relationships Behavioral loyaltyBehavioral loyalty Brand substitutabilityBrand substitutability Other brand resonance dimensionsOther brand resonance dimensions For example, in terms of engagement, measuresFor example, in terms of engagement, measurescould explore word-of-mouth behavior, onlinecould explore word-of-mouth behavior, onlinebehavior, and so forth in depthbehavior, and so forth in depth
    17. 17. 9.17Comprehensive Models ofComprehensive Models ofCustomer-Based Brand EquityCustomer-Based Brand Equity Brand dynamicsBrand dynamics Equity enginesEquity engines Young & Rubicam’s Brand Asset ValuatorYoung & Rubicam’s Brand Asset Valuator(BAV)(BAV)
    18. 18. 9.18Brand DynamicsBrand Dynamics The Brand Dynamics model adopts aThe Brand Dynamics model adopts ahierarchical approach to determine the strengthhierarchical approach to determine the strengthof relationship a consumer has with a brand.of relationship a consumer has with a brand. The five levels of the model are:The five levels of the model are: PresencePresence RelevanceRelevance PerformancePerformance AdvantageAdvantage BondingBonding
    19. 19. 9.19Equity EnginesEquity Engines This model delineates three key dimensions of brandThis model delineates three key dimensions of brandaffinityaffinity——the emotional and intangible benefits of athe emotional and intangible benefits of abrandbrand——as follows:as follows: Authority:Authority: The reputation of a brand, whether as a long-The reputation of a brand, whether as a long-standing leader or as a pioneer in innovationstanding leader or as a pioneer in innovation Identification:Identification: The closeness customers feel for a brand andThe closeness customers feel for a brand andhow well they feel the brand matches their personal needshow well they feel the brand matches their personal needs Approval:Approval: The way a brand fits into the wider social matrixThe way a brand fits into the wider social matrixand the intangible status it holds for experts and friendsand the intangible status it holds for experts and friends
    20. 20. 9.20Young & Rubicam’s Brand AssetYoung & Rubicam’s Brand AssetValuator (BAV)Valuator (BAV) There are five key components of brand health in BAVThere are five key components of brand health in BAV—the five pillars.—the five pillars. Each pillar is derived from various measures that relateEach pillar is derived from various measures that relateto different aspects of consumers’ brand perceptionsto different aspects of consumers’ brand perceptionsand that together trace the progression of a brand’sand that together trace the progression of a brand’sdevelopment.development. DifferentiationDifferentiation EnergyEnergy RelevanceRelevance EsteemEsteem KnowledgeKnowledge
    21. 21. 9.21 240,000+ consumers240,000+ consumers Up to 181 categoriesUp to 181 categories 137 studies137 studies 40 countries40 countries 8 years8 years 56 different brand56 different brandmetricsmetrics Common methodologyCommon methodologyBrandAsset® Valuator (BAV)BrandAsset® Valuator (BAV)
    22. 22. 9.22Four Primary AspectsFour Primary AspectsHow Brands Are BuiltHow Brands Are BuiltKnowledge• The culmination of brand building efforts;acquisition of consumer experienceEsteem • Consumer respect, regard, reputation; afulfillment of perceived consumer promiseRelevance • Relates to usage and subsumes the five Ps ofmarketing; relates to saleDifferentiation • The basis for consumer choice; the essence ofthe brand, source of margin
    23. 23. 9.23Room to grow...Brand has power to build relevance.D > R0102030405060708090100Differentiation RelevanceHealthy Brands Have GreaterHealthy Brands Have GreaterDifferentiation than RelevanceDifferentiation than RelevanceExamples:Harley DavidsonYahoo!AOLWilliams-SonomaIkeaBloomberg Business News
