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Keller sbm3 04 Keller sbm3 04 Presentation Transcript

  • 4.1CHAPTER 4:CHAPTER 4:CHOOSING BRAND ELEMENTS TOCHOOSING BRAND ELEMENTS TOBUILD BRAND EQUITYBUILD BRAND EQUITYKevin Lane KellerKevin Lane KellerTuck School of BusinessTuck School of BusinessDartmouth CollegeDartmouth College
  • 4.2BuildingBuildingCustomer-Based Brand EquityCustomer-Based Brand Equity Brand knowledge structures depend on:Brand knowledge structures depend on: The initial choices for the brand elementsThe initial choices for the brand elements The supporting marketing program and the mannerThe supporting marketing program and the mannerby which the brand is integrated into itby which the brand is integrated into it Other associations indirectly transferred to the brandOther associations indirectly transferred to the brandby linking it to some other entitiesby linking it to some other entities
  • 4.3Criteria for Choosing Brand ElementsCriteria for Choosing Brand Elements MemorabilityMemorability MeaningfulnessMeaningfulness LikabilityLikability TransferabilityTransferability AdaptabilityAdaptability ProtectabilityProtectabilityMarketer’s offensive strategyand build brand equityDefensive role for leveragingand maintaining brand equity
  • 4.4MemorabilityMemorability Brand elements should inherently be memorableBrand elements should inherently be memorableand attention-getting, and therefore facilitateand attention-getting, and therefore facilitaterecall or recognition.recall or recognition. For example, a brand of propane gas cylindersFor example, a brand of propane gas cylindersnamed Blue Rhino featuring a powder-bluenamed Blue Rhino featuring a powder-blueanimal mascot with a distinctive yellow flame isanimal mascot with a distinctive yellow flame islikely to stick in the minds of consumers.likely to stick in the minds of consumers.
  • 4.5MeaningfulnessMeaningfulness Brand elements may take on all kinds of meaning, withBrand elements may take on all kinds of meaning, witheither descriptive or persuasive content.either descriptive or persuasive content. Two particularly important criteria General information about the nature of the product categoryGeneral information about the nature of the product category Specific information about particular attributes and benefitsSpecific information about particular attributes and benefitsof the brandof the brand The first dimension is an important determinant ofThe first dimension is an important determinant ofbrand awareness and salience; the second, of brandbrand awareness and salience; the second, of brandimage and positioning.image and positioning.
  • 4.6LikabilityLikability Do customers find the brand elementDo customers find the brand elementaesthetically appealing?aesthetically appealing? Descriptive and persuasive elements reduce theDescriptive and persuasive elements reduce theburden on marketing communications to buildburden on marketing communications to buildawareness.awareness.
  • 4.7TransferabilityTransferability How useful is the brand element for line orHow useful is the brand element for line orcategory extensions?category extensions? To what extent does the brand element add toTo what extent does the brand element add tobrand equity across geographic boundaries andbrand equity across geographic boundaries andmarket segments?market segments?
  • 4.8AdaptabilityAdaptability The more adaptable and flexible the brandThe more adaptable and flexible the brandelement, the easier it is to update it to changes inelement, the easier it is to update it to changes inconsumer values and opinions.consumer values and opinions. For example, logos and characters can be given aFor example, logos and characters can be given anew look or a new design to make them appearnew look or a new design to make them appearmore modern and relevant.more modern and relevant.
  • 4.9ProtectabilityProtectability Marketers should:Marketers should:1.1. Choose brand elements that can be legallyChoose brand elements that can be legallyprotected internationally.protected internationally.2.2. Formally register chosen brand elements with theFormally register chosen brand elements with theappropriate legal bodies.appropriate legal bodies.3.3. Vigorously defend trademarks from unauthorizedVigorously defend trademarks from unauthorizedcompetitive infringement.competitive infringement.