    24. 24. 9.24R > D0102030405060708090100Differentiation RelevanceUniqueness has faded; price becomesdominant reason to buy.Brands with greater Relevance than DifferentiationBrands with greater Relevance than DifferentiationAre in Danger of Becoming CommoditiesAre in Danger of Becoming CommoditiesExamples:ExxonMott’sMcDonald’sCrestMinute MaidFruit of the LoomPeter Pan (peanut butter)
    25. 25. 9.25E > K0102030405060708090100Esteem KnowledgeBrand is better liked than known.More Esteem than Knowledge Means, “I’dMore Esteem than Knowledge Means, “I’dlike to get to know you better”like to get to know you better”Examples:Coach leatherwearTag HeuerCalphalonMovadoBlaupunktPella WindowsPalm PilotTechnics
    26. 26. 9.26K > E0102030405060708090100Esteem KnowledgeBrand is better known than liked.Too Much Knowledge Can Be Dangerous:Too Much Knowledge Can Be Dangerous:“I know you and you’re nothing special”“I know you and you’re nothing special”Examples:PlymouthTV GuideSpamWoolworthsChryslerMaxwell HouseNationalEnquirerSanka
    27. 27. 9.27BrandAsset®ValuatorLeadingBrand StrengthDifferentiation RelevanceLaggingBrand StatureEsteem KnowledgeA Two-Dimensional Framework for DiagnosingA Two-Dimensional Framework for DiagnosingBrands: The Power GridBrands: The Power Grid
    28. 28. 9.28Power LeadersNewNiche/Unrealized PotentialDecliningLeadersUnfocusedBRANDSTRENGTH(DifferentiationandRelevance)BRAND STATURE(Esteem and Knowledge)ErodedBrand Health Is Captured on theBrand Health Is Captured on thePowerGridPowerGridBase: USA Total Adults BAV 2000
    29. 29. 9.29BRAND STATUREBRAND STATUREBRANDSTRENGTHBRANDSTRENGTHBase: USA Total Adults BAV 1999Base: USA Total Adults BAV 199900202040406060808010010000 2020 4040 6060 8080 100100PlymouthPlymouthBazookaBazookaIvory SnowIvory SnowPertPertRolaidsRolaidsKedsKedsHoward JohnsonHoward JohnsonTWATWAGreyhoundGreyhoundArizona Iced TeaArizona Iced TeaAeropostaleAeropostaleNewman’s OwnNewman’s OwnSundance ChannelSundance ChannelDreamWorksDreamWorksBloomberg BusinessBloomberg BusinessNewsNewsCDnowCDnowIKEAIKEACoca-ColaCoca-ColaOcean SprayOcean SprayNikeNikePepperidge FarmPepperidge FarmM&MsM&MsDisneyDisneyJeopardy!Jeopardy!HallmarkHallmarkSan PellegrinoSan PellegrinoSun MicrosystemsSun MicrosystemsWiredWiredQuest TelecommQuest TelecommNokiaNokiaiVillage.comiVillage.comNetGrocerNetGrocerIridiumIridiumUSA 1999 PowerGrid SampleUSA 1999 PowerGrid Sample
    30. 30. 9.30Y&R Resonance ResearchY&R Resonance ResearchUsageLoyalty (60%)Attachment (30%)Community EngagementResonanceACE(10%)15%Base: 2001 BAV Data
    31. 31. 9.310501000 50 100Brand StatureBrandStrength AttachedLoyalCommunityResonanceEngagedNon-LoyalsResonanceEngagedCommunityAttachedLoyal UsersNon-Loyal UsersBase: BAV USA Adults 2001DifferentiationY&R Resonance Research with BAVY&R Resonance Research with BAV
    32. 32. 9.32Average U.S. Packaged Goods BrandAverage U.S. Packaged Goods BrandProportionof ConsumersConsumerLoyalty7%Bonded32%Advantage35%Performance43%Relevance76%Presence38%19%17%13%20%
    33. 33. 9.33Commonalty Between the Basic BAVCommonalty Between the Basic BAVModel and the CBBE FrameworkModel and the CBBE Framework BAV’s knowledge relates to CBBE’s brand awarenessBAV’s knowledge relates to CBBE’s brand awarenessand familiarity.and familiarity. BAV’s esteem relates to CBBE’s favorability of brandBAV’s esteem relates to CBBE’s favorability of brandassociations.associations. BAV’s relevance relates to CBBE’s strength of brandBAV’s relevance relates to CBBE’s strength of brandassociations (as well as perhaps favorability).associations (as well as perhaps favorability). BAV’s energy relates to CBBE’s favorability ofBAV’s energy relates to CBBE’s favorability ofassociations.associations. BAV’s differentiation relates to CBBE’s uniqueness ofBAV’s differentiation relates to CBBE’s uniqueness ofbrand associations.brand associations.

    ×