  • 4.10Tactics for Brand ElementsTactics for Brand Elements A variety of brand elements can be chosen that inherentlyA variety of brand elements can be chosen that inherentlyenhance brand awareness or facilitate the formation ofenhance brand awareness or facilitate the formation ofstrong, favorable, and unique brand associations.strong, favorable, and unique brand associations. Brand namesBrand names URLsURLs Logos and symbolsLogos and symbols CharactersCharacters SlogansSlogans PackagingPackaging
  • 4.11Brand NamesBrand Names Like any brand element, brand names mustLike any brand element, brand names mustbe chosen with the six general criteria ofbe chosen with the six general criteria ofmemorability, meaningfulness, likability,memorability, meaningfulness, likability,transferability, adaptability, and protectabilitytransferability, adaptability, and protectabilityin mind.in mind.
  • 4.12BrandBrand Naming GuidelinesNaming Guidelines Brand awarenessBrand awareness   Simplicity and ease of pronunciation and spellingSimplicity and ease of pronunciation and spelling Familiarity and meaningfulnessFamiliarity and meaningfulness Differentiated, distinctive, and uniquenessDifferentiated, distinctive, and uniqueness Brand associationsBrand associations The explicit and implicit meanings consumersThe explicit and implicit meanings consumersextract from it are important. In particular, the brandextract from it are important. In particular, the brandname can reinforce an important attribute or benefitname can reinforce an important attribute or benefitassociation that makes up its product positioning.association that makes up its product positioning.
  • 4.13BrandBrand Naming ProceduresNaming Procedures Define objectivesDefine objectives Generate namesGenerate names Screen initial candidatesScreen initial candidates Study candidate namesStudy candidate names Research the final candidatesResearch the final candidates Select the final nameSelect the final name
  • 4.14URLsURLs URLs (uniform resource locators) specifyURLs (uniform resource locators) specifylocations of pages on the web and are alsolocations of pages on the web and are alsocommonly referred to ascommonly referred to as domain names.domain names. A company can either sue the current owner ofA company can either sue the current owner ofthe URL for copyright infringement, buy thethe URL for copyright infringement, buy thename from the current owner, or register allname from the current owner, or register allconceivable variations of its brand as domainconceivable variations of its brand as domainnames ahead of time.names ahead of time.
  • 4.15Logos and SymbolsLogos and Symbols Play a critical role in building brand equity andPlay a critical role in building brand equity andespecially brand awarenessespecially brand awareness Logos range from corporate names orLogos range from corporate names ortrademarks (word marks with text only) writtentrademarks (word marks with text only) writtenin a distinctive form, to entirely abstract designsin a distinctive form, to entirely abstract designsthat may be completely unrelated to the wordthat may be completely unrelated to the wordmark, corporate name, or corporate activitiesmark, corporate name, or corporate activities
  • 4.16CharactersCharacters A special type of brand symbol—one that takes onA special type of brand symbol—one that takes onhuman or real-life characteristicshuman or real-life characteristics Some are animated like Pillsbury’s Poppin’ FreshSome are animated like Pillsbury’s Poppin’ FreshDoughboy, Peter Pan peanut butter’s character, andDoughboy, Peter Pan peanut butter’s character, andnumerous cereal characters such as Tony the Tiger,numerous cereal characters such as Tony the Tiger,Cap’n Crunch, and Snap, Crackle & Pop.Cap’n Crunch, and Snap, Crackle & Pop. Others are live-action figures like Juan ValdezOthers are live-action figures like Juan Valdez(Colombian coffee), the Maytag repairman, and Ronald(Colombian coffee), the Maytag repairman, and RonaldMcDonald. Notable newcomers include the AOLMcDonald. Notable newcomers include the AOLrunning man, the Budweiser frogs, and the AFLACrunning man, the Budweiser frogs, and the AFLACduck.duck.
  • 4.17SlogansSlogans Slogans are short phrases that communicateSlogans are short phrases that communicatedescriptive or persuasive information about thedescriptive or persuasive information about thebrand.brand. Slogans are powerful branding devices because,Slogans are powerful branding devices because,like brand names, they are an extremely efficient,like brand names, they are an extremely efficient,shorthand means to build brand equityshorthand means to build brand equity
  • 4.18Classic Slogans ““Melts in your mouth, not in your hands”Melts in your mouth, not in your hands”(M&M’s)(M&M’s) ““Sometimes you feel like a nut, sometimes youSometimes you feel like a nut, sometimes youdon’t” (Almond Joy/Mounds)don’t” (Almond Joy/Mounds) ““Where’s the beef?” (Wendy’s)Where’s the beef?” (Wendy’s) ““A mind is a terrible thing to waste” (UnitedA mind is a terrible thing to waste” (UnitedNegro College Fund)Negro College Fund) ““Can you hear me now?” (Verizon)Can you hear me now?” (Verizon)Source: Monty Phan, “Celebrating Their Sweet Success,” Newsday, 21 September 2004, A43.
  • 4.19JinglesJingles Jingles are musical messages written aroundJingles are musical messages written aroundthe brand. Typically composed by professionalthe brand. Typically composed by professionalsongwriters, they often have enough catchysongwriters, they often have enough catchyhooks and choruses to become almosthooks and choruses to become almostpermanently registered in the minds of listenerspermanently registered in the minds of listeners—sometimes whether they want them to or not!—sometimes whether they want them to or not! Jingles are perhaps most valuable in enhancingJingles are perhaps most valuable in enhancingbrand awareness.brand awareness.
  • 4.20PackagingPackaging From the perspective of both the firm andFrom the perspective of both the firm andconsumers, packaging must achieve a number ofconsumers, packaging must achieve a number ofobjectives:objectives: Identify the brandIdentify the brand Convey descriptive and persuasive informationConvey descriptive and persuasive information Facilitate product transportation and protectionFacilitate product transportation and protection Assist at-home storageAssist at-home storage Aid product consumptionAid product consumptionSusan B. Bassin, “Value-Added Packaging Cuts through Store Clutter,”Susan B. Bassin, “Value-Added Packaging Cuts through Store Clutter,”Marketing News,Marketing News, 26 September 1988, 21.26 September 1988, 21.
  • 4.21Packaging Can Influence TastePackaging Can Influence Taste Our sense of taste and touch is very suggestible,Our sense of taste and touch is very suggestible,and what we see on a package can lead us toand what we see on a package can lead us totaste what we think we are going to taste.taste what we think we are going to taste.
  • 4.22Packaging Can Influence ValuePackaging Can Influence Value Long after we have bought a product, aLong after we have bought a product, apackage can still lead us to believe we boughtpackage can still lead us to believe we boughtit because it was a good value.it because it was a good value.
  • 4.23Packaging Can InfluencePackaging Can InfluenceConsumptionConsumption Studies of 48 different types of foods andStudies of 48 different types of foods andpersonal care products have shown that peoplepersonal care products have shown that peoplepour and consume between 18% and 32% morepour and consume between 18% and 32% moreof a product as the size of the container doubles.of a product as the size of the container doubles.Valerie Folkes, Ingrid Martin and Kamal Gupta,Valerie Folkes, Ingrid Martin and Kamal Gupta,““When to Say When: Effects of Supply on Usage,”When to Say When: Effects of Supply on Usage,”Journal of Consumer ResearchJournal of Consumer Research, 20 December 1993, 467-477., 20 December 1993, 467-477.
  • 4.24Packaging Can Influence How aPackaging Can Influence How aPerson Uses a ProductPerson Uses a Product One strategy to increase use of mature productsOne strategy to increase use of mature productshas been to encourage people to use the brandhas been to encourage people to use the brandin new situations, like soup for breakfast, or newin new situations, like soup for breakfast, or newuses, like baking soda as a refrigeratoruses, like baking soda as a refrigeratordeodorizer.deodorizer. An analysis of 26 products and 402 consumersAn analysis of 26 products and 402 consumersshowed that twice as many people learned aboutshowed that twice as many people learned aboutthe new use from the package than fromthe new use from the package than fromtelevision ads.television ads.
  • 4.25Putting It All TogetherPutting It All Together The entire set of brand elements makes up theThe entire set of brand elements makes up thebrand identity,brand identity, the contribution of all brandthe contribution of all brandelements to awareness and image.elements to awareness and image. The cohesiveness of the brand identity dependsThe cohesiveness of the brand identity dependson the extent to which the brand elements areon the extent to which the brand elements areconsistent.consistent